- Wilma C. Hazeleger (1)
- Judith C.M. Wolkers-Rooijackers (1)
- Maurice Donners (1)
- M. Donners (2)
- Marcel E. Visser (1)
- E. Eck van (1)
- J.A. Ettema (1)
- A.C. Franco (1)
- K.G. Geffen van (1)
- D. Groenendijk (1)
- R.H.A. Grunsven van (3)
- T. Huijgens (1)
- Jip J.C. Ramakers (1)
- F. Langevelde van (1)
- Thomas Raap (1)
- Katharina Rebmann (1)
- F.A.M. Rijsewijk (1)
- P.M. Roehe (1)
- F. Salis (1)
- R. Schaefer (1)
- R. Slaterus (1)
- K. Spoelstra (1)
- K. Spoelstra (1)
- E.M. Veenendaal (3)
- M.E. Visser (1)
- M.F. Wallis de Vries (1)
Fecal Bacterial Communities in Insectivorous Bats from the Netherlands and Their Role as a Possible Vector for Foodborne Diseases
Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith C.M. ; Rebmann, Katharina ; Bosch, Thijs ; Hazeleger, Wilma C. - \ 2018
Acta Chiropterologica 20 (2018)2. - ISSN 1508-1109 - p. 475 - 483.
bacteria - bats - DGGE - microbial diversity
Bats are commonly regarded as vectors for viruses, but little is known about bacterial communities in bats and the possible role of bats in the transmission cycle of foodborne diseases. To gain more insight, microbial communities in fecal samples from 37 insectivorous bats of different species from the Netherlands were investigated by polymerase chain reaction and denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Subsequently, 10 samples from the following bat species: common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus; n = 3), Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii; n = 3), serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus; n = 1), whiskered bat (Myotis mystacinus; n = 1), Geoffroy's bat (Myotis emarginatus; n = 1) and Natterer's bat (Myotis nattereri; n = 1) were selected and used in bacterial 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing. The fecal microbiota in bats was found to be diverse with predominant bacterial genera Carnobacterium, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Enterococcus and Yersinia. The presence of opportunistic pathogens Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Serratia fonticola and Rahnella aquatilis was also recorded. Based on cloning results, we found no proof that bats in the Netherlands are a major vector for the transmission of bacterial zoonotic diseases, although previous findings in literature reported isolation of foodborne pathogens from bats.
Data from: Response of bats to light with different spectra: light-shy and agile bat presence is affected by white and green, but not red light
Spoelstra, K. ; Grunsven, R.H.A. van; Ramakers, Jip J.C. ; Ferguson, Kim B. ; Raap, Thomas ; Donners, Maurice ; Veenendaal, E.M. ; Visser, Marcel E. - \ 2017
light pollution - experimental light at night - bats - light colour
Artificial light at night has shown a remarkable increase over the past decades. Effects are reported for many species groups, and include changes in presence, behaviour, physiology and life-history traits. Among these, bats are strongly affected, and how bat species react to light is likely to vary with light colour. Different spectra may therefore be applied to reduce negative impacts. We used a unique set-up of eight field sites to study the response of bats to three different experimental light spectra in an otherwise dark and undisturbed natural habitat. We measured activity of three bat species groups around transects with light posts emitting white, green and red light with an intensity commonly used to illuminate countryside roads. The results reveal a strong and spectrum-dependent response for the slow-flying Myotis and Plecotus and more agile Pipistrellus species, but not for Nyctalus and Eptesicus species. Plecotus and Myotis species avoided white and green light, but were equally abundant in red light and darkness. The agile, opportunistically feeding Pipistrellus species were significantly more abundant around white and green light, most likely because of accumulation of insects, but equally abundant in red illuminated transects compared to dark control. Forest-dwelling Myotis and Plecotus species and more synanthropic Pipistrellus species are thus least disturbed by red light. Hence, in order to limit the negative impact of light at night on bats, white and green light should be avoided in or close to natural habitat, but red lights may be used if illumination is needed.
Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth
Geffen, K.G. van; Eck, E. van; Boer, R. de; Grunsven, R.H.A. van; Salis, F. ; Berendse, F. ; Veenendaal, E.M. - \ 2015
Insect Conservation and Diversity 8 (2015)3. - ISSN 1752-458X - p. 282 - 287.
winter moth - lepidoptera-noctuidae - british moths - sex-pheromone - pollution - world - bats
1.Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development, reproduction and inter/intra-specific interactions. 2.Here, we present results of a field-based experiment where we tested effects of various types of artificial lighting on mating in the winter moth (Operophtera brumata, Lepidoptera: Geometridae). We illuminated trunks of oak trees with green, white, red or no artificial LED light at night, and caught female O. brumata on these trunks using funnel traps. The females were dissected to check for the presence of a spermatophore, a sperm package that is delivered by males to females during mating. 3.We found a strong reduction in the number of females on the illuminated trunks, indicating artificial light inhibition of activity. Furthermore, artificial light inhibited mating: 53% of females caught on non-illuminated trunks had mated, whereas only 13%, 16% and 28% of the females that were caught on green, white and red light illuminated trunks had mated respectively. 4.A second experiment showed that artificial night lighting reduced the number of males that were attracted to a synthetic O. brumata pheromone lure. This effect was strongest under red light and mildest under green light. 5.This study provides, for the first time, field-based evidence that artificial night lighting disrupts reproductive behaviour of moths, and that reducing short wavelength radiation only partly mitigates these negative effects.
