Feature level fusion of multi-temporal ALOS PALSAR and Landsat data for mapping and monitoring of tropical deforestation and forest degradation
Reiche, J. ; Souza, C. ; Hoekman, D.H. ; Verbesselt, J. ; Haimwant, P. ; Herold, M. - \ 2013
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing 6 (2013)5. - ISSN 1939-1404 - p. 2159 - 2173.
brazilian amazonia - sar - imagery - classification - emissions - countries - accuracy - band
Many tropical countries suffer from persistent cloud cover inhibiting spatially consistent reporting of deforestation and forest degradation for REDD+. Data gaps remain even when compositing Landsat-like optical satellite imagery over one or two years. Instead, medium resolution SAR is capable of providing reliable deforestation information but shows limited capacity to identify forest degradation. This paper describes an innovative approach for feature fusion of multi-temporal and medium-resolution SAR and optical sub-pixel fraction information. After independently processing SAR and optical input data streams the extracted SAR and optical sub-pixel fraction features are fused using a decision tree classifier. ALOS PALSAR Fine Bean Dual and Landsat imagery of 2007 and 2010 acquired over the main mining district in central Guyana have been used for a proof-of-concept demonstration observing overall accuracies of 88% and 89.3% formapping forest land cover and detecting deforestation and forest degradation, respectively. Deforestation and degradation rates of 0.1% and 0.08% are reported for the observation period. Data gaps due to mainly clouds and Landsat ETM+ SLC-off that remained after compositing a set of single-period Landsat scenes, but also due to SAR layover and shadow could be reduced from 7.9% to negligible 0.01% while maintaining the desired thematic detail of detecting deforestation and degradation. The paper demonstrates the increase of both spatial completeness and thematic detail when applying the methodology, compared with potential Landsat-only or PALSAR-only approaches for a heavy cloud contaminated tropical environment. It indicates the potential for providing the required accuracy of activity data for REDD+ MRV.
Retrieval of spruce leaf chlorophyll content from airborne image data using continuum removal and radiative transfer
Malenovsky, Z. ; Homolova, L. ; Zurita-Milla, R. ; Lukes, P. ; Kaplan, V. ; Hanus, J. ; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.P. ; Schaepman, M.E. - \ 2013
Remote Sensing of Environment 131 (2013). - ISSN 0034-4257 - p. 85 - 102.
canopy reflectance models - optical-properties model - area index - hyperspectral data - forest canopies - precision agriculture - vegetation canopies - red - band - absorption
We investigate combined continuum removal and radiative transfer (RT) modeling to retrieve leaf chlorophyll a & b content (Cab) from the AISA Eagle airborne imaging spectrometer data of sub-meter (0.4 m) spatial resolution. Based on coupled PROSPECT-DART RT simulations of a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stand, we propose a new Cab sensitive index located between 650 and 720 nm and termed ANCB650–720. The performance of ANCB650–720 was validated against ground-measured Cab of ten spruce crowns and compared with Cab estimated by a conventional artificial neural network (ANN) trained with continuum removed RT simulations and also by three previously published chlorophyll optical indices: normalized difference between reflectance at 925 and 710 nm (ND925&710), simple reflectance ratio between 750 and 710 nm (SR750/710) and the ratio of TCARI/OSAVI indices. Although all retrieval methods produced visually comparable Cab spatial patterns, the ground validation revealed that the ANCB650–720 and ANN retrievals are more accurate than the other three chlorophyll indices (R2 = 0.72 for both methods). ANCB650–720 estimated Cab with an RMSE = 2.27 µg cm- 2 (relative RRMSE = 4.35%) and ANN with an RMSE = 2.18 µg cm- 2 (RRMSE = 4.18%), while SR750/710 with an RMSE = 4.16 µg cm- 2 (RRMSE = 7.97%), ND925&710 with an RMSE = 9.07 µg cm- 2 (RRMSE = 17.38%) and TCARI/OSAVI with an RMSE = 12.30 µg cm- 2 (RRMSE = 23.56%). Also the systematic RMSES was lower than the unsystematic one only for the ANCB650–720 and ANN retrievals. Our results indicate that the newly proposed index can provide the same accuracy as ANN except for Cab values below 30 µg cm- 2, which are slightly overestimated (RMSE = 2.42 µg cm- 2). The computationally efficient ANCB650–720 retrieval provides accurate high spatial resolution airborne Cab maps, considerable as a suitable reference data for validating satellite-based Cab products.
