Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Data presented in the paper "Are all patterns created equal? Cooperation is more likely in spatially simple habitats"
    Bertolini, Camilla ; Hlebowicz, Kasper ; Schlichta, Flavia ; Capelle, Jacob J. ; Koppel, Johan van de; Bouma, Tjeerd J. - \ 2020
    NIOZ Royal Institute for Sea Research
    NCE - aggregation - behaviour - mussel beds - predation risk - self-organisation
    experiments to understand effects of predator cue on aggregation behaviour and reciprocal attachment of mussels
    Are dual-purpose hens less fearful than conventional layer hybrids?
    Giersberg, Mona Franziska ; Spindler, Birgit ; Kemper, Nicole - \ 2020
    Veterinary Record 187 (2020)5. - ISSN 0042-4900
    behaviour - husbandry - laying hens - welfare

    Background: Excessive fear in farm animals can lead to chronic stress and thus impair animal welfare. In laying hens, fear responses in several behavioural tests have also been associated with the occurrence of feather pecking. The aim of the present study was to comparatively assess fear-related responses of conventional layer hybrids (Lohmann Brown plus, LB+) and dual-purpose hens (Lohmann Dual, LD), which seem to be less prone to injurious pecking. Methods: A novel object (NO) and an avoidance distance (AD) test were carried out in both hybrids at a group level and at different ages during the laying period in order to measure their fear-related responses. Results: On most study days, more LD hens approached the NO and they approached it sooner than the LB+ hens. Similarly, the LD hens retreated at smaller distances from a human being in the AD test. Conclusion: The results indicate that dual-purpose hens act less fearful in the performed behavioural tests compared with conventional layer hybrids. Therefore, dual-purpose hens might experience less stress during daily management routines, which would affect animal welfare positively.

    Kennisagenda klimaat en gezondheid
    Huynen, Maud ; Vliet, A.J.H. van; Staatsen, Brigit ; Zwartkruis, Joyce ; Kruize, Hanneke ; Betgen, C.D. ; Verboom, J. ; Martens, Pim - \ 2019
    Den Haag : ZonMw - 106 p.
    health - climate - care - behaviour
    Are all patterns created equal? Cooperation is more likely in spatially simple habitats
    Bertolini, Camilla ; Hlebowicz, Kasper ; Schlichta, Flavia ; Capelle, Jacob J. ; Koppel, Johan van de; Bouma, Tjeerd J. - \ 2019
    Marine Ecology 40 (2019)6. - ISSN 0173-9565 - 10 p.
    aggregation - behaviour - musselbeds - NCE - predation risk - self-organisation
    Cooperative behaviours, such as aggregation with neighbouring conspecifics, canenhance resilience in habitats where risks (i.e. predation, physical disturbances) are high, exerting positive feedback loops to maintain a healthy population. At the same time, cooperation behaviours can involve some extra energy expenditures and in‐ creasing resource competition. For sessile reefs, like mussels, simulation models predict increased cooperation under increasing levels of environmental stress. Predation risk is viewed as a behaviour‐modifying stressor, but its role on cooperation mechanisms, such as likelihood of reciprocity, has not yet been empirically tested. This study harnesses this framework to understand how cooperation changes under different perceived levels of predation risk, using mussel beds as model of a complex“self‐organised” system. Hence, we assessed the context dependency of cooperation response in different “landscapes of fear,” created by changes in predator cues, sub‐ stratum availability and body size. Our experiments demonstrated that i) cooperation in a mussel bed system increases when predator cues are present, but that this relationship was found to be both, ii) strongly context‐dependent, particularly upon substratum availability and iii) size‐dependent. That is, while cooperation is in general greater for larger individuals, the response to risk results in greater cooperation when alternative attachment substratum is absent, meaning that simpler landscapes may be perceived as riskier. The context dependency of structural complexity is also an essential finding to consider in a changing world where habitats are losing complexity and cooperative strategies should be maximised.
    Jasper de Vries: what creates our behaviour?
    Vries, J.R. de - \ 2018
    behaviour
    The effect of different eggshell temperature patterns during incubation on broiler chicken behavior determined by an automatic tracking system
    Molenaar, R. ; Haas, E.N. de; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Olde Bolhaar, Lara ; Wijnen, H.J. ; Brand, H. van den - \ 2018
    In: The XVth European Poultry Conference (EPC). - Zagreb, Croatia : Croatian Branch of the World's Poultry Science Association - ISBN 9789082915709 - p. 248 - 248.
    behaviour - broiler chicken - incubation - tracking - compensatory growth - delayed nutrition - early nutrition

