Phloem flow and sugar transport in Ricinus communis L. is inhibited under anoxic conditions of shoot or roots
Peuke, A.D. ; Gessler, A. ; Trumbore, S. ; Windt, C.W. ; Homan, N. ; Gerkema, E. ; As, H. van - \ 2015
Plant, Cell & Environment 38 (2015)3. - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 433 - 447.
carbon-isotope composition - mushrooms agaricus-bisporus - distance water transport - organic-matter - membrane-permeability - assimilate transport - plants - leaves - starch - stress
Anoxic conditions should hamper the transport of sugar in the phloem, as this is an active process. The canopy is a carbohydrate source and the roots are carbohydrate sinks.By fumigating the shoot with N2 or flooding the rhizosphere, anoxic conditions in the source or sink, respectively, were induced. Volume flow, velocity, conducting area and stationary water of the phloem were assessed by non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) flowmetry. Carbohydrates and d13C in leaves, roots and phloem saps were determined. Following flooding, volume flow and conducting area of the phloem declined and sugar concentrations in leaves and in phloem saps slightly increased. Oligosaccharides appeared in phloem saps and after 3 d, carbon transport was reduced to 77%. Additionally, the xylem flow declined and showed finally no daily rhythm. Anoxia of the shoot resulted within minutes in a reduction of volume flow, conductive area and sucrose in the phloem sap decreased. Sugar transport dropped to below 40% by the end of the N2 treatment. However, volume flow and phloem sap sugar tended to recover during the N2 treatment. Both anoxia treatments hampered sugar transport. The flow velocity remained about constant, although phloem sap sugar concentration changed during treatments. Apparently, stored starch was remobilized under anoxia.
Effects of cold-girdling on flows in the transport phloem in Ricinus communis: is mass flow ihibited?
Peuke, A.D. ; Windt, C.W. ; As, H. van - \ 2006
Plant, Cell & Environment 29 (2006)1. - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 15 - 25.
nuclear-magnetic-resonance - water-flow - sieve tubes - noninvasive measurement - assimilate transport - phaseolus-vulgaris - solute transport - plants - translocation - nmr
The effects of cold girdling of the transport phloem at the hypocotyl of Ricinus communis on solute and water transport were investigated. Effects on the chemical composition of saps of phloem and xylem as well as of stem tissue were studied by conventional techniques and the water flow in the phloem was investigated by NMR imaging. Cold girdling reduced the concentration of sucrose but not that of inorganic solutes or amino acids in phloem saps. The possibility that cold treatment inhibited the retrieval of sucrose into the phloem, following leaching from the sieve tubes along a chemical gradient is discussed. Leaching of other solutes did not occur, as a result of missing promoting gradients in stem tissue. Following 3 d of cold girdling, sugar concentration increased and starch was synthesized and accumulated in stem tissue above the cold girdling region and along the cold-treated phloem pathway due to leaching of sugars from the phloem. Only in the very first period of cold girdling (<15-30 min) was mass flow inhibited, but recovered in the rest of cold treatment period to values similar to the control period before and the recovery period after the cold treatment. It is concluded that cold treatment affected phloem transport through two independent and reversible processes: (1) a permanent leaching of sucrose from the phloem stem without normal retrieval during cold treatment, and (2) a short-term inhibition of mass flow at the beginning of cold treatment, possibly involving P proteins. Possible further mechanisms for reversible inhibition of water flow are discussed
MRI of long-distance water transport: a comparison of the phloem and xylem flow characteristics and dynamics in poplar, castor bean, tomato and tobacco
Windt, C.W. ; Vergeldt, F.J. ; Jager, P.A. de; As, H. van - \ 2006
Plant, Cell & Environment 29 (2006)9. - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 1715 - 1729.
nuclear-magnetic-resonance - ricinus-communis - noninvasive measurement - assimilate transport - biological tissues - munch hypothesis - nmr microscopy - mass-flow - plants - translocation
We used dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment and methods to study phloem and xylem transport in large potted plants. Quantitative flow profiles were obtained on a per-pixel basis, giving parameter maps of velocity, flow-conducting area and volume flow (flux). The diurnal xylem and phloem flow dynamics in poplar, castor bean, tomato and tobacco were compared. In poplar, clear diurnal differences in phloem flow profile were found, but phloem flux remained constant. In tomato, only small diurnal differences in flow profile were observed. In castor bean and tobacco, phloem flow remained unchanged. In all plants, xylem flow profiles showed large diurnal variation. Decreases in xylem flux were accompanied by a decrease in velocity and flow-conducting area. The diurnal changes in flow-conducting area of phloem and xylem could not be explained by pressure-dependent elastic changes in conduit diameter. The phloem to xylem flux ratio reflects what fraction of xylem water is used for phloem transport (Münch's counterflow). This ratio was large at night for poplar (0.19), castor bean (0.37) and tobacco (0.55), but low in tomato (0.04). The differences in phloem flow velocity between the four species, as well as within a diurnal cycle, were remarkably small (0.25-0.40¿mm¿s¿1). We hypothesize that upper and lower bounds for phloem flow velocity may exist: when phloem flow velocity is too high, parietal organelles may be stripped away from sieve tube walls; when sap flow is too slow or is highly variable, phloem-borne signalling could become unpredictable.