Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    LiGAPS-Beef, a mechanistic model to explore potential and feed-limited beef production 2 : sensitivity analysis and evaluation of sub-models
    Linden, A. van der; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Oosting, S.J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2019
    Animal 13 (2019)4. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 856 - 867.
    beef cattle - mechanistic modelling - production ecology - sensitivity analysis - yield gap

    The model LiGAPS-Beef (Livestock simulator for Generic analysis of Animal Production Systems – Beef cattle) has been developed to assess potential and feed-limited growth and production of beef cattle in different areas of the world and to identify the processes responsible for the yield gap. Sensitivity analysis and evaluation of model results with experimental data are important steps after model development. The first aim of this paper, therefore, is to identify which parameters affect the output of LiGAPS-Beef most by conducting sensitivity analyses. The second aim is to evaluate the accuracy of the thermoregulation sub-model and the feed intake and digestion sub-model with experimental data. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using a one-at-a-time approach. The upper critical temperature (UCT) simulated with the thermoregulation sub-model was most affected by the body core temperature and parameters affecting latent heat release from the skin. The lower critical temperature (LCT) and UCT were considerably affected by weather variables, especially ambient temperature and wind speed. Sensitivity analysis for the feed intake and digestion sub-model showed that the digested protein per kg feed intake was affected to a larger extent than the metabolisable energy (ME) content. Sensitivity analysis for LiGAPS-Beef was conducted for ¾ Brahman×¼ Shorthorn cattle in Australia and Hereford cattle in Uruguay. Body core temperature, conversion of digestible energy to ME, net energy requirements for maintenance, and several parameters associated with heat release affected feed efficiency at the herd level most. Sensitivity analyses have contributed, therefore, to insight which parameters are to be investigated in more detail when applying LiGAPS-Beef. Model evaluation was conducted by comparing model simulations with independent data from experiments. Measured heat production in experiments corresponded fairly well to the heat production simulated with the thermoregulation sub-model. Measured ME contents from two data sets corresponded well to the ME contents simulated with the feed intake and digestion sub-model. The relative mean absolute errors were 9.3% and 6.4% of the measured ME contents for the two data sets. In conclusion, model evaluation indicates the thermoregulation sub-model can deal with a wide range of weather conditions, and the feed intake and digestion sub-model with a variety of feeds, which corresponds to the aim of LiGAPS-Beef to simulate cattle in different beef production systems across the world.

    LiGAPS-Beef, a mechanistic model to explore potential and feed-limited beef production 1 : model description and illustration
    Linden, A. van der; Ven, G.W.J. van de; Oosting, S.J. ; Ittersum, M.K. van; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2019
    Animal 13 (2019)4. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 845 - 855.
    beef cattle - growth - mechanistic modelling - production ecology - yield gap

    The expected increase in the global demand for livestock products calls for insight in the scope to increase actual production levels across the world. This insight can be obtained by using theoretical concepts of production ecology. These concepts distinguish three production levels for livestock: potential (i.e. theoretical maximum) production, which is defined by genotype and climate only; feed-limited production, which is limited by feed quantity and quality; and actual production. The difference between the potential or limited production and the actual production is the yield gap. The objective of this paper, the first in a series of three, is to present a mechanistic, dynamic model simulating potential and feed-limited production for beef cattle, which can be used to assess yield gaps. A novelty of this model, named LiGAPS-Beef (Livestock simulator for Generic analysis of Animal Production Systems – Beef cattle), is the identification of the defining factors (genotype and climate) and limiting factors (feed quality and available feed quantity) for cattle growth by integrating sub-models on thermoregulation, feed intake and digestion, and energy and protein utilisation. Growth of beef cattle is simulated at the animal and herd level. The model is designed to be applicable to different beef production systems across the world. Main model inputs are breed-specific parameters, daily weather data, information about housing, and data on feed quality and quantity. Main model outputs are live weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency (FE) at the animal and herd level. Here, the model is presented, and its use is illustrated for Charolais and Brahman × Shorthorn cattle in France and Australia. Potential and feed-limited production were assessed successfully, and we show that FE of herds is highest for breeds most adapted to the local climate conditions. LiGAPS-Beef also identified the factors that define and limit growth and production of cattle. Hence, we argue the model has scope to be used as a tool for the assessment and analysis of yield gaps in beef production systems.