    Elearning Cursus mens-dier interactie in de varkenshouderij
    Ruis, M.A.W. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research - 2
    dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - varkens - diergedrag - diergezondheid - huisvesting, dieren - varkenshouderij - gedrag - behandeling - animal welfare - animal production - pigs - animal behaviour - animal health - animal housing - pig farming - behaviour - treatment
    Hoe ervaart een varken de omgeving? En waarom is het van belang om hierbij stil te staan? Deze cursus richt zich op het belang van een goede mens-dier relatie, waarbij onder andere gekeken wordt naar de manier waarop een varken de wereld ervaart. Dit geeft inzicht in de manier van omgang, met als gevolg minder stress voor dier én mens. Het doel is een win-win situatie; het bevorderen van dierge - zondheid en dierenwelzijn dat onder andere zorgt voor meer werkplezier en meer benutting van het productie potentieel van het varken.
    Broiler chicken stocking density affects use of environmental enrichment objects
    Jong, I.C. de; Goertz, M. - \ 2017
    In: Xth European Symposium on Poultry Welfare. - - 2 p.
    broilers - Environmental enrichment - behaviour - stocking density - broilers - environmental enrichment - behaviour - stocking density
    The role of environmental shocks in shaping prosocial behavior
    Duchoslav, Jan - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.H. Bulte, co-promotor(en): F. Cecchi. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431477 - 190
    environment - behaviour - economic development - social behaviour - stress conditions - environmental temperature - physical properties - social environment - milieu - gedrag - economische ontwikkeling - sociaal gedrag - stress omstandigheden - omgevingstemperatuur - fysische eigenschappen - sociaal milieu

    All economic activity requires some degree of cooperation, and the process of economic development involves many social dilemmas. It is therefore crucial to understand how the preferences which guide our behavior vis-à-vis these situations are shaped. The ability and willingness to work for the benefit of the group rather than just one's own has evolved over many generations, and is – to some extent – innate to any healthy human being. At the same time, individual prosocial preferences are – also to a certain extent – endogenous to the physical and social environment within which we operate. This thesis identifies several ways in which environmental changes affect intrinsic prosocial preferences, and outlines a possible direction for fixing any such negative effects.

    In Chapter 1, I introduce the topic of prosocial preferences. I briefly describe how prosociality has been viewed over the course of scientific history, and summarize the current state of knowledge about the formation of social preferences. I further outline how extrinsic incentives can influence prosocial behavior without affecting the preferences which underpin it. Finally, the chapter contains an overview of the methodologies used throughout this thesis.

    In Chapter 2, I focus on an early formative factor of prosocial preferences—their fetal origins. I study how temperature shocks faced by pregnant women affect their children's later-life prosocial preferences. I find that exposure to higher than usual ambient temperatures during gestation reduces a child's probability of contribution to the public good, with the negative effect lasting into adulthood.

    Chapter 3 continues in the same vein as Chapter 2, looking at the fetal origins of prosocial preferences. In this chapter, I investigate how prenatal stress induced by random violence affects the preferences for cooperation among children born during an armed conflict. To do so, I exploit variations in the ratio of the lengths of the index and ring fingers—a marker of in utero hormone exposure negatively associated with high maternal distress during early fetal development. I show that prenatal stress reduces the probability that children contribute to the public good.

    In Chapter 4, I move away from the physical aspects of human environment, focusing instead on the social ones. I study the effects of a sudden introduction of a formal institution on individual cooperative behavior within informal arrangements. In particular, I look at how an NGO intervention which helped create a mutual health insurance affected cooperative behavior in a public goods game. I find that the introduction of formal insurance reduces contributions to the public good. This reduction in cooperation levels is, however, not due to the adopters of the formal insurance who may now have less need for informal reciprocal networks, and who therefore (partially) withdraw from them. It is instead the non-adopters who become less cooperative towards the adopters.

