Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The elephant in the room: How a technology’s name affects its interpretation
    Boersma, Reginald ; Poortvliet, P.M. ; Gremmen, Bart - \ 2019
    Public Understanding of Science 28 (2019)2. - ISSN 0963-6625 - p. 218 - 233.
    attitudes - genomics - learning - nanotechnology - public education

    In this work, using experiments, we investigate the role of the name of a technology on the informed evaluation of that technology. We argue that a name can influence interpretations by activating cognitive structures. Using genomics-accelerated breeding as a case, we show that the name ‘genomics’ makes people evaluate related information as similar to genetic modification. Replacing the name ‘genomics’ with ‘natural crossing’ causes evaluations similar to those for traditional breeding. The results show that a name can have a strong influence on public attitudes, and we call for more consideration in choosing a name for a technology.

    Changes in the influence of affect and cognition over time on consumer attitude formation toward nanotechnology : A longitudinal survey study
    Giesen, Roxanne I. van; Fischer, Arnout R.H. ; Trijp, Hans C.M. van - \ 2018
    Public Understanding of Science 27 (2018)2. - ISSN 0963-6625 - p. 168 - 184.
    affect - attitudes - cognition - longitudinal survey - nanotechnology
    Insights into how consumer attitudes toward nanotechnology are formed and develop are crucial for understanding and anticipating possible barriers in consumer acceptance of nanotechnology applications. In this study, the influence of affect and cognition on overall opinion is investigated longitudinally for emerging nanotechnologies, and compared with conventional technologies. Overall, in attitude formation toward nanotechnology applications, people rely relatively more on affect than cognition. Over time, reliance on affect decreases whereas reliance on cognition increases for nanotechnology. This suggests that over time nanotechnology applications have become somewhat more integrated within people’s already existing knowledge structure. However, for conventional technologies the influence of affect and cognition on overall attitude remains stable over time. The current study shows that it is essential to address both affective and cognitive aspects of public opinion of nanotechnology.
    The Impact of Social and Financial Education on Savings Attitudes and Behavior Among Primary School Children in Uganda
    Supanantaroek, Suthinee ; Lensink, Robert ; Hansen, Nina - \ 2017
    Evaluation Review 41 (2017)6. - ISSN 0193-841X - p. 511 - 541.
    attitudes - children - financial literacy - intervention - saving and spending - social and financial education - training
    Background: Saving plays a crucial role in the process of economic growth. However, one main reason why poor people often do not save is that they lack financial knowledge. Improving the savings culture of children through financial education is a promising way to develop savings attitudes and behavior early in life. Objectives: This study is one of the first that examines the effects of social and financial education training and a children’s club developed by Aflatoun on savings attitudes and behavior among primary school children in Uganda, besides Berry, Karlan, and Pradhan. Research design: A randomized phase in approach was used by randomizing the order in which schools implemented the program (school-level randomization). The treatment group consisted of students in schools where the program was implemented, while in the control group the program was not yet implemented. The program lasted 3 months including 16 hours. We compared posttreatment variables for the treatment and control group. Subjects: Study participants included 1,746 students, of which 936 students were from 22 schools that were randomly assigned to receive the program between May and July 2011; the remaining 810 students attended 22 schools that did not implement the program during the study period. Measures: Indicators for children’s savings attitudes and behavior were key outcomes. Results: The intervention increased awareness of money, money recording, and savings attitudes. It also provides some evidence—although less robust—that the intervention increased actual savings. Conclusions: A short financial literacy and social training can improve savings attitudes and behavior of children considerably.
    Attitudes of Dutch Citizens toward Sow Husbandry with Regard to Animals, Humans, and the Environment
    Bergstra, Tamara ; Hogeveen, Henk ; Kuiper, Erno ; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M. ; Stassen, Elsbeth N. - \ 2017
    Anthrozoos 30 (2017)2. - ISSN 0892-7936 - p. 195 - 211.