    Genomic regions underlying uniformity of yearling weight in Nellore cattle evaluated under different response variables
    Souza Iung, Laiza Helena de; Mulder, Herman ; Rezende Neves, Haroldo Henrique de; Carvalheiro, Roberto - \ 2018
    São Paulo State University
    beef cattle - DHGLM - genetic heterogeneity of residual variance - growth traits - GWAS - micro-environmental sensitivity
    Background In livestock, residual variance has been studied because of the interest to improve uniformity of production. Several studies have provided evidence that residual variance is partially under genetic control; however, few investigations have elucidated genes that control it. The aim of this study was to identify genomic regions associated with within-family residual variance of yearling weight (YW; N = 423) in Nellore bulls with high density SNP data, using different response variables. For this, solutions from double hierarchical generalized linear models (DHGLM) were used to provide the response variables, as follows: a DGHLM assuming non-null genetic correlation between mean and residual variance (rmv ≠ 0) to obtain deregressed EBV for mean (dEBVm) and residual variance (dEBVv); and a DHGLM assuming rmv = 0 to obtain two alternative response variables for residual variance, dEBVv_r0 and log-transformed variance of estimated residuals (ln_ σ e ̂ 2 $$ {\upsigma}_{\widehat{\mathrm{e}}}^2 $$ ). Results The dEBVm and dEBVv were highly correlated, resulting in common regions associated with mean and residual variance of YW. However, higher effects on variance than the mean showed that these regions had effects on the variance beyond scale effects. More independent association results between mean and residual variance were obtained when null rmv was assumed. While 13 and 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showed a strong association (Bayes Factor > 20) with dEBVv and ln_ σ e ̂ 2 $$ {\upsigma}_{\widehat{\mathrm{e}}}^2 $$ , respectively, only suggestive signals were found for dEBVv_r0. All overlapping 1-Mb windows among top 20 between dEBVm and dEBVv were previously associated with growth traits. The potential candidate genes for uniformity are involved in metabolism, stress, inflammatory and immune responses, mineralization, neuronal activity and bone formation. Conclusions It is necessary to use a strategy like assuming null rmv to obtain genomic regions associated with uniformity that are not associated with the mean. Genes involved not only in metabolism, but also stress, inflammatory and immune responses, mineralization, neuronal activity and bone formation were the most promising biological candidates for uniformity of YW. Although no clear evidence of using a specific response variable was found, we recommend consider different response variables to study uniformity to increase evidence on candidate regions and biological mechanisms behind it.
    Selection for pure- and crossbred performance in Charolais
    Vallée-Dassonneville, Amélie - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk; Henk Bovenhuis. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430180 - 151
    charolais - cattle - animal breeding - crossbreeding - crossbreds - selection - beef cattle - genomes - genetic parameters - charolais - rundvee - dierveredeling - kruisingsfokkerij - kruising - selectie - vleesvee - genomen - genetische parameters

    Two categories of beef production exist; i.e. (i) purebred animals from a beef sire and a beef dam and (ii) crossbred animals from a beef sire and a dairy dam.

    For the purebred beef production, there is a growing interest to include behavior and type traits in the breeding goal. Heritabilities for behavior traits, estimated using subjective data scored by farmers, range from 0.02 to 0.19. Heritabilities for type traits range from 0.02 to 0.35. Results show that there are good opportunities to implement selection for behavior traits using a simple on-farm recording system to allow collection of large data set, and for type traits in Charolais. A genome-wide association study detected 16 genomic regions with small effect on behavior and type traits. This suggests that behavior and type traits are influenced by many genes each explaining a small part of the genetic variance.