    To outline a possible direction for remedying the negative environmental effects on prosocial behavior described in the previous three chapters, I illustrate one of the ways in which prosocial behavior can be incentivized with a relatively simple and easily implementable policy. In Chapter 5, I evaluate the impact of introducing performance-based financial incentives on staff effort and, consequently, on allocative efficiency and output in healthcare provision. I show that in the case under investigation, financial incentives conditioned on output and worth roughly 5% of total expenditures increased staff effort to the extent that output rose by over 25%, without any detectable drop in the quality of the provided services. This not only shows the potential of incentive-compatible financing to improve the performance of underfunded healthcare systems in developing countries, but also that extrinsic motivation can be used to foster behavior which benefits the society rather than just the individual.

    Finally, I combine the main findings from the core chapters of the thesis in Chapter 6. I discuss their policy implications, and point out the some of the outstanding questions, outlining the directions for future research.

    Combining malaria control with rural electrification : social and behavioural factors that influenced the design, use and sustainability of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS) for malaria elimination on Rusinga Island, western Kenya
    Oria, Prisca A. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis; Willem Takken, co-promotor(en): J. Alaii. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578579 - 176
    malaria - vector control - public health - culicidae - insect traps - social factors - behaviour - design - solar energy - kenya - malaria - vectorbestrijding - volksgezondheid - culicidae - insectenvallen - sociale factoren - gedrag - ontwerp - zonne-energie - kenya

    Chapter 1 presents the background information relevant to the subject matter and methods of this thesis. These include the application of social and behavioural sciences in malaria control, the SolarMal project and malaria in Kenya. It also presents the research objective, question and design that informed this thesis.

    Chapter 2 systematically documented and analysed how the mosquito trapping technology and related social contexts mutually shaped each other and how this mutual shaping impacted the design and re-design of the intervention. Our analysis focused on the design, re-design and piloting of the innovative approach to controlling malaria largely before its field implementation had started. During the pre-intervention year, various aspects of the intervention were re-designed ahead of the project roll-out. Changes to the technology design included removal of carbon dioxide from the blend, trap improvements and re- design of the electricity provision system. In order to gain and maintain the support of the community and organisations on the island, the project adapted its implementation strategies regarding who should represent the community in the project organisation team, who should receive solar-powered mosquito trapping systems (SMoTS), and in which order the systems should be rolled out. This process involved not only the project team and the producers of the different components of SMoTS, but also included feedback from the residents of Rusinga Island. This process of incorporating feedback from a broad range of stakeholders utilized data from the entomological, technical and socio-behavioural researches as well as data from more broad engagements with the social environment of the study population and setting. The analysis demonstrates how system innovation theory helps to provide insights into how a promising malaria control intervention evolves and matures through an interaction between technical and social phenomena. This part of the study demonstrated that SolarMal was not only a technical innovation, but similar to other malaria strategies, required new social organisational arrangements to go with it.

    In chapter 3, this thesis investigated immediate community response to the innovation and the implications for ongoing implementation and supportive community communication outreach. The explorations found that the main benefit of SMoTS to study participants was house lighting and suggested that the main reason that people adhered to recommended behaviours for SMoTS deployment was to ensure uninterrupted lighting at night, rather than reducing mosquito biting or malaria risk. Electrification led to a number of immediate benefits including reduced expenditure on kerosene and telephone charging and conveniences (such as lit early mornings and late nights, increased study hours, etc.). The changes brought about by electric lighting provided conveniences which improved the welfare of residents. Some respondents also reported hearing fewer mosquito sounds when interviewed a few weeks after a SMoTS was installed in their house. On the question of maintenance, we found that residents of Rusinga Island adequately maintained SMoTS. Households also reported maintenance needs to the project and project technicians carried out repair and maintenance needs.

    Chapter 4 documented the perceived impact of SMoTs on family dynamics, social and economic status, and the community as a whole. The findings suggest that even when the use of energy is restricted, electricity can enhance the value of life. Although data on malaria prevention was yet to be fully collected and analysed, there was evidence of enhanced socio-economic and emotional well-being of study participants which may enhance the desire to sustain the intervention. In the end, this may be a double-edged intervention that delivers health benefits and contributes to improved welfare. The utility, social significance and emotional benefits experienced with the lighting component of SMoTS may create the desire to sustain the intervention. However, the motivation to sustain the whole SMoTS will also depend on the results of the entomological and parasitological components of this intervention.