    attitudes - clusters - people - sow husbandry

    The pig industry is struggling with negative attitudes of people toward sow husbandry. To be able to respond to these attitudes, the pig industry first has to understand people’s attitudes. The first objective of this study was to determine the attitudes of Dutch people toward sow husbandry with regard to animals, humans, and the environment. The second objective was to group people based on their attitudes toward sow husbandry and determine and compare the socio-demographic characteristics of these groups. An online survey was conducted in the Netherlands and there were 1,607 respondents. On average, respondents had negative attitudes toward all issues defined in this study. The most negative attitudes were toward the effect on both animals and consumers of the use of antibiotics, the number of animals kept per square meter, the possibility for animals to go outside, food safety risks, public health risks, and environmental waste. The findings indicate the importance of considering all the issues identified in this study during the process of developing measures to improve people’s attitudes toward sow husbandry. Respondents could be divided into four clusters; each cluster represented different attitudes toward sow husbandry and had different socio-demographic characteristics. This makes it possible for the pig industry to assign people with specific socio-demographic characteristics to one of the clusters and predict their attitudes toward sow husbandry. Knowledge of these attitudes enables the pig industry to predict how different groups of people will respond to different animal welfare measures. Results of this study are therefore useful for the pig industry to help improve people’s attitudes toward sow husbandry.

    Beelden van de Das in Nederland in Nederland 1900-2013: van ongedierte tot troeteldier?
    Runhaar, Hens ; Runhaar, M. ; Vink, J. - \ 2015
    De Levende Natuur 116 (2015)5. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 228 - 231.
    meles meles - populations - wildlife conservation - wildlife management - attitudes - social change - human-animal relationships - meles meles - populaties - wildbescherming - wildbeheer - attitudes - sociale verandering - mens-dier relaties
    Het herstel van de Nederlandse dassenpopulatie sinds 1980 is voor een belangrijk deel te verklaren uit een betere bescherming door o.a. de overheid, maar ook uit een andere omgang met de Das door boeren, jagers en bestuurders. Doel van dit artikel is om de beelden van de Das in de loop van de tijd te analyseren om daardoor inzicht te krijgen in de maatschappelijke kant van het herstel van de dassenpopulatie.
    Climate Change in Southern Africa: Farmers’ Perceptions and Responses
    Kuivanen, K. ; Alvarez, S. ; Langeveld, C.A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen UR - 46
    climatic change - farmers - attitudes - knowledge systems - adaptation - rural communities - southern africa - klimaatverandering - boeren - attitudes - kennissystemen - adaptatie - plattelandsgemeenschappen - zuidelijk afrika
    Southern Africa is characterized by natural climate variability onto which human-induced climate change is being superimposed. Rural communities that depend heavily on rain-fed agriculture for their livelihood are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate-related change. This report takes stock of existing perceptions of- and responses to climate change among smallholder farmers in the region, in the hope of contributing to a better understanding of the complexities of local knowledge- and adaptation systems.
    Perceptions of European stakeholders of pulse fishing
    Kraan, M.L. ; Trapman, B.K. ; Rasenberg, M.M.M. - \ 2015
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES number C098/15) - 44
    pulsvisserij - vismethoden - stakeholders - attitudes - mariene ecologie - noordzee - eu regelingen - nederland - pulse trawling - fishing methods - stakeholders - attitudes - marine ecology - north sea - eu regulations - netherlands
    This research project examines the concerns and questions of European stakeholders about pulse fishing, in order to assess to what extent the knowledge agenda on pulse fishing covers these issues. To get a first impression of the concerns about pulse fishing, and to get an idea of the stakeholders that express these concerns, an analysis was conducted of media items in the states bordering the southern North sea where pulse gear is used. In addition interviews were held with representatives from governments, NGOs, the fishing industry and scientists, and seven meetings were observed, national and international, where pulse fishing was discussed. An inventory was made of the substantive concerns that the stakeholders have about pulse fishing.
    Ethics, Risk and Benefits Associated with Different Applications of Nanotechnology: a Comparison of Expert and Consumer Perceptions of Drivers of Societal Acceptance
    Gupta, N. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Frewer, L.J. - \ 2015
    NanoEthics 9 (2015)2. - ISSN 1871-4757 - p. 93 - 108.