Measuring urban rainfall using microwave links from commercial cellular communication networks
Overeem, A. ; Leijnse, H. ; Uijlenhoet, R. - \ 2011
Water Resources Research 47 (2011). - ISSN 0043-1397 - 16 p.
wet antenna attenuation - resolution - future - errors - band
The estimation of rainfall using commercial microwave links is a new and promising measurement technique. Commercial link networks cover large parts of the land surface of the earth and have a high density, particularly in urban areas. Rainfall attenuates the electromagnetic signals transmitted between antennas within this network. This attenuation can be calculated from the difference between the received powers with and without rain and is a measure of the path-averaged rainfall intensity. This study uses a 17-day data set of, on average, 57 single-frequency links from 2009 to estimate rainfall in the Rotterdam region, a densely populated delta city in Netherlands (˜1250 km2, >1 million inhabitants). A methodology is proposed where nearby links are used to remove signal fluctuations that are not related to rainfall in order to be able to reliably identify wet and dry weather spells. Subsequently, received signal powers are converted to path-averaged rainfall intensities, taking into account the temporal sampling protocol and attenuation due to wet antennas. Link-based rainfall depths are compared with those based on gauge-adjusted radar data. In addition, the rainfall retrieval algorithm is applied to an independent data set of 21 rainy days in 2010 with on average 16 single-frequency links in the same region. Rainfall retrievals are compared against gauge-adjusted radar rainfall estimates over the link path. Moreover, the retrieval algorithm is also tested using high-resolution research link data to investigate the algorithm's sensitivity to temporal rainfall variations. All presented comparisons confirm the quality of commercial microwave link data for quantitative precipitation estimation over urban areas.
The effect of reported high-velocity small raindrops on inferred drop size distributions and derived power laws
Leijnse, H. ; Uijlenhoet, R. - \ 2010
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10 (2010)14. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 6807 - 6818.
rainfall estimation - video disdrometer - doppler radar - attenuation - band
It has recently been shown that at high rainfall intensities, small raindrops may fall with much larger velocities than would be expected from their diameters. These were argued to be fragments of recently broken-up larger drops. In this paper we quantify the effect of this phenomenon on raindrop size distribution measurements from a Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer, a 2-D Video Distrometer, and a vertically-pointing Doppler radar. Probability distributions of fall velocities have been parameterized, where the parameters are functions of both rainfall intensity and drop size. These parameterizations have been used to correct Joss-Waldvogel disdrometer measurements for this phenomenon. The effect of these corrections on fitted scaled drop size distributions are apparent but not major. Fitted gamma distributions for three different types of rainfall have been used to simulate drop size measurements. The effect of the high-velocity small drops is shown to be minor. Especially for the purpose of remote sensing of rainfall using radar, microwave links, or optical links, the errors caused by using the slightly different retrieval relations will be masked completely by other error sources
Advanced time-series analysis of MEG data as a method to explore olfactory function in healthy controls and Parikinson's disease patients
Boesveldt, S. ; Knol, D.L. ; Verbunt, J.P.A. ; Berendse, H.W. - \ 2009
Human Brain Mapping 30 (2009)9. - ISSN 1065-9471 - p. 3020 - 3030.
oscillatory brain activity - working-memory - synchronization likelihood - alzheimers-disease - eeg alpha - stimulation - odor - connectivity - dysfunction - band
Objectives: To determine whether time-series analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) data is a suitable method to study brain activity related to olfactory information processing, and to detect differences in odor-induced brain activity between patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and controls. Methods: Whole head 151-channel MEG recordings were obtained in 21 controls and 20 patients with PD during a 10-min olfactory stimulus paradigm, consisting of 10 alternating rest-stimulus cycles (30 s each), using phenylethyl alcohol administered by means of a Burghart olfactometer. Relative spectral power and synchronization likelihood (SL; an unbiased measure of functional connectivity) were calculated for delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta, and gamma frequency bands. Results: In controls, olfactory stimulation produced an increase in theta power and a decrease in beta power. In patients with PD, there was a decrease in alpha1 power. No significant interaction between group and condition was found for spectral power. SL analysis revealed a significantly different response to olfactory stimulation in patients with PD compared to controls. In controls, the odor stimulus induced a decrease in local beta band SL. The response in patients with PD involved a decrease in intrahemispheric alpha2 band SL. Conclusion: This is the first study to show that time-series analysis of MEG data, including spectral power and SL, can be used to detect odor-induced changes in brain activity. In addition, differences in odor-induced brain activity were found between patients with PD and controls using analysis of SL, but not of spectral power
Microwave link rainfall estimation: Effects of link length and frequency, temporal sampling, power resolution, and wet antenna attenuation
Leijnse, H. ; Uijlenhoet, R. ; Stricker, J.N.M. - \ 2008
Advances in Water Resources 31 (2008). - ISSN 0309-1708 - p. 1481 - 1493.