    Chapter 5 evaluated the knowledge, perceptions and practices related to malaria control before and after the roll-out of solar-powered mosquito trapping systems. As a malaria control strategy, SMoTS were installed in Rusinga to complement the existing use of long- lasting insecticidal nets (LLINS) and prompt malaria care seeking. The message about the complementariness of SMoTS as a malaria strategy was further stressed during social mobilisation to encourage continued use of LLINs and prompt malaria care seeking. The findings suggest that overall, the SolarMal project did not induce a negative effect of the innovation on the uptake of existing malaria strategies. The continuation of LLIN use and recommended malaria treatment seeking was likely contributed to by the social mobilisation component of the SolarMal intervention as well as a mass distribution of LLINs campaign, suggesting the need for a strong continuous demand generation exercise. The number of respondents who reported that mosquito densities had reduced was much higher at the end of the research phase confirming that the recorded entomological changes (that showed SMoTS had proved effective in controlling mosquitoes) had also been experienced by residents.

    Chapter 6 investigated whether the community preferred individual or cooperative solutions for organising the sustainability components of SMoTS, and whether and how known social dilemma factors could be recognised in the reasoning of actors. The findings of the explorations of sustainability of installed SMoTS beyond the research period did not portray a promising picture. While residents were unanimous that they would like to continue enjoying the benefits of SMoTS (especially house electrification), it appeared that residents preferred largely individual approaches. Yet the individual approaches suggested by residents for sustaining SMoTS may be realistic for sustaining only the lighting component. Sustaining the mosquito control component, which is what would impact malaria, requires more resources (than the lighting component) and may be better facilitated by more collective undertakings by residents. Residents expressed concerns about working collectively with others that seemed to suggest that the situation had features of a social dilemma.

    Chapter 7 synthesises the main findings. Subsequently, this results in the overall conclusions of the thesis that are discussed within the broader debates on research and policy. This thesis shows that SolarMal was not only a technical innovation, but required new social organisational arrangements to go with it. The intervention was a composite of which the technical component was one and focussing on it without the others may have negative implications for effectiveness. By implication, the scaling up of SMoTS will also require scaling-up the intervention process and social organisation that played a role in its effectiveness in the trial setting. This thesis also demonstrates the importance of flexibility and continuous learning in multiple spheres in a complex multidisciplinary innovative intervention to control malaria. The key addition to the knowledge base for similar public health programs is that intervention design is not a one-off occurrence and neither is implementation a linear process. Social science research was a core component in this process and the process required not only integrating social inquiry into the design, but also into planning, implementation, and monitoring. This contributed to ensuring that flexibility and adaptability to the local realities were built into the SolarMal intervention and contributed to the success of the intervention. Rather than project management, persons involved in rolling-out innovations should perhaps focus on adaptive and proactive management and on facilitating change. While managing emphasises control and certainty, an innovation process requires flexibility to allow continuous adaptations which characterise the process. In practice, this means keeping attuned to perceiving signals, analysing feedback loops and using those signals to mitigate what is not going well or amplify what is going well.

    Quantitative and ecological aspects of Listeria monocytogenes population heterogeneity
    Metselaar, K.I. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marcel Zwietering; Tjakko Abee, co-promotor(en): Heidy den Besten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577664 - 173
    listeria - listeria monocytogenes - stress - stress tolerance - ribosomes - proteins - lactobacillus plantarum - behaviour - ecological assessment - genome analysis - dna sequencing - resistance - heterogeneity - listeria - listeria monocytogenes - stress - stresstolerantie - ribosomen - eiwitten - lactobacillus plantarum - gedrag - ecologische beoordeling - genoomanalyse - dna-sequencing - weerstand - heterogeniteit

    Bacterial stress response and heterogeneity therein is one of the biggest challenges posed by minimal processing. Heterogeneity and resulting tailing representing a more resistant fraction of the population, can have several causes and can be transient or stably in nature. Stable increased stress resistance is caused by alterations in the genome and therefore inheritable and is referred to as stable stress resistant variants. Also L. monocytogenes exhibits a heterogeneous response upon stress exposure which can be partially attributed to the presence of stable stress resistant variants. Adverse environments were shown to select for stable stress resistant variants. The objective of the research described in this thesis was to evaluate if L. monocytogenes population diversity and the presence of stable resistant variants is a general phenomenon that is observed upon different types of stress exposure, to get more insight in the mechanisms leading to increased resistance and to evaluate the ecological behaviour and potential impact on food safety of these stable resistant variants. Acid stress was chosen as it is an important hurdle both in food preservation, as well as in stomach survival.