    repertory grid methodology - food-production - united-states - public acceptance - gm foods - attitudes - trust - technologies - knowledge - science
    Examining those risk and benefit perceptions utilised in the formation of attitudes and opinions about emerging technologies such as nanotechnology can be useful for both industry and policy makers involved in their development, implementation and regulation. A broad range of different socio-psychological and affective factors may influence consumer responses to different applications of nanotechnology, including ethical concerns. A useful approach to identifying relevant consumer concerns and innovation priorities is to develop predictive constructs which can be used to differentiate applications of nanotechnology in a way which is meaningful to consumers. This requires elicitation of attitudinal constructs from consumers, rather than measuring attitudes assumed to be important by the researcher. Psychological factors influencing societal responses to 15 applications of nanotechnology drawn from different application areas (e.g. medicine,agriculture and environment, food, military, sports, and cosmetics) were identified using repertory grid method in conjunction with generalised Procrustes analysis. The results suggested that people differentiate nanotechnology applications based on the extent to which they perceive them to be beneficial, useful,necessary and important. The benefits may be offset by perceived risks focusing on fear and ethical concerns. Compared to an earlier expert study on societal acceptance of nanotechnology, consumers emphasised ethical issues compared to experts but had less concern regarding potential physical contact with the product and time to market introduction. Consumers envisaged fewer issues with several applications compared to experts, in particular food applications.
    Affect and cognition in attitude formation towards familiar and unfamiliar attitude objects: the case of nanotechnology
    Giesen, R.I. van - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hans van Trijp, co-promotor(en): Arnout Fischer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573390 - 187
    nanotechnologie - houding van consumenten - attitudes - besluitvorming - technologie - voedseltechnologie - kennisniveau - kenvermogen - nanotechnology - consumer attitudes - attitudes - decision making - technology - food technology - knowledge level - cognition
    Together, the chapters in this thesis show that although the default is to rely on affect, in attitude formation toward unfamiliar attitude objects, people are able to draw on cognitive inferences provided that there are enough cues available (e.g. product context, high Need for Cognition, or being more often exposed). In addition, whether people rely on affect or cognition depends on which process is the easiest. The attitude component which is decisive in the attitude formation process requires the least elaborate process. This thesis contributes to a better process understanding as both affective-cognitive and deliberative-intuitive dimensions were simultaneously studied. Finally, it is concluded that attitudes toward unfamiliar attitude objects, in this case nanotechnology applications, are still subject to change. This has implications for communication about new technologies, as it is important to address both affective and cognitive aspects.
    Comparing groups of Brazilian cattle farmers with different levels of intention to use improved natural grassland
    Rossi Borges, J.A. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2015
    Livestock Science 178 (2015). - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 296 - 305.
    planned behavior - conservation practices - dairy farmers - water conservation - risk perception - adoption - management - decisions - attitudes - technologies
    This study used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to analyze the intention of Brazilian farmers to use improved natural grassland. The TPB hypothesizes that the adoption of an innovation is driven by the intention to use it, which in turn is determined by three socio-psychological constructs: attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. These constructs are derived from beliefs. The theoretical framework and model were applied to a sample of 214 Brazilian cattle farmers. Based on the socio-psychological constructs that influence intention, two groups of farmers were identified; farmers that were willing and farmers that were unwilling to use improved natural grassland. Results showed that compared to unwilling farmers, willing farmers evaluated the use of improved natural grassland on their farms more favorably (attitude), they felt a greater social pressure upon them to adopt this innovation (social norm), and they reported a higher capability (perceived behavioral control) to use improved natural grassland. Willing and unwilling farmers also differed in their behavioral beliefs concerning the outcomes of using improved natural grassland, their normative beliefs concerning important others, and their control beliefs concerning factors that could facilitate or inhibit the use of improved natural grassland. The two groups did not differ in most of their socioeconomic characteristics, but did differ in their goals and relative risk attitudes.
    Different shades of grey: Compromise products to encourage animal friendly consumption
    Jonge, J. de; Lans, I.A. van der; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2015
    Food Quality and Preference 45 (2015)October 2015. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 87 - 99.