path-averaged rainfall - dual-frequency - weather radar - band - raindrops - fields - model - shape
Issues associated with microwave link rainfall estimation such as the effects of spatial and temporal variation in rain, the nonlinearity of R¿k relations, temporal sampling, power resolution, and wet antenna attenuation are investigated using more than 1.5 years of data from a high-resolution X-band weather radar. Microwave link signals are generated for different link frequencies and lengths from these radar data, so that retrieved path-averaged rainfall intensities can be compared to true path-averaged values. Results of these simulations can be linked to the space¿time structure of rain. A frequency-dependent relation between the rainfall intensity at an antenna and the attenuation caused by its wetting is derived using microwave link and rain gauge data. It is shown that if the correct temporal sampling strategy is chosen, the effects of the degradation of power resolution and of wet antenna attenuation (if a correction is applied) are minor (i.e., MBE and bias-corrected RMSE are >¿20% and
Stochastic simulation experiment to assess radar rainfall retrieval uncertainties associated with attenuation and its correction
Uijlenhoet, R. ; Berne, A.D. - \ 2008
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 12 (2008). - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 587 - 601.
raindrop size distributions - polarimetric weather radar - gauge data - drop size - vertical profiles - mountainous area - inverse method - band - precipitation - reflectivity
As rainfall constitutes the main source of water for the terrestrial hydrological processes, accurate and reliable measurement and prediction of its spatial and temporal distribution over a wide range of scales is an important goal for hydrology. We investigate the potential of ground-based weather radar to provide such measurements through a theoretical analysis of some of the associated observation uncertainties. A stochastic model of range profiles of raindrop size distributions is employed in a Monte Carlo simulation experiment to investigate the rainfall retrieval uncertainties associated with weather radars operating at X-, C-, and S-band. We focus in particular on the errors and uncertainties associated with rain-induced signal attenuation and its correction for incoherent, non-polarimetric, single-frequency, operational weather radars. The performance of two attenuation correction schemes, the (forward) Hitschfeld-Bordan algorithm and the (backward) Marzoug-Amayenc algorithm, is analyzed for both moderate (assuming a 50 km path length) and intense Mediterranean rainfall (for a 30 km path). A comparison shows that the backward correction algorithm is more stable and accurate than the forward algorithm (with a bias in the order of a few percent for the former, compared to tens of percent for the latter), provided reliable estimates of the total path-integrated attenuation are available. Moreover, the bias and root mean square error associated with each algorithm are quantified as a function of path-averaged rain rate and distance from the radar in order to provide a plausible order of magnitude for the uncertainty in radar-retrieved rain rates for hydrological applications.
Hydrometeorological application of a microwave link: 2. Precipitation
Leijnse, H. ; Uijlenhoet, R. ; Stricker, J.N.M. - \ 2007
Water Resources Research 43 (2007). - ISSN 0043-1397 - p. W04417 - W04417.
path-averaged rainfall - dual-frequency - attenuation - radar - band - resolution - hydrology - gauges - size
The suitability of a 27-GHz microwave link for measuring path-averaged precipitation is investigated. Theoretical analyses show that the specific attenuation of an electromagnetic signal at this frequency varies nearly linearly with the rainfall intensity, which is ideal for line-integrating instruments. The dependence of this relation on the drop size distribution and on the temperature is small, so that uncertainties in these variables do not play large roles in the estimation of rainfall intensity. Data from an experiment with a 4.89-km microwave link and a line configuration of seven tipping bucket rain gauges are used to test whether this instrument is indeed suitable for the estimation of path-averaged rainfall. Results from this experiment show that the attenuation due to wet antennas can have a significant effect on the retrieved rainfall intensity. However, when a two-parameter wet antenna correction function is applied to the link data, comparisons with the rain gauge data show that the instrument is indeed well suited for the measurement of path-averaged rainfall
Rainfall measurement using radio links from cellular communication networks
Leijnse, H. ; Uijlenhoet, R. ; Stricker, J.N.M. - \ 2007
Water Resources Research 43 (2007). - ISSN 0043-1397 - 6 p.