    First, the non-linear inactivation kinetics of L. monocytogenes upon acid exposure were quantitatively described. A commonly used biphasic inactivation model was reparameterized, which improved the statistical performance of the model and resulted in more accurate estimation of the resistant fraction within L. monocytogenes WT populations. The observed tailing suggested that stable stress resistant variants might also be found upon acid exposure. Indeed, 23 stable acid resistant variants of L. monocytogenes LO28 were isolated from the tail after exposure of late-exponential phase cells to pH 3.5 for 90 min, with different degrees of acid resistance amongst them. Increased acid resistance showed to be significantly correlated to reduced growth rate. Studying the growth boundaries of the WT and a representative set of variants indicated that the increased resistance of the variants was only related to survival of severe pH stress but did not allow for better growth or survival at mild pH stress.
    A set of variants were further characterized phenotypically and cluster analysis was performed. This resulted in three clusters and four individual variants and revealed multiple-stress resistance, with both unique and overlapping features related to stress resistance, growth, motility, biofilm formation and virulence indicators. A higher glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity correlated with increased acid resistance. Whole genome sequencing of a set of variants was performed and revealed mutations in rpsU, encoding ribosomal protein S21. This rpsU mutation was found in all 11 variants comprising the largest phenotypic cluster, indicating a potential role of this ribosomal protein in stress resistance. Mutations in ctsR, which were previously shown to be responsible for increased resistance of heat and HHP resistant variants, were not found in the acid resistant variants. This underlined that large population diversity exists within one L. monocytogenes strain and that different adverse conditions drive selection for different variants.

    Next, the performance in mixed species biofilms with Lactobacillus plantarum was evaluated, as well as their benzalkonium chloride (BAC) resistance in these biofilms. It was hypothesized that the acid resistant variants might also show better survival in biofilms with L. plantarum, which provide an acidic environment by lactose fermentation with pH values below the growth boundary of L. monocytogenes when biofilms mature. L. monocytogenes LO28 WT and eight acid resistant variants were capable of forming mixed biofilms with L. plantarum at 20°C and 30°C in BHI supplemented with manganese and glucose. Some of the variants were able to withstand the low pH in the mixed biofilms for a longer time than the WT and there were clear differences in survival between the variants which could not be correlated to (lactic) acid resistance alone. Adaptation to mild pH of liquid cultures during growth to stationary phase increased the acid resistance of some variants to a greater extent than of others, which could be correlated to increased survival in the mixed biofilms. There were no clear differences in BAC resistance between the wild type and variants in mixed biofilms.

    Lastly, a set of robustness and fitness parameters of WT and variants was obtained and used to model their growth behaviour under combined mild stress conditions and to model their performance in a simulated food chain. This gave more insight in the trade-off between increased stress resistance and growth capacity. Predictions of performance were validated in single and mixed cultures by plate counts and by qPCR in which WT and an rpsU deletion variant were distinguished by specific primers. Growth predictions for WT and rpsU deletion variant were matching the experimental data generally well. Globally, the variants are more robust than the WT but the WT grows faster than most variants. Validation of performance in a simulated food chain consisting of subsequent growth and inactivation steps, confirmed the trend of higher growth fitness and lower stress robustness for the WT compared to the rpsU variant. This quantitative data set provides insights into the conditions which can select for stress resistant variants in industrial settings and their potential persistence in food processing environments.

    In conclusion, the work presented in this thesis highlights the population diversity of L. monocytogenes and the impact of environmental conditions on the population composition, which is of great importance for minimal processing. The work of this thesis resulted in more insight in the mechanisms underlying increased resistance of stress resistant variants and quantitative data on the behaviour of stress resistant variants which can be implemented in predictive microbiology and quantitative risk assessments aiming at finding the balance between food safety and food quality.