    willingness-to-pay - broiler production systems - consumer perceptions - choice experiments - cheap talk - food - welfare - preferences - standards - attitudes
    Contemporary production and consumption are often characterised by negative externalities, for example regarding animal welfare. Despite consumer concerns about animal welfare standards in livestock production systems, the market share of organic meat is still low. The current paper investigates to what extent a more differentiated product assortment including ‘‘compromise alternatives’’, providing consumers with more options to trade-off animal welfare against other attributes, increases the choice share of meat produced at beyond-regulatory standards for animal welfare. Results from a choice experiment in The Netherlands reveal considerable heterogeneity in consumer preferences regarding the trade-off between animal welfare level and price level. Two out of six segments, typically consumers with a lower education level and shoppers at discount supermarkets, are not or hardly prepared to pay a price premium for welfare enhanced meat. Two other segments show a preference for small increases in animal welfare level and associated costs. The remaining two other segments seem to reflect ‘‘protestors’’ against mainstream meat production in that they hold negative attitudes, beliefs and feelings regarding the consumption of conventionally-produced meat, either by turning to meat produced at high animal welfare standards (including meat replacement products) or by reducing meat consumption. It is concluded that an assortment that better caters for this heterogeneity in consumer preference by including ‘‘compromise meat products’’ is of the benefit to both the individual consumer (preferences), the animal (animal welfare levels) and the meat sector (clientele)
    Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment?
    Verain, M.C.D. ; Dagevos, H. ; Antonides, G. - \ 2015
    Appetite 91 (2015)1. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 375 - 384.
    norm activation model - meat consumption - organic food - animal-welfare - australian consumers - planned behavior - green consumer - human health - fair trade - attitudes
    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors of the two types of behavior have been identified. Respondents were classified into four segments based on their sustainable food behaviors: unsustainers, curtailers, product-oriented consumers, and sustainers. Significant differences between the segments were found with regard to food choice motives, personal and social norms, food involvement, subjective knowledge on sustainable food, ability to judge how sustainably a product has been produced and socio-demographics. It is concluded that distinguishing between behavioral strategies toward sustainable food consumption is important as consumer segments can be identified that differ both in their level of sustainable food consumption and in the type of behavior they employ.
    The role of psychological factors in the adoption of improved natural grassland by Brazilian cattle farmers in Biome Pampa
    Rossi Borges, J.A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573154 - 182
    agrarische economie - boeren - graslandbeheer - graslandverbetering - houding van boeren - gedragsveranderingen - attitudes - rundvee - vleesvee - rundvleesproductie - duurzame ontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - pampa's - brazilië - agricultural economics - farmers - grassland management - grassland improvement - farmers' attitudes - behavioural changes - attitudes - cattle - beef cattle - beef production - sustainable development - sustainability - pampas - brazil
    The objective of the research was to explore factors determining cattle farmers' intention to adopt improved natural grassland in Brazil. The research was carried out in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in the south of Brazil.
    The perceived impact of the National Health Service on personalised nutrition service delivery among the UK public
    Fallaize, R. ; Macready, A.L. ; Butler, L.T. ; Ellis, J.A. ; Berezowska, A. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Walsh, M.C. ; Gallagher, C. ; Stewart-Knox, B.J. ; Kuznesof, S. ; Frewer, L.J. ; Gibney, M.J. ; Lovegrove, J.A. - \ 2015
    The British journal of nutrition 113 (2015)8. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1271 - 1279.
    nutrigenomics - communication - disease - information - consumer - medicine - intervention - acceptance - knowledge - attitudes
    Personalised nutrition (PN) has the potential to reduce disease risk and optimise health and performance. Although previous research has shown good acceptance of the concept of PN in the UK, preferences regarding the delivery of a PN service (e.g. online v. face-to-face) are not fully understood. It is anticipated that the presence of a free at point of delivery healthcare system, the National Health Service (NHS), in the UK may have an impact on end-user preferences for deliverances. To determine this, supplementary analysis of qualitative data obtained from focus group discussions on PN service delivery, collected as part of the Food4Me project in the UK and Ireland, was undertaken. Irish data provided comparative analysis of a healthcare system that is not provided free of charge at the point of delivery to the entire population. Analyses were conducted using the ‘framework approach’ described by Rabiee (Focus-group interview and data analysis. Proc Nutr Soc 63, 655-660). There was a preference for services to be led by the government and delivered face-to-face, which was perceived to increase trust and transparency, and add value. Both countries associated paying for nutritional advice with increased commitment and motivation to follow guidelines. Contrary to Ireland, however, and despite the perceived benefit of paying, UK discussants still expected PN services to be delivered free of charge by the NHS. Consideration of this unique challenge of free healthcare that is embedded in the NHS culture will be crucial when introducing PN to the UK.