    The two main dairy breeds mated to Charolais sires for crossbred beef production in France are Montbéliard and Holstein. The genetic correlation between the same trait measured on Montbéliard x Charolais and on Holstein x Charolais was 0.99 for muscular development, 0.96 for birth weight; and 0.91 for calving difficulty, 0.80 for height, and 0.70 for bone thinness. Thus, for these last three traits, results show evidence for re-ranking of Charolais sires depending on whether they are mated to Montbéliard or Holstein cows. When using genomic prediction, the Montbéliard x Charolais and Holstein x Charolais populations could be combined into a single reference population to increase size and accuracy of genomic prediction. Results indicate that the higher the genetic correlation is between the two crossbred populations, the higher the gain in accuracy is achieved when combining the two populations into a single reference.

    The selection of Charolais sires to produce purebred or crossbred animals is made through distinct breeding programs. An alternative could be to combine selection into one breeding program. Decision for combining or keeping breeding programs separate is determined by the correlation between the breeding objectives, the selection intensity, the difference in level of genetic merit, the accuracy of selection, and the recent implementation of genomic evaluation. Considering all parameters and based on estimations for selection on birth weight, I recommend combining both breeding programs because this will lead to higher genetic gain, and might simplify operating organization and reduce associated costs.

    Disentangling the domestic contract : understanding the everyday-life construction of acceptability -or non-acceptability- of keeping and killing animals for food
    Nijland, Hanneke J. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees van Woerkum; Noelle Aarts. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578296 - 325
    meat - vegetarians - vegetarianism - vegetarian diets - killing of animals - meat animals - meat production - households - environmental impact - sustainability - animal welfare - animal production - animal ethics - food - dairy cattle - beef cattle - pigs - poultry - broilers - hens - vlees - vegetariërs - vegetarisme - vegetarische diëten - doden van dieren - slachtdieren - vleesproductie - huishoudens - milieueffect - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - dierethiek - voedsel - melkvee - vleesvee - varkens - pluimvee - vleeskuikens - hennen

    When we were children learning the names of animals, farm utensils and food products from picture books, talking about farming animals and related food products appeared simple. However, the intricate realities of modern-day farming practices differ momentously from this primary reference - the picture books. The topic brings about polarized responses, both rationally and emotionally, reflecting very diverse outlooks on the world. This dissertation reports on a research, set in the Netherlands and Turkey, that was designed to improve our understanding of the everyday-life construction of the acceptability -or non-acceptability- ofkeeping and killing animals for food, or in other words: to disentangle the domestic contract.