    Evidence from pyrosequencing indicates that natural variation in animal personality is associated with DRD4 DNA methylation
    Verhulst, Eveline C. ; Mateman, A.C. ; Zwier, Mathijs V. ; Caro, Samuel P. ; Verhoeven, Koen J.F. ; Oers, Kees Van - \ 2016
    Molecular Ecology 25 (2016)8. - ISSN 0962-1083 - p. 1801 - 1811.
    behaviour - birds - DNA methylation - epigenetics - personality

    Personality traits are heritable and respond to natural selection, but are at the same time influenced by the ontogenetic environment. Epigenetic effects, such as DNA methylation, have been proposed as a key mechanism to control personality variation. However, to date little is known about the contribution of epigenetic effects to natural variation in behaviour. Here, we show that great tit (Parus major) lines artificially selected for divergent exploratory behaviour for four generations differ in their DNA methylation levels at the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene. This D4 receptor is statistically associated with personality traits in both humans and nonhuman animals, including the great tit. Previous work in this songbird failed to detect functional genetic polymorphisms within DRD4 that could account for the gene-trait association. However, our observation supports the idea that DRD4 is functionally involved in exploratory behaviour but that its effects are mediated by DNA methylation. While the exact mechanism underlying the transgenerational consistency of DRD4 methylation remains to be elucidated, this study shows that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in shaping natural variation in personality traits. We outline how this first finding provides a basis for investigating the epigenetic contribution to personality traits in natural systems and its subsequent role for understanding the ecology and evolution of behavioural consistency.

    Sustainable consumption and marketing
    Dam, Y.K. van - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hans van Trijp. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576490 - 176
    consumer behaviour - marketing - consumption - household consumption - market research - decision making - behavioural changes - behaviour - economic psychology - sustainability - consumentengedrag - marketing - consumptie - huishoudelijke consumptie - marktonderzoek - besluitvorming - gedragsveranderingen - gedrag - economische psychologie - duurzaamheid (sustainability)

    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the ‘importance’ of ‘sustainability’ has a meaning that is not directly translated into purchases.

    The cognitive and motivational perceptual structures of sustainability among light users of sustainable products are empirically compared to the Brundlandt definition (needs of future generations) and the Triple-P-Baseline (people, planet, prosperity) definition of sustainability. Results show that light users cognitively can distinguish between the social and temporal dimensions of the Brundlandt definition, as well as the people, planet and prosperity dimensions of the Triple-P definition of sustainability. In the motivational structure of light users of sustainable products, all attributes that do not offer direct and personal benefits are collapsed into a single dimension. This single dimension explains purchases more parsimoniously than a more complex structure, and is itself explained by a set of psychographic predictors that appears to be related to identity.

    Perceived relevance and determinance are two distinct constructs, underlying the overall concept of attribute importance. Attribute relevance is commonly measured by self-reported importance in a Likert type scale. In order to measure attribute determinance a survey based measure is developed. In an empirical survey (N=1543) determinance of sustainability related product attributes is measured through a set of forced choice items and contrasted to self-reported relevance of those attributes. In line with expectations, a priori determinance predicts sustainable food choice more efficiently than perceived relevance. Determinance of sustainability related product attributes can be predicted by future temporal orientation, independently of relevance of these attributes.

    These results support an interpretation of the attitude to behaviour gap in terms of construal level theory, and this theory allows for testable hypotheses on low construal motivators that should induce light users to purchase sustainable products. Sustainable consumption is viewed as a dilemma between choices for immediate (low construal) benefits and choices that avoid long-term collective (high construal) harm.

    Identity theory suggests that self-confirmation could be a driving motive behind the performance of norm-congruent sustainable behaviour. Through identity people may acquire the intrinsic motivation to carry out pro-environmental behaviour. This view is tested in two empirical studies in The Netherlands. The first study shows that sustainable identity predicts sustainable preference, and that the effect of identity on preference is partly mediated by self-confirmation motives. The second study confirms that sustainable identity influences the determinance of sustainable attributes, and through this determinance has an impact on sustainable product choice. This effect is partly mediated by stated relevance of these attributes.

    Sustainable certification signals positive sustainable quality of a product, but fail to create massive demand for such products. Based on regulatory focus theory and prospect theory it is argued that negative signalling of low sustainable quality would have a stronger effect on the adoption of sustainable products than the current positive signalling of high sustainable quality. The effects of positive vs. negative signalling of high vs. low sustainable quality on attitude and preference formation are tested in three experimental studies. Results show (1) that negative labelling has a larger effect on attitude and preference than positive labelling, (2) that the effect of labelling is enhanced by regulatory fit, and (3) that the effect of labelling is mediated by personal norms, whereas any additional direct effect of environmental concern on preference formation is negligible.

    Overall the present thesis suggests that the attitude to behaviour gap in sustainable consumption can be explained as a conflict between high construal motives for the abstract and distant goals of sustainable development and the low construal motives that drive daily consumption. Activating low construal motives for sustainable consumption, be it intrinsic motives to affirm a sustainable self-concept or loss aversion motives, increases sustainable consumer behaviour. Applying these insights to marketing decision making opens a new line of research into the individual, corporate, and institutional drivers that may contribute to the sustainable development of global food markets.

    Data from: Baculovirus infection triggers a positive phototactic response in caterpillars (a response to Dobson et al. Biol Letters 2015)
    Houte, Stineke van; Oers, Monique van; Han, Yue ; Vlak, Just ; Ros, Vera - \ 2015
    Wageningen University & Research
    baculovirus - ecology - behaviour - evolution - phototaxis - behavioural manipulation
    We recently reported that baculovirus Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) triggers positive phototaxis in Spodoptera exigua larvae, leading to death at elevated positions. Dobson et al. [1] (University of Stirling, Scotland) question our interpretation of the data. Unfortunately, Dobson et al. rely on unwarranted assumptions possibly reflecting a poor understanding of baculovirus–insect pathobiology, make invalid comparisons and fail to take relevant literature into account. Here, we recapitulate the context and interpretation of our experiments and highlight the misinterpretations by Dobson et al.
    Data from: Evidence from pyrosequencing indicates that natural variation in animal personality is associated with DRD4 DNA methylation
    Verhulst, E.C. ; Mateman, A.C. ; Zwier, Mathijs V. ; Caro, Samuel P. ; Verhoeven, K.J.F. ; Oers, Kees van - \ 2015
    Wageningen University & Research
    epigenetics - behaviour - personality - DNA methylation - birds
    Contain all the individual methylation levels per CpG position for assays A-D. Each tab ($data_$assay_$tissuetype) contains the results from one pyrosequence run and one type of tissue (blood or brain). The columns indicate: SampleID: bird sample Note: EEB score, F is Fast exploring, S is Slow exploring Pos. 1 Meth%: Methylation percentage for CpG position 1 in assayB Pos. 2 Meth%: Methylation percentage for CpG position 2 in assayB Etc. Cell colours indicate quality scores In green: highly reliable methylation scores In yellow: reliable methylation scores In pink: unreliable methylation scores (not used in downstream analyses) SampleID with *_replicate indicates that the DNA sample with this number was used in duplo on this plate for within assay analysis.
    I was totally there! : understanding engagement in entertainment-ducation narratives
    Leeuwen, L. van - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis; S.J.H.M. Putte, co-promotor(en): Reint-Jan Renes. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573369 - 153
    communicatie - communicatietheorie - volksgezondheid - alcoholisme - vertier - onderwijs - drinken - gedrag - psychologie - adolescenten - educatieve televisie - communication - communication theory - public health - alcoholism - entertainment - education - drinking - behaviour - psychology - adolescents - educational television

    Summary

    I was totally there!: Understanding engagement in entertainment-education narratives

    By Lonneke van Leeuwen

    Introduction
    Narratives have the power to influence their recipients’ health behaviors. With the entertainment-education (E-E) strategy, health organizations turn this narrative power to good account by employing narratives in their health promoting campaigns. E-E programs, mostly in the form of televised narratives, have been shown to effectively encourage a variety of health-related behaviors. Because of these positive results, the E-E strategy is considered a promising communication strategy to encourage healthy behaviors. One quality of E-E narratives that has been shown to be crucial for narrative impact is the ability of E-E narratives to engage target recipients. Engaged recipients may experience four dimensions of narrative engagement (NE): narrative understanding, attentional focus, emotional engagement, and narrative presence. Although evidence is growing that NE plays a role in E-E narratives’ impact (hereafter: E-E impact), little is known about how NE leads to E-E impact and about how NE emerges in recipients of narratives.