    How Investor Perceptions Drive Actual Trading and Risk-Taking Behavior
    Hoffmann, A.O.I. ; Post, T. ; Pennings, J.M.E. - \ 2015
    Journal of Behavioral Finance 16 (2015)1. - ISSN 1542-7560 - p. 94 - 103.
    common-stock investment - individual investors - attitudes - overconfidence - expectations - performance - choice - crisis - money - real
    Recent work in behavioral finance showed how investors’ perceptions (i.e., return expectations, risk tolerance, and risk perception) affect hypothetical trading and risk-taking behavior. However, are such perceptions also capable of explaining actual trading and risktaking behavior? To answer this question, we combine monthly survey data with matching brokerage records to construct a panel dataset allowing us to simultaneously examine investor perceptions and behavior. We find that investor perceptions and changes therein are important drivers of actual trading and risk-taking behavior: Investors with higher levels of and upward revisions of return expectations are more likely to trade, have higher turnover, trade larger amounts per transaction, and use derivatives. Investors with higher levels of and upward revisions in risk tolerance are more likely to trade, have higher buy-sell ratios, use limit orders more frequently, and hold riskier portfolios. Investors with higher levels of risk perception are more likely to trade, have higher turnover, have lower buy-sell ratios, and hold riskier portfolios. Keywords: Individual investors, Investment decisions, Investor perceptions, Trading behavior, Risk-taking behavior
    Insects as food: Exploring cultural exposure and individual experience as determinants of acceptance
    Tan Hui Shan, G. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Tinchan, P. ; Stieger, M.A. ; Steenbekkers, L.P.A. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2015
    Food Quality and Preference 42 (2015). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 78 - 89.
    edible insects - psychological distance - quality perception - consumers - neophobia - attitudes - choice - preferences - rejections - knowledge
    Edible insects have attracted much Western interest in recent years due to their nutritional and environmental advantages. Consumers, however, remain aversive towards a class of items that is not traditionally considered to be food. While the focus is often on the Western disgust, looking at consumer perceptions in a culture that considers insects to be delicious could provide new insights into the psychological and cultural mechanisms that underpin these evaluations. This cross-cultural qualitative study explores how cultural exposure and individual experience contribute towards the contrasting evaluations of insects as food by those who do and do not eat them. Eight focus groups were conducted across two cultures—four in Thailand where insects are part of the local food culture, and four in the Netherlands where insects are generally not recognised as food. Within these cultures, two groups consisted of individuals who have experience with eating insects, and two groups consisted of individuals with little or no experience with insects as food. Cultural exposure created expectations of which species were more appropriate to eat and how they should be prepared, whereas individual experiences determined whether judgements were made based on memories of past eating experiences or based on the visual properties and item associations. This study provides insights into the acceptance and rejection factors of unfamiliar food items and identifies the factors to be considered when introducing novel food items that are not yet culturally acceptable as food.
    Encouraging sustainability in the workplace: a survey on the pro-environmental behaviour of university employees
    Blok, V. ; Wesselink, R. ; Studynka, O. ; Kemp, R.G.M. - \ 2015
    Journal of Cleaner Production 106 (2015). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 55 - 67.
    planned behavior - proenvironmental behavior - life-styles - ecological behavior - situational factors - higher-education - values - attitudes - norms - determinants
    In order to enhance more sustainable behaviour in households, recent research focuses on the identification of factors that have an impact on sustainable or pro-environmental behaviour. The aim of this study is to identify factors that could predict pro-environmental behaviour in the workplace. While many studies focused on the behaviour of households, this study is one of the first that focuses exclusively on pro-environmental behaviour in the workplace. Based on a comprehensive literature review, two groups of factors were identified which could predict pro-environmental behaviour in the workplace: internal factors and external factors. Next, the model was tested among employees of a green university in the Netherlands. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the theory of planned behaviour can explain pro-environmental behaviour in the workplace. At the same time, the results show that there are clear differences between factors influencing pro-environmental behaviour in households and in the workplace. Furthermore, also other factors like leadership support and exemplary pro-environmental behaviour by leaders are at stake in case of pro-environmental behaviour in the workplace, and have a significant positive impact on employee's intention to act pro-environmentally. The findings of this study have various managerial implications for green companies and organizations in general and green universities in particular.