    Weet wat je eet: keurmerken voor een beter leven - Dierenwelzijn in beeld
    Ruis, M.A.W. - \ 2016
    dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - rundveehouderij - varkenshouderij - pluimveehouderij - huisvesting, dieren - varkens - pluimvee - melkvee - vleesvee - animal welfare - animal production - cattle husbandry - pig farming - poultry farming - animal housing - pigs - poultry - dairy cattle - beef cattle
    Van veel van keurmerken is onduidelijk hoe betrouwbaar ze zijn en wat ze zeggen over dierenwelzijn of andere kenmerken van een product. Het bekendste keurmerk om diervriendelijk geproduceerde producten te ondersteunen is het Beter Leven keurmerk van de Dierenbescherming. Het Beter Leven keurmerk is een label met 3 sterren dat op steeds meer verpakkingen van vlees en eieren te vinden is. Hoe meer sterren, hoe beter het leven van de dieren is geweest. De Dierenbescherming laat het label door onafhankelijke professionals borgen. In deze video wordt uitgelegd waar 1, 2 of 3 sterren voor staan.
    Critical ethical issues in USA animal production : executive summary
    Hoste, R. ; Oosterkamp, E.B. - \ 2016
    LEI Wageningen UR (Factsheet / LEI Wageningen UR VR2015-137) - 2
    animal welfare - animal ethics - animal husbandry - legislation - european union - usa - eu regulations - animal production - animal housing - dairy cattle - pigs - veal calves - beef cattle - broilers - dierenwelzijn - dierethiek - dierhouderij - wetgeving - europese unie - vs - eu regelingen - dierlijke productie - huisvesting, dieren - melkvee - varkens - vleeskalveren - vleesvee - vleeskuikens
    In 2014, the non-governmental organisation Wakker Dier in the Netherlands criticised ING for financing animal farms outside the European Union (EU). The NGO expressed its concern that local regulation would not sufficiently guarantee animal welfare standards up to the level guaranteed under EU regulations. Early 2015, LEI Wageningen UR was requested to identify potential detrimental activities in the United States of America (USA) animal husbandry sector due to gaps between EU and USA legislation and local animal welfare standards applied in the USA. Activities covered by ING clients in the USA and thus in scope of this research involve pigs, layers, broilers, veal calves, dairy cows and beef cows. The aim of this report is to provide a qualified comparison of animal welfare standards in the USA and the EU and to identify animal welfare and other potential ethical issues within animal farming in the USA and to identify critical issues on which ING is advised to take a strategic position.
    Tussenevaluatie knelpuntaandoeningen en praktische uitvoerbaarheid UDD-regeling
    Kluivers-Poodt, M. ; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Wijhe-Kiezebrink, M.C. van; Neijenhuis, F. ; Bokma-Bakker, M.H. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 904) - 105
    diergezondheid - antibiotica - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - kalveren - vleesvee - varkens - melkvee - animal health - antibiotics - animal welfare - animal production - calves - beef cattle - pigs - dairy cattle
    In maart 2014 is de UDD-regeling in werking getreden, waarin is bepaald dat antibiotica alleen door dierenartsen voorgeschreven en toegediend mogen worden. In het hier beschreven onderzoek is de vooruitgang in het terugdringen van de knelpuntaandoeningen die vallen onder de uitzondering op de UDD-regeling, binnen de melkvee-, vleeskalveren en varkenssector geëvalueerd. Aanvullend is de praktische uitvoerbaarheid van de UDD-regeling in zijn geheel geëvalueerd, in genoemde sectoren, aangevuld met de vleeskuikensector.
    Meer marge in eigen zak
    Vijn, M.P. - \ 2015
    Schakel in succes (2015)2. - ISSN 2211-5811 - p. 16 - 19.
    verwerking op de boerderij - neveninkomsten - kaasbereiding - fruitproducten - melkveehouderij - tuinbouw - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - boerderijwinkels - verkoopautomaten - vleesvee - coöperatieve activiteiten - on-farm processing - supplementary income - cheesemaking - fruit products - dairy farming - horticulture - farm management - on-farm sales - vending machines - beef cattle - cooperative activities
    In 2013 waren er 2.720 agrarisch ondernemers die hun producten rechtstreeks aan de consumenten verkochten. Gezamenlijk haalden ze daarmee een omzet van 142 miljoen euro. Welke mogelijkheden zijn er en waar moeten ondernemers rekening mee houden? Marcel Vijn van PPO Wageningen UR te Lelystad aan het woord.
    Lig- en mestgedrag sturen : Star+ voor milieuvriendelijke huisvesting van vleesvarkens
    Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Vermeer, H.M. ; Busancic, Mirjana ; Verdoes, N. - \ 2015
    V-focus (2015)april. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 37 - 39.