Experimental illumination of natural habitat - an experimental set-up to assess the direct and indirect ecological consequences of artificial light of different spectral composition
Spoelstra, K. ; Grunsven, R.H.A. van; Donners, M. ; Huijgens, T. ; Slaterus, R. ; Berendse, F. ; Visser, M.E. ; Veenendaal, E.M. - \ 2015
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 370 (2015). - ISSN 0962-8436 - 8 p.
predation risk - beach mice - bats - night - ultraviolet - wavelength - pollution - responses - vision - time
Artificial night-time illumination of natural habitats has increased dramatically over the past few decades. Generally, studies that assess the impact of artificial light on various species in the wild make use of existing illumination and are therefore correlative. Moreover, studies mostly focus on short-term consequences at the individual level, rather than long-term consequences at the population and community level—thereby ignoring possible unknown cascading effects in ecosystems. The recent change to LED lighting has opened up the exciting possibility to use light with a custom spectral composition, thereby potentially reducing the negative impact of artificial light. We describe here a large-scale, ecosystem-wide study where we experimentally illuminate forest-edge habitat with different spectral composition, replicated eight times. Monitoring of species is being performed according to rigid protocols, in part using a citizen-science-based approach, and automated where possible. Simultaneously, we specifically look at alterations in behaviour, such as changes in activity, and daily and seasonal timing. In our set-up, we have so far observed that experimental lights facilitate foraging activity of pipistrelle bats, suppress activity of wood mice and have effects on birds at the community level, which vary with spectral composition. Thus far, we have not observed effects on moth populations, but these and many other effects may surface only after a longer period of time.
Effect of spectral composition of artificial light on the attraction of moths
Langevelde, F. van; Ettema, J.A. ; Donners, M. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Groenendijk, D. - \ 2011
Biological Conservation 144 (2011)9. - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 2274 - 2281.
lepidoptera - bats - pollination - trap - conservation - populations - resolution - predation - pollution - ecology
During the last decades, artificial night lighting has increased globally, which largely affected many plant and animal species. So far, current research highlights the importance of artificial light with smaller wavelengths in attracting moths, yet the effect of the spectral composition of artificial light on species richness and abundance of moths has not been studied systematically. Therefore, we tested the hypotheses that (1) higher species richness and higher abundances of moths are attracted to artificial light with smaller wavelengths than to light with larger wavelengths, and (2) this attraction is correlated with morphological characteristics of moths, especially their eye size. We indeed found higher species richness and abundances of moths in traps with lamps that emit light with smaller wavelengths. These lamps attracted moths with on average larger body mass, larger wing dimensions and larger eyes. Cascading effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, e.g. pollination, can be expected when larger moth species are attracted to these lights. Predatory species with a diet of mainly larger moth species and plant species pollinated by larger moth species might then decline. Moreover, our results indicate a size-bias in trapping moths, resulting in an overrepresentation of larger moth species in lamps with small wavelengths. Our study indicates the potential use of lamps with larger wavelengths to effectively reduce the negative effect of light pollution on moth population dynamics and communities where moths play an important role.
Studies on antigenic and genomic properties of Brazilian rabies virus isolates
Schaefer, R. ; Batista, H.B. ; Franco, A.C. ; Rijsewijk, F.A.M. ; Roehe, P.M. - \ 2005
Veterinary Microbiology 107 (2005)3-4. - ISSN 0378-1135 - p. 161 - 170.
monoclonal-antibodies - rt-pcr - lyssaviruses - bats - discrimination - variants - proteins
Despite the recognized stability of rabies virus, differences among isolates from different species have been found. This work was carried out with the aim to identify antigenic and genomic differences in Brazilian rabies virus isolates and to verify whether such alterations would bear any relationship with the different hosts for the virus in nature. For that, 79 Brazilian rabies viruses isolated from different host species and from distinct regions within Brazil were submitted to antigenic characterization with a panel of 11 monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) directed to lyssavirus antigens and to genomic analyses by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of the N gene followed by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA). In addition, the nucleotide sequences of part of the N gene (225 bp) of seven isolates, taken as representative of the majority of the viruses under study, were determined. The analyses with the Mabs and RT-PCR/REA allowed the identification of two major groups of variants, the first formed by most isolates of cattle and bats and the second formed by viruses of dog origin. Partial sequencing of the N gene confirmed the similarity among isolates from cattle origin and those of vampire bats. However, viruses from non-haematophagous bats exhibited consistent differences from those of vampire bat isolates. Such findings suggest that the variants have evolved fairly stable modifications, which are not altered after passage in a dead-end host of a distinct species. No association could be established between antigenic or genomic alterations and geographic distribution of the isolates, which suggests that evolution of the virus has been directed to adaptation to the host species