    Food culture in the home environment: Family meal practices and values can support healthy eating and self-regulation in young people in four European countries
    Wit, J.B.F. ; Stok, F.M. ; Smolenski, D.J. ; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Vet, E. de; Gaspar, T. ; Johnson, F. ; Nureeva, L. ; Luszczynska, A. - \ 2015
    Applied Psychology : Health and Well-Being 7 (2015)1. - ISSN 1758-0846 - p. 22 - 40.
    childhood overweight - adolescents - obesity - behaviors - attitudes - children - diet - worldwide - quality - weight
    Background: Overweight epidemics, including among children and adolescents, are fuelled by contemporary obesogenic environments. Recent research and theory highlight the importance of socio-cultural factors in mitigating adverse impacts of the abundance of food in high-income countries. The current study examines whether family meal culture shapes young people's eating behaviors and self-regulation. Methods: Young people aged 10–17 years were recruited through schools in four European countries: the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and the United Kingdom. A total of 2,764 participants (mean age 13.2 years; 49.1% girls) completed a self-report questionnaire in class, providing information on healthy and unhealthy eating, joint family meals and communal meal values and use of eating-related self-regulation strategies. Results: Path analysis found that family meal culture variables were significantly associated with young people's eating behaviors, as was self-regulation. Significant indirect effects of family meal culture were also found, through self-regulation. Conclusions: Results confirm that family meal culture, encompassing values as well as practices, shapes young people's eating behaviors. Findings extend and link previously separate lines of enquiry by showing how food cultures can play out in the home environment. Importantly, the study contributes novel evidence suggesting that self-regulation is shaped by the home environment and mediates its influence.
    Psychosocial correlates of the motivation to abstain from sexual intercourse among Indonesian adolescents
    Leerlooijer, J.N. ; Ruiter, R.A.C. ; Damayanti, R. ; Rijsdijk, E. ; Eiling, E. ; Bos, A.E.R. ; Kok, G. - \ 2014
    Tropical Medicine and International Health 19 (2014)1. - ISSN 1360-2276 - p. 74 - 82.
    planned behavior - hiv prevention - condom use - predictors - model - intentions - metaanalysis - attitudes - efficacy - students
    ObjectivesAdolescents in Indonesia have limited access to sexuality education, resulting in increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancies. This study aimed to understand psychosocial correlates of sexual abstinence intentions to inform future sexuality education. MethodsData were collected in 79 secondary schools among 2315 students, aged 14-20years, in Jambi, Lampung, Jakarta and Bali. A self-completed questionnaire measured attitudes, risk perception, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intentions towards sexual abstinence. ResultsSignificant associations with intention to abstain from sexual intercourse were found for experience with sexual intercourse, perceived behavioural control, attitude and subjective norms of peers and parents, explaining 31% of the variance in abstinence intention. ConclusionsTo promote adolescents' informed sexual decision-making, sexuality education programmes in Indonesia may benefit from addressing past sexual behaviour and perceived behavioural control, subjective norms of peers and attitudes.
    Public Perception of Water Consumption and Its Effects on Water Conservation Behavior
    Fan, L.X. ; Wang, F. ; Liu, G.B. ; Yang, X. ; Qin, W. - \ 2014
    Water 6 (2014)6. - ISSN 2073-4441 - p. 1771 - 1784.
    end uses - patterns - households - buildings - attitudes - recall - diary
    The usual perception of consumers regarding water consumption is that their bills do not match their actual water consumption. However, this mismatch has been insufficiently studied; particularly for cases related to specific water-use patterns, water conservation practices, and user socio-demographics. In this study, a total of 776 households in 16 villages situated in the rural Wei River Basin are investigated to address the gap in the literature. Questionnaires and 3-day water diaries are used for data collection and comparison. Results show that significant relations exist between perceived water consumption and actual water consumption. Participants have different perceptions of specific water-use patterns. Participants tend to underestimate their outdoor and kitchen water consumption and overestimate their indoor water consumption. Females and elder consumers accurately estimate their water consumption, whereas consumers with high education levels and incomes underestimate their actual water consumption. The groups who can accurately estimate water consumption have better water conservation consciousness and water conservation practices than those who underestimate their water consumption. The huge disparities highlighted by the results suggest that community policies and programs to improve public water conservation consciousness or practices must be implemented to enhance consumer understanding of water consumption.
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