    Objective
    The objective of this dissertation is to provide a better understanding of NE in E-E narratives, by investigating how NE is associated with E-E narratives’ impact, and by investigating the processes that contribute to experiencing NE.

    Context
    The studies described in this dissertation are conducted within the context of NE in E-E narratives aiming to discourage alcohol (binge) drinking among adolescents and young adults. In 2008, the televised E-E drama series Roes (High in English) was broadcast on national television. Roes consists of 11 case stories (25 minutes each) portraying negative experiences and outcomes of adolescent protagonist(s) drinking alcohol and/or using other drugs.

    Research questions
    Three research questions are addressed in this dissertation:
    RQ1: Does Roes discourage alcohol (binge) drinking in E-E narrative recipients?
    RQ2a: Are NE dimensions associated with E-E impact on alcohol (binge) drinking?
    And, if so:
    RQ2b: Do negative and positive thoughts about alcohol (binge) drinking mediate associations between NE dimensions and E-E impact on alcohol (binge) drinking?
    RQ3: Which psychological processes experienced during narrative reception contribute to experiencing NE dimensions?

    Main findings
    This dissertation has shown that Roes discouraged alcohol (binge) drinking. Viewing multiple episodes of Roes positively predicted a decrease in alcoholic drinks consumed per occasion, an increase in the intention to decrease alcohol use, and an increase in perceived normative pressure. One year after exposure, the impact on the intention to decrease alcohol use was still present. One of the Roes episodes, Verliefd (In love in English), was further examined. After the participants had viewed this episode, their beliefs relating to the negative outcomes of alcohol binge drinking (BD) were more contra-BD as compared to their beliefs prior to viewing the episode. Attitudes towards BD and willingness to engage in BD also became more contra-BD.

    Then, the roles of the NE dimensions attentional focus, narrative understanding, emotional engagement, and narrative presence in E-E impact were investigated. It was shown that the NE dimensions attentional focus, emotional engagement, and narrative presence were positively associated with E-E impact. Attentional focus was associated both with stronger beliefs about the severity of the negative outcomes of BD and with a lowered intention to engage in BD. Emotional engagement and narrative presence were associated with stronger beliefs that BD leads to negative outcomes (negative outcome beliefs), and with stronger beliefs about being vulnerable to these negative outcomes (vulnerability beliefs). Surprisingly, the NE dimension narrative understanding was associated with increased willingness to engage in BD.

    No evidence was found that negative thoughts about BD mediated associations between NE dimensions and E-E impact. Relations between NE dimensions, positive thoughts about BD, and E-E impact could not be investigated: only one participant reported a positive thought about BD in response to Verliefd. Based on these findings we conclude that attentional focus, emotional engagement, and narrative presence are important for E-E impact, and that thoughts about BD do not play a role therein.

    Because NE dimensions were found to be associated with E-E impact, it was investigated which psychological processes contribute to NE dimensions. Negative thoughts about the perceptual persuasiveness of Verliefd negatively associated with emotional engagement and narrative presence. Furthermore, it was shown that enjoyment of Verliefd was a strong contributor to NE, mainly through contributing to attentional focus. Another strong contributor to NE was narrative realism, mainly through contributing to narrative understanding. Finally, personal relevance, character involvement, and perceived severity contributed mainly through emotional engagement.

    This dissertation shows that E-E narratives can be an effective health communication strategy to discourage alcohol (binge) drinking in young people. Furthermore, this dissertation provides health communication researchers and media psychologists with insights into the role of NE in E-E impact, and offers E-E developers practical recommendations about how to create engaging and impactful E-E narratives.

    Gefocuste eter luistert beter naar lichaam
    Veer, Evelien van de - \ 2013
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    school lunches - cafeterias - pupils - intermediate vocational training - nutrition and health - health foods - behaviour - consumption patterns
    Check title to add to marked list
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