Optimizing soil and water management in dryland farming systems in Cabo Verde
Santos Baptista Costa, I. Dos - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Coen Ritsema; Violette Geissen, co-promotor(en): Luuk Fleskens. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577367 - 189
water management - soil management - farming systems - dry farming - optimization - watershed management - watersheds - runoff - erosion control - cape verde - waterbeheer - bodembeheer - bedrijfssystemen - dry farming - optimalisatie - beheer van waterbekkens - stroomgebieden - oppervlakkige afvoer - erosiebestrijding - kaapverdië
Soil and land degradation poses a great challenge for sustainable development worldwide and, in Cabo Verde, has strongly affected both people’s livelihood and the environment. Dryland food production in Cabo Verde faces steep slopes, inadequate practices, irregular intense rain, recurrent droughts, high runoff rates, severe soil erosion and declining soil fertility, leading to the inefficient use of rainwater. Despite the enormous investment in soil and water conservation measures (SWC), land degradation due to water erosion is still rife and dryland crop productivity remains low. Sustainable land management (SLM) techniques that reduce runoff, erosion and nutrient loss are the key to mitigating/preventing land degradation and assuring long-term soil productivity.
This thesis investigated soil and water management techniques for Cabo-Verdean dryland farming systems to increase the efficiency of rainwater and crop yield, combining traditional and scientific knowledge in a field-based participatory approach. Field experiments were conducted in different agro-ecological zones of the Santiago Island aiming to evaluate the effects of water conservation techniques (mulching of crop residue, soil surfactant and pigeon-pea hedges) combined with organic amendments (compost and animal or green manure) on runoff, erosion, soil nutrients and crop yield. The PESERA-DESMICE modelling approach allowed assessing the biophysical and socio-economic benefits of the promising SLM techniques against a local baseline condition and their potential application at larger scale, under climate variability.
Following the general introduction (chapter 1), chapter 2 of the thesis reviews the national strategies towards building resilience against the harsh environmental conditions, analyses the state of land degradation and its drivers, surveys the existing SWC measures, and assesses their effectiveness against land degradation and in supporting people’s livelihoods. The analysis allows inferring that the relative success of Cabo Verde in tackling desertification and rural poverty is due to an integrated governance strategy that comprises awareness raising, institutional framework development, financial resource allocation, capacity building, and active participation of rural communities. The chapter provides a panoramic view of the importance of SWC measures for Cabo Verde drylands and recommends further specific, science-based assessment of the biophysical and socioeconomic impact of SLM and potential for upscaling.
Chapter 3, first, discusses the participatory approach used in selecting the SLM techniques that are field-tested in this research and, then, evaluates the effects of the selected water conservation techniques combined with organic amendments on the generation of runoff and soil loss from rain-fed agricultural fields compared with traditional farmers’ practices. The chapter also discusses the main factors influencing runoff and soil loss in semiarid dryland hilly areas, including the degree of soil cover, rainfall amount and erosivity, slope and soil infiltration rate. Runoff was significantly reduced only with the treatments containing mulch on slopes >10% and in the treatment containing surfactant and organic amendment on slopes <10%. Observed soil erosion rates were highest for the silty-clay-loam soil, followed by the sandy-loam soil and the loamy-soil, reaching a maximum value of 17 Mg ha-1 in the traditional practice, but were reduced by more than 50% with the SLM techniques. Residue mulch and pigeon-pea combined with an organic amendment (T3) almost eliminated runoff and erosion from agricultural fields even on steep slopes, contributing to improved use of rainwater at the plot level. The chapter recommends that SLM techniques, such as T3, be advocated and promoted for the semiarid hillsides of Cabo Verde prone to erosion to increase rainwater-use and to prevent further soil degradation.