microwave attenuation - band
We investigate the potential of radio links such as employed by commercial cellular communication companies to monitor path-averaged rainfall. We present an analysis of data collected using two 38-GHz links during eight rainfall events over a 2-month period (October¿November 2003) during mostly stratiform rainfall in the Netherlands. Comparisons between the time series of rainfall intensities estimated using the radio links and those measured by a nearby rain gauge and a composite of two C band weather radars show that the dynamics of the rain events is generally well captured by the radio links. This shows that such links are potentially a valuable addition to existing methods of rainfall estimation, provided the uncertainties related to the reference signal level, signal level resolution, wet antenna attenuation, and temporal sampling can be resolved.
Influence of the vertical profile of reflectivity on radar-estimated rain rates at short time steps
Berne, A.D. ; Delrieu, G. ; Andrieu, H. ; Creutin, J.D. - \ 2004
Journal of Hydrometeorology 5 (2004)2. - ISSN 1525-755X - p. 296 - 310.
weather radar - attenuating wavelengths - size distribution - mountain returns - inverse method - identification - band - feasibility - systems
The present study aims to demonstrate the major influence of the vertical heterogeneity of rainfall on radar rain gauge assessment. For this purpose, an experimental setup was deployed during the HYDROMET Integrated Radar Experiment (HIRE-98) based on a conventional S-band weather radar operating at long range ( 90 km), an X-band vertically pointing radar, and a network of 25 tipping-bucket rain gauges. After calibration and attenuation corrections, the X-band radar data enables the estimation of the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR) time series. Screening and VPR correction factors are derived for the distant S-band radar measurements. The raw and corrected S-band radar estimates are compared to rain gauge measurements for various integration time steps ( 6 - 30 min). Considering about 12 h of intense Mediterranean precipitation, the VPR influence at the X-band radar site is clear for all the time steps considered. For instance, a continuous increase in the Nash efficiency for the corrected radar data compared to the rain gauge data (0.85 for the 6-min time step, up to 0.93 for the 30-min time step) is observed while this criterion remains less than 0.15 for the raw radar data, regardless of the time step. The effect of the low-level reflectivity enhancement on the radar - rain gauge assessment was also found to be very important in the considered configuration. The establishment of reliable VPR climatologies is therefore a challenge in order to better account for such effects that are not observable at long range from the radars. The spatial validity of the VPR correction derived from a point sensor like the vertically pointing radar is also investigated. As a result of the high space - time variability of rainfall, such a punctual VPR correction has an efficiency limited to areas of about 20 km(2) (200 km(2)) for the 6-min (30 min) integration time step.
A comparison of methods to relate grass reflectance to soil metal contamination
Kooistra, L. ; Leuven, R.S.E.W. ; Wehrens, H.R.M.J. ; Nienhuis, P.H. ; Buydens, L.M.C. - \ 2003
International Journal of Remote Sensing 24 (2003)24. - ISSN 0143-1161 - p. 4995 - 5010.
river floodplains - leaf - selection - index - field - band
Grass-dominated vegetation covers large areas of the Dutch river floodplains. Remotely sensed data on the conditions under which this vegetation grows may yield information about the degree of soil contamination. This paper explores the relationship between grassland canopy reflectance and zinc (Zn) contamination in the soil under semi-field conditions. A field radiometer was used to record reflectance spectra of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) in an experimental field with Zn concentrations in the soil ranging from 32 to 1800 mg kg-1. Several spectral vegetation indices (VIs) and a multivariate approach using partial least squares (PLS) regression were investigated to evaluate their potential use in estimating Zn contamination levels. Compared to the best PLS model (RMSEP=181.4 mg kg-1), the narrow band vegetation index MSAVI2mm performed better (RMSEP=162.9 mg kg-1). Both MSAVI2mm and PLS gave a high user accuracy for the strongly contaminated soil class (100% and 91%, respectively), while the total accuracy was satisfactory (60% and 55%, respectively). Results from this feasibility study indicate the potential of using remote sensing techniques for the classification of contaminated areas in river floodplains. But as the results from this study may be both resolution- and location-dependent, research on field and image scale is now required to test the established relations and to assess their susceptibility to seasonal influences, species heterogeneity, and increased levels of spectral noise.