    varkenshouderij - vleesvee - vleesproductie - varkensstallen - vloertypen - diergedrag - varkensmest - urinering - stalinrichting - pig farming - beef cattle - meat production - pig housing - floor type - animal behaviour - pig manure - urination - animal housing design
    De Star+-stal werd tweeënhalf jaar geleden in gebruik genomen op het Varkens Innovatie Centrum Sterksel. Het lig- en mestgedrag van de vleesvarkens werd gedurende zes ronden gevolgd. Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat varkens vooral binnen op de dichte vloer liggen en in de uitloop op de roostervloer mesten. De dichte vloer werd aanvankelijk bevuild. Dit werd teruggedrongen door de drinkbakjes in de uitloop te plaatsen, te kiezen voor composietroosters en door de dichte vloer te laten meegroeien met de dieren.
    The role of psychological factors in the adoption of improved natural grassland by Brazilian cattle farmers in Biome Pampa
    Rossi Borges, J.A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573154 - 182
    agrarische economie - boeren - graslandbeheer - graslandverbetering - houding van boeren - gedragsveranderingen - attitudes - rundvee - vleesvee - rundvleesproductie - duurzame ontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - pampa's - brazilië - agricultural economics - farmers - grassland management - grassland improvement - farmers' attitudes - behavioural changes - attitudes - cattle - beef cattle - beef production - sustainable development - sustainability - pampas - brazil
    The objective of the research was to explore factors determining cattle farmers' intention to adopt improved natural grassland in Brazil. The research was carried out in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in the south of Brazil.
    Star+ : monovergisting mest van vleesvarkens
    Kasper, G.J. ; Verdoes, N. ; Classens, P.J.A.M. - \ 2015
    V-focus 12 (2015)1. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 29 - 31.
    varkenshouderij - vleesvee - vleesproductie - varkensstallen - innovaties - varkensmest - mestverwerking - scheiding - mestvergisting - biogas - beoordeling - pig farming - beef cattle - meat production - pig housing - innovations - pig manure - manure treatment - separation - manure fermentation - biogas - assessment
    De versgeproduceerde mest en de vermorste snijmais uit de innovatieve Star+- stal zijn onderzocht op samenstelling en gaspotentie. Daarbij lag de nadruk op de werking van de mestbanden, het optimale drogestofgehalte van de ingevoerde mest, de kwaliteit en kwantiteit van het biogas en de stabiliteit van het vergistingsproces.
    Kunnen we de schapen scheren? : marktkansen voor ongesubsidieerde gescheperde schaapskuddes in Noord-Brabant
    Schrijver, R.A.M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2629) - 29
    schapen - kuddes (herds) - begrazing - natuurgebieden - vleesvee - bedrijfseconomie - haalbaarheidsstudies - noord-brabant - sheep - herds - grazing - natural areas - beef cattle - business economics - feasibility studies - noord-brabant
    Onderzoek naar de haalbaarheid van financieel onafhankelijk opererende gescheperde schaapskuddes. Hieronder verstaan we kuddes die onder andere voor het beheer van natuurterreinen worden ingezet en waarbij een herder gedurende een groot deel van het jaar de begrazing in het terrein stuurt. Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat de meeste kuddes in Brabant (en daarbuiten) momenteel een groot financieel tekort hebben, helemaal wanneer de subsidie van de provincie zou wegvallen. Voor een ‘gemiddelde’ kudde met 250 ooien bedraagt het tekort ondanks die subsidie circa € 30.000 per jaar. De kuddes worden vooral ingezet voor het beheer van heideterreinen van de bekende natuurbeschermingsorganisaties Staatsbosbeheer, Natuurmonumenten en het Brabants Landschap. Deze terreinbeheerders betalen daarvoor een vast bedrag per dag dat de kudde in het terrein is. Per hectare omgerekend is dat bedrag veelal hoger dan de hectarevergoeding die de terreinbeheerders van de SNL-regeling ontvangen. Daarom legt ook de terreinbeheerder er zonder flankerende maatregelen (bijvoorbeeld via de PAS) nog flink op toe. De economische positie van de schaapskuddes is onder de huidige omstandigheden wankel.
    De relatieve duurzaamheid van de Nederlandse roodvleessector: een kwalitatieve vergelijking = A comparative study on the sustainability of the Dutch beef cattle production sector
    Bos, A.P. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 841) - 68
    duurzame veehouderij - vleesvee - vee- en vleesindustrie - nederland - ierse republiek - brazilië - varkenshouderij - pluimveehouderij - internationale vergelijkingen - vergelijkend onderzoek - veehouderij - sustainable animal husbandry - beef cattle - meat and livestock industry - netherlands - irish republic - brazil - pig farming - poultry farming - international comparisons - comparative research - livestock farming
    In this study the sustainability of Dutch specialized beef production is compared qualitatively with two other Dutch animal production systems (porc and broilers), and with beef production in Ireland and Brazil, the most prominent exporters of beef to the Dutch market with which the Dutch sector competes. The comparison is done along twelve of the fifteen long-term ambitions of the Dutch governance network ‘Uitvoeringsagenda Duurzame Veehouderij’.
    Analysis of animal welfare risks from unloading until slaughter: red meat livestock species
    Visser, E.K. ; Ouweltjes, W. ; Spoolder, H.A.M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : WUR Livestock Research - 48
    animal welfare - animal production - dairy cattle - beef cattle - pigs - sheep - horses - animal health - transport - slaughter - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - melkvee - vleesvee - varkens - schapen - paarden - diergezondheid - transport - slacht
    Hazards and adverse effects for the assessment of animal welfare on farm and during transport: A preliminary table for bulls, veal calves and slaughter pigs
    Visser, E.K. ; Ouweltjes, W. ; Spoolder, H.A.M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : WUR Livestock Research - 50
    animal welfare - animal production - beef cattle - veal calves - pigs - animal housing - transport - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - vleesvee - vleeskalveren - varkens - huisvesting, dieren - transport
    Extra snijmais goed voor welzijn varkens.
    Bracke, M.B.M. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Rotgers, G. ; Vermeer, H.M. - \ 2014
    V-focus 11 (2014)6. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 34 - 35.
    varkenshouderij - vleesvee - vleesproductie - varkensvoeding - dierenwelzijn - proefboerderijen - maïs - maïskuilvoer - varkensstallen - krachtvoeding - varkens - dierlijke productie - pig farming - beef cattle - meat production - pig feeding - animal welfare - experimental farms - maize - maize silage - pig housing - force feeding - pigs - animal production
    Vleesvarkens hebben graag een emmer snijmais. Dat blijkt uit praktijkonderzoek op Varkens Innovatie Centrum Sterksel, onderdeel van Wageningen UR. In vergelijking met stro heeft snijmais meer voederwaarde en het leidt minder snel tot verstoppingen in de mestput.
    Zwavelvoorziening op biologische veebedrijven
    Beeckman, A. ; Eekeren, N.J.M. van; Govaerts, W. ; Smolders, E.A.A. - \ 2014
    BioKennis bericht Zuivel & rundvlees (2014)30.
    zwavel - mineraaltekorten - biologische landbouw - eiwit - zwavelmeststoffen - melkveehouderij - vleesvee - schapen - geiten - diergezondheid - sulfur - mineral deficiencies - organic farming - protein - sulfur fertilizers - dairy farming - beef cattle - sheep - goats - animal health
    Door luchtverontreiniging kwam zwavel jarenlang gratis uit de lucht. Nu dit milieu­-probleem is opgelost krijgt de landbouw steeds meer te maken met zwaveltekorten. Zwavel is een essentieel element voor de vorming van verschillende aminozuren (o.a. methionine en cysteine) en daarmee van eiwit. Eiwitvorming is zowel belangrijk voor gewas als dierproductie dus zwaveltekorten komen bij beide voor.
    Emissies uit een vleesvarkensstal voorzien van een V-vormige mestband voor het gescheiden afvoeren van mest en urine = Emissions from a housing system for fattening pigs with a V-shaped manure belt for separated removal of faeces and urine
    Ellen, H.H. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Mosquera, J. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. - \ 2013
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 620) - 37
    varkenshouderij - vleesproductie - vleesvee - varkensmest - drijfmest - scheidingstechnologie - urine - emissie - reductie - stankemissie - fijn stof - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - ammoniakemissie - mestverwerking - meting - pig farming - meat production - beef cattle - pig manure - slurries - separation technology - urine - emission - reduction - odour emission - particulate matter - methane - nitrous oxide - ammonia emission - manure treatment - measurement
    This study reports the emissions of ammonia, odour, fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5), methane and nitrous oxide from an animal house for fattening pigs provided with V-shaped manure belts for separated removal of faeces and urine (the Kempfarm system).
    Quality handling : a multimedia-based cognitive-behavioural intervention program, improving attitudes and handling behaviours of stockpeople in livestock farming
    Ruis, Markus - \ 2013
    animal production - dairy cattle - beef cattle - hens - animal behaviour - animal health - training - education - human-animal relationships - animal welfare
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