As soil erosion, runoff and related nutrient losses constitute a high risk to soil fertility in Cabo Verde drylands, chapter 4 focuses on the effects of the techniques tested in chapter 3 on erosion and runoff related nutrient losses (NO3-N and PO4-P) and on crop productivity. The traditional system lost significantly higher amounts of both NO3-N and PO4-P than the tested SLM techniques, with the T3 technology reducing soil loss, runoff and nutrient losses to nearly a 100%. Nutrient losses from the amended plots were low, while the significant losses from the traditional system could result in long-term nutrient depletion in the soil. The treatments did not consistently increase crop yield or biomass in all three sites, but the combination of organic amendment with soil surfactant increased both crop yield and biomass in some cases. T3 was the best treatment for steep slope areas, although it is crucial to manage the pigeon-pea hedges to achieve higher maize yield. For flatter areas with deeper soils, the combination of organic amendment with soil surfactant could be a less expensive and effective choice. The chapter identifies and recommends SLM techniques to prevent nutrient depletion, improve dryland crop yield and avoid further land degradation due to erosion by water, both in steep slope areas and flatter areas.
Given the potential of the SLM techniques, but also significant spatial-temporal yield variability, chapter 5 considers the PESERA-DESMICE modelling approach to capture a greater range of climatic conditions and evaluate the biophysical and socio-economic benefits of the promising SLM technique (residue mulch combined with pigeon-pea hedges and an organic amendment - T3) against the traditional baseline practice of maize-bean intercropping (T0). It also evaluates the potential for upscaling the selected technique at Island scale. From stations in semi-arid and sub humid climates, long-term historic rainfall statistics allowed construction of 50-year rainfall realizations providing a unique time-series of rainfall scenarios and an envelope of the potential biomass production. T3 elevates yield under both sub-humid and semi-arid climates with greater security for sub-humid areas even though risk of crop failure still exists. The T3 technology offered good potential to increase yields by 20% in 42% of the area and reduce erosion by 8.6 Mg ha-1, but in terms of cost effectiveness, it might be prohibitively expensive for farmers lacking inputs. Such findings can inform policy options or influence adoption of conservation measures under the climatic variability of the Cabo Verde drylands and resilience to future climate change.
The thesis ends with a synthesis chapter (6) that presents the research findings, highlights the new contributions made to the current scientific debates on Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) technologies for sub-Saharan Africa, sustainable intensification and land degradation neutrality. The T3 technology can be a promising CSA practice that could be widely used by smallholder farmers in semiarid regions to maintain food production and secure farmers’ livelihoods, while contributing to ecosystem services by storing water in the soil. The synthesis concludes with policy recommendations for optimizing soil and water management on hilly drylands to prevent further degradation.
Hence, the thesis presents options to support moving from degrading and low yielding land management practices towards more sustainable land intensification in hilly drylands that reduce runoff and soil loss, increase crop nutrient and crop productivity, ultimately, contributing to the mitigation/adaptation of climate change, food security and land degradation neutrality in Cabo Verde.
PES, peasants and power in Andean watersheds : power relations and payment for environmental services in Colombia and Ecuador
Rodriguez de Francisco, J.C. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent, co-promotor(en): Rutgerd Boelens; J. Budds. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737861 - 179
hulpbronnenbeheer - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - beheer van waterbekkens - ecosysteemdiensten - inheemse volkeren - plattelandsgemeenschappen - milieubeleid - andes - colombia - ecuador - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - resource management - natural resources - watershed management - ecosystem services - indigenous people - rural communities - environmental policy - andes - colombia - ecuador - peasant farming
During the last decade, the market environmentalist policy model of Payment for Environmental Services (PES) has become a widely promoted and implemented conservation and development tool, around the world as well as in the Andean countries Colombia and Ecuador. For upstream peasant indigenous communities in the Andes, the great expansion of this policy model has meant an increased level of negotiations and interactions with a wide range of downstream water users and conservation agencies. However, there is not a clear understanding of how power dynamics influence the terms of exchange in watershed PES schemes, and the implications that these dynamics have for peasant indigenous control of, and access to, natural resources. The main research question of this thesis is: How do power relations influence the promotion of PES as a policy model and the crafting and operation of PES (-like) projects, and how in turn do these influence natural resource management and control by PES-targeted peasant communities, in the Andean regions of Colombia and Ecuador? The cases included in this thesis show how the impacts of these forms of power influencing PES schemes are variegated, but for the poorest they appear to work toward the deeper entrenching of the status quo, which in most cases implies confirmation and extension of unequal access and rights to natural resources.
Participatory integrated watershed management in the north-western highlands of Rwanda
Kagabo, M.D. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Saskia Visser. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735492 - 104
integraal waterbeheer - waterbeheer - beheer van waterbekkens - stroomgebieden - hooglanden - duurzaam bodemgebruik - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - rwanda - integrated water management - water management - watershed management - watersheds - highlands - sustainable land use - sustainability - rwanda
This thesis is the result of assessments on the extent of existing resource use and management practices using a Participatory Integrated Watershed Management (PIWM) as a viable approach to promote best soil water conservation (SWC) measures towards more sustainable land use. The study was conducted in two contrasting agro-ecological zones of the north-western highlands of Rwanda, namely; Gataraga and Rwerere in the framework of “Agasozi ndatwa” referred to as PIWM. "Agasozi ndatwa" program is implemented at watershed scale and involves investments from the government in establishing soil and water conservation structures as well as other development related activities. A stratification sampling approach was used in selecting the study area. The first strata consisted of a watershed and the second-level of strata consisted of villages. Two villages with boundaries that nearly coincided with that of the micro-watershed were selected.The studywas started by assessing the ecological and economic sustainability of smallholder farms using the level of nitrogen recycling between farm activities and farm income as indicators. Soil fertility management components including farm inputs and improved farming systems combined with the knowledge on how to adapt these practices to local conditions at field, farm and watershed levels were evaluated. Following a proper participatory assessment of soil and water conservation, a field experiment was conducted to explore the efficiency of 20+ year old slow forming terraces in farmer’s fields. Finally, the impact of PIWM activities on Natural Resource Management (NRM), crops and livestock productivity on farmers’ livelihoodwas assessed and the integration of several policies that are operating simultaneously in the watershed was evaluated.Nutrient balances and flows differed for the two agro-ecological zones due to differences in crop management and the importance of livestock. Positive nutrient balances were found for relatively fertile volcanic soils, but on steep slopes and acidic soils, N, P and K stocks were declining at rates of 8.6, 1.4 and 17.5 kg ha-1 year-1, respectively. Nitrogen recycling between farm activities was low, varying between 1.8 and 6 %, which may decrease the adaptability and reliability of the current farming systems. Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) component treatments comprising thecombination of fertilizer, FYM and improved seeds significantly increased yields but resulted (i) in a lower Nitrogen Agronomic Efficiency (N-AE) across sites and on relatively fertile foot slopes and (ii) in a lower marginal rates of return (MRR) due to the high cost of seeds and N fertilizer. Slow forming terraces of 20+ year old showed a marked “within” spatial difference in both soil quality and crop yield. The soil in the lower part of the terraces showed as much as 57% more organic carbon content and 31% more available phosphorous than the soil in the upper part. The marked soil fertility gradients indicate that the sustainability of slow-forming terraces is threatened, unless a site-specific fertilizer strategy is developed. Results suggest that an PIWM approach has the potential of improving farmers’ livelihoods and increasing the resilience of a degraded environment. Furthermore, due to PIWM approach, synergy of policies was effective leading to (i) positive impact on the size and composition of livestock, (2) the availability and use of manure, (3) the increase of production of fodder and (4) the reduction of soil loss.
Final report on impact of catchment scale processes and climate change on cause-effect and recovery-chains
Verdonschot, P.F.M. ; Keizer-Vlek, H.E. ; Spears, B. ; Brucet, S. ; Johnson, R. ; Feld, C. ; Kernan, M. - \ 2012
Brussel : European Commission - 116
ecologisch herstel - beheer van waterbekkens - rivieren - meren - estuaria - kustwateren - degradatie - biologische indicatoren - verzuring - eutrofiëring - morfologie - ecologische beoordeling - ecological restoration - watershed management - rivers - lakes - estuaries - coastal water - degradation - biological indicators - acidification - eutrophication - morphology - ecological assessment
Catchment wide integrated basin management requires knowledge on cause-effect and recovery chains within water bodies as well as on the interactions between water bodies and categories. In the WISER WP6.4 recovery processes in rivers, lakes and estuarine and coastal waters were evaluated. The major objectives were: - to analyse and compare (cause-effect and) recovery chains within water categories based on processes and structural and functional features; - to detect commonalities among different chains in different water categories ( to compare recovery chains between water categories); - to link recovery chains to over-arching biological processes and global change; - to develop a method to combine recovery effects in a summarising ‘catchment’ metric. The main stressors studied to reach these objectives were acidification, eutrophication and hydromorphological changes.
Participatory policy development for integrated watershed management in Uganda's highlands
Mutekanga, F.P. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder; Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Kris van Koppen; Saskia Visser. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733450 - 112
beheer van waterbekkens - integraal waterbeheer - hooglanden - beleid - participatie - uganda - leren - watershed management - integrated water management - highlands - policy - participation - uganda - learning
Soil erosion is a serious problem in the densely populated Uganda highlands and previous interventions were ineffective. This study, on the Ngenge watershed, Mount Elgon, was aimed at developing policy for the implementation of a new strategy for solving the problem, Integrated Watershed Management (IWM). For policy development, a user-friendly method for assessing erosion risk - using rainfall, slope and NDVI - enabled identifying priority areas for interventions, and a stakeholder analysis enabled identifying key stakeholders who participated in multilevel workshops for deliberating on appropriate interventions. In these workshops social learning was stimulated through constructing scenarios and developing action and work plans which are to inform policy. There was general satisfaction with the workshop processes and the participation of the stakeholders. However, considering IWM as a policy strategy, it was realized that it cannot be ‘rolled out’ but needs to be geared to specific biophysical and social context factors.
|The social side of river management
Groot, W.T. de; Warner, J.F. - \ 2011
New York : NovaScience Publishers, Inc. (Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology ) - ISBN 9781611229806 - 159
rivieren - waterbeheer - milieubeheer - stroomgebieden - beheer van waterbekkens - natuurtechniek - rivierregulering - waterbeleid - sociale kwesties - sociaal conflict - plaatselijke bevolking - gemeenschappen - rivers - water management - environmental management - watersheds - watershed management - ecological engineering - river regulation - water policy - social issues - social conflict - local population - communities
River management faces many challenges world-wide including climate change, flood risks and the demand for more adaptive and 'ecosystem-based' systems. Instead of raising the dikes even higher, the new adage for river managers is to give the rivers more space to drain their waters. This in turn implies that river management will become a social business, with strong involvement of local communities. This book offers various examples and theories on how to avoid conflict and enter into fruitful relationships with river communities.
Fairly efficient or efficiently fair: success factors and constraints of payment and reward schemes for environmental services in Asia
Beria, L. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): Dolf de Groot. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730404 - 163
ecosysteemdiensten - betaling - stroomgebieden - beheer van waterbekkens - armoede - milieubeleid - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - watervoorraden - azië - indonesië - ecosystem services - payment - watersheds - watershed management - poverty - environmental policy - natural resources - water resources - asia - indonesia
Payment for environmental service (PES) is strictly defined as a market-based environmental policy instrument to achieve environmental protection in the most efficient way. However, an increasing body of literature shows that the prescriptive conceptualization of PES cannot be easily generalized and implemented in practice and the commodification of ecosystem services is problematic. To investigate the underlying causes, this PhD study combines a quantitative and qualitative research approach using case studies in Indonesia, the Philippines and Nepal. The empirical observations on emerging PES-mechanisms in the Asian case studies show that interdependency of fairness and efficiency should be the main consideration in designing and implementing a PES scheme in developing countries. Neither fairness nor efficiency alone should be the primary aim but an intermediate PES that is “fairly efficient and efficiently fair” may bridge the gap between PES theory and the practical implementation of PES to increase ES provision and improve livelihoods.
|Tien Jaar Ervaring met de Europese Kaderrichtlijn Water: ambities en ambivalenties
Arend, S. van der; Santbergen, L. ; Wiering, M. ; Behagel, J.H. - \ 2010
Delft : Eburon Uitgeverij - ISBN 9789059724709 - 180
waterbeheer - eu regelingen - beheer van waterbekkens - waterkwaliteit - waterschappen - nederland - europese unie - water management - eu regulations - watershed management - water quality - polder boards - netherlands - european union
De Kaderrichtlijn Water (KRW) is een van de belangrijkste en meest omvattende milieurichtlijnen in het hedendaagse waterbeheer. De richtlijn vraagt onder meer om een (internationale) stroomgebiedbenadering, actieve betrokkenheid van belanghebbenden, het terugwinnen van kosten voor waterdiensten en stelt ecologische en chemische kwaliteitsdoelen voor alle Europese oppervlakte- en grondwateren centraal. Ze is in deze aspecten vernieuwend. Er is lang en op hoog politiek niveau over deze richtlijn onderhandeld en dit heeft geresulteerd in een complex aan spelregels die tevens multi-interpretabel zijn. Dit betreft zowel de organisatorische als de inhoudelijke kant van de KRW. De beoogde ambities en innovaties van de KRW worden dan ook gekenmerkt door ambivalentie. Daarnaast laat de Europese Unie veel over aan de lidstaten, waardoor vele keuzes pas tijdens het implementatieproces gemaakt worden. De KRW is een invloedrijke en soms ingrijpende richtlijn. Tegelijkertijd is het niet verbazingwekkend dat bestuurders en waterbeheerders in Nederland en Vlaanderen worstelen met de vertaling van de voorschriften naar de dagelijkse praktijk. In deze bundel presenteren waterbeheerders en onderzoekers uit Nederland en Vlaanderen essays over verschillende elementen uit het KRW proces. De essays zijn tot stand gekomen in discussies tussen onderzoekers, beleidsmakers en –adviseurs van verschillende organisaties, die gezamenlijk hebben teruggekeken op 10 jaar KRW. In hun bijdragen belichten zij de ambities en ambivalenties telkens vanuit hun eigen praktijk. De observaties, lessen en aanbevelingen voor de toekomst in deze bundel zijn bedoeld voor al diegenen die bij de uitvoering van de richtlijn betrokken zijn, er direct of indirect belang bij hebben, er onderzoek naar doen of geïnteresseerd zijn in het hedendaagse waterbeheer.
|Flood planning; the politics of water security
Warner, J.F. - \ 2010
London : I.B. Tauris (International library of political studies 30) - ISBN 9781845118174 - 384
overstromingen - hoogwaterbeheersing - natuurrampen - beheer van waterbekkens - politiek - floods - flood control - natural disasters - watershed management - politics
Floods are amongst the most common and devastating natural disasters. In the wake of such an event, the pressure to initiate flood protection schemes that will provide security is enormous, and politicians promise quick solutions in the national interest. Jeroen Warner examines a number of such projects from around the world - the Middle East, South Asia and Western Europe - aimed at the prevention of serious flooding. Each provoked a level of controversy unforeseen by its initiators, with the result that schemes were shelved, were not completed, or simply failed. The author shows how such projects inevitably become politicized as different stakeholders seek to promote their interests.
Waterreservoirs op bedrijfsniveau alternatief voor zoetwatervoorziening landbouw?
Bakel, J. van; Poelman, A. ; Kielen, N. ; Hoogewoud, J. - \ 2009
H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 42 (2009)18. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 43 - 46.
watervoorziening - wateropslag - beheer van waterbekkens - watergebruik - neerslag - landbouwsector - agrohydrologie - water supply - water storage - watershed management - water use - precipitation - agricultural sector - agrohydrology
De zoetwatervoorziening van de landbouw in Nederland staat hoog op de beleidsagenda. Het Rijk verbreedt het zoeken naar oplossingen voor het zoetwatervraagstuk van alleen kijken naar aanbod vanuit het hoofdwatersysteem naar ook het verkennen van de mogelijkheden voor grotere zelfvoorzienendheid. De vraag, die in dit artikel wordt behandeld, is of vasthouden van het neerslagoverschot in zoetwaterbekkens op bedrijfsniveau een redelijk alternatief vormt voor wateraanvoer
Game-theoretic models of water allocation in transboundary river basins
Ansink, E.J.H. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland, co-promotor(en): Arjan Ruijs; Hans-Peter Weikard. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854395 - 164
watertoewijzing - waterbeheer - beheer van waterbekkens - rivieren - speltheorie - afvoer - rivierafvoer - internationale verdragen - grensoverschrijdend gebied - water allocation - water management - watershed management - rivers - game theory - discharge - stream flow - international agreements - transboundaries
Onderzoeksvragen zijn hoe samenwerking in waterverdeling kan worden verbeterd, en hoe internationale verdragen zo kunnen worden ontworpen dat ze niet worden verbroken. Onderliggende onderwerpen zijn de aanwezigheid van betwiste eigendomsrechten op water en het ontwerp van aantrekkelijke verdeelregels voor rivierwater. Het doel van dit proefschrift is het analyseren van waterverdeling in grensoverschrijdende rivieren met behulp van speltheoretische modellen. Dit type modellen is geschikt voor het analyseren van strategische interactie tussen landen die een rivier delen, in hun beslissingen omtrent watergebruik.
River Basin Trajectories: Societies, Environments and Development
Molle, F. ; Wester, P. - \ 2009
Wallingford, UK : CABI (Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture Series 8) - ISBN 9781845935382 - 311
watervoorraden - waterbeheer - watervoorziening - waterbeleid - beheer van waterbekkens - stroomgebieden - politieke processen - water resources - water management - water supply - water policy - watershed management - watersheds - political processes
Using a variety of case studies, this book provides an overview of how societies have gradually developed their water resources and furthers our understanding of how such resources can be managed successfully or unsuccessfully. Discussing how and why particular options are selected, and why a particular course of events eventually prevails, the book stresses the importance of context and a multidisciplinary approach in moving towards sustainable and equitable development.
Developing and managing river basins: the need for adaptive, multilevel, collaborative institutional arrangements
Molle, F. ; Wester, P. ; Carriger, S. - \ 2008
Colombo, Sri Lanka : Comprehensive assessment of water management in agriculture (Water for food, water for life issue brief 12) - 4
rivieren - rivierdalen - beheer van waterbekkens - watervoorraden - waterbeheer - landinrichting - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - ecologie - economische afhankelijkheid - samenwerking - internationale samenwerking - netwerken (activiteit) - instellingen - rivers - river valleys - watershed management - water resources - water management - land development - catchment hydrology - ecology - economic dependence - cooperation - international cooperation - networking - institutions
De potentiele impact van gebruiksfuncties op natuurwetgeving gerelateerde vissoorten in enkle beheersgebieden van RWS
Keeken, O.A. van; Vriese, T. ; Leeuw, J.J. de - \ 2007
IJmuiden : IMARES IJmuiden (Rapport / Wageningen IMARES C127/07) - 123
effecten - gebruik - gebruiksefficiëntie - functies met meervoudige doelstelling - visbestand - beheer van waterbekkens - ontwikkelingsplannen - kaderrichtlijn water - natuurbeleid - nederlandse wateren - effects - usage - use efficiency - multiple objective functions - fishery resources - watershed management - development plans - water framework directive - nature conservation policy - dutch waters
In het kader van nationale en Europese Natuurbeschermingswetgeving is een aantal gebieden geselecteerd als Natura2000 gebieden en zijn alle wateren ingedeeld volgens de Kaderrichtlijn water (KRW). Voor deze waterlichamen dienen beheersplannen en doelstellingen voor vispopulaties geformuleerd te worden. Daarbij is een inventarisatie van de impact van gebruiksfuncties op vispopulaties in deze wateren van groot belang. In dit rapport is onderzocht wat de potentiële invloed is van een aantal gebruiksfuncties op vispopulaties in verschillende typen rijkswateren. Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd als literatuur en deskstudie.
Monitoring and Evaluation of Soil Conversation and Watershed Development Projects
Graaff, J. de; Cameron, J. ; Sombatpani, S. ; Pieri, C. ; Woodhill, A.J. - \ 2007
Enfield (NH) -Jersey-Plymouth : Science Publishers - ISBN 9781578083497 - 529
landdegradatie - bodembescherming - erosiebestrijding - beheer van waterbekkens - stroomgebieden - monitoring - evaluatie - projectbeoordeling - land degradation - soil conservation - erosion control - watershed management - watersheds - monitoring - evaluation - project appraisal
Part One of this book introduces the challenges of monitoring and evaluating interventions designed by technical experts meeting the needs of people who actually use the environment which the interventions are seeking to modify. The chapters in this section seek reconciliation of these tensions through a variety of techniques that seek to engage non-expert voices in providing information and in return offer various degrees of ownership of the interventions. Part Two offers a range of case studies that show monitoring and evaluation in practice in a range of contexts in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Rich, thick descriptions bring out the challenges faced in practice in the field. Various ways forward are offered including greater institutionalisation of monitoring and evaluation in the State, but most point to greater inclusion of people affected by the interventions in the information system – looking to greater influence on decision-making. Part Three explores the frontiers of the contributions of physical science to monitoring and evaluating soil conservation and watershed management. The chapters demonstrate the increasing capacities of physical science to measure changes in the physical environment. The technical sophistication and ingenuity of the techniques is striking for a social scientist. Even the residues of nuclear tests and the Chernobyl disaster can be used to show how soils have moved over the past fifty years. Part Four engages more directly with the inevitable complications when monitoring and evaluation meets the socio-economic organisation of knowledge. The chapters bring out the resource implications of engaging with complex civil societies in a range of contexts from the highly individualistic in the USA to techno-bureaucratically dominated in Pakistan. The book offers accounts of socio-environmental processes in a wide range of contexts. It also has some of the qualities of a manual in offering numerous Tables with checklists of key variables plus a general concern with forefronting observability of performance and developmental impact.
|Integrated Water Resources Management. Global Theory, Emerging Practice and Local Needs
Mollinga, P.P. ; Dixit, A. ; Athukorala, K. - \ 2006
New Delhi : SAGE Publications (Water in South Asia vol. 1) - ISBN 9780761935490 - 403
watervoorraden - zuid-azië - waterbeheer - watervoorziening - ontwikkeling - beheer van waterbekkens - milieutoets - overheidsbeleid - integraal waterbeheer - water resources - south asia - water management - water supply - development - watershed management - environmental assessment - government policy - integrated water management
Caring for the land : best practice in soil and water conservation in Beressa watershed, highlands of Ethiopia
Amsalu Taye, A. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder; Jan de Graaff. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044437 - 149
grondbeheer - bodembescherming - waterbescherming - stroomgebieden - beheer van waterbekkens - hooglanden - ethiopië - land management - soil conservation - water conservation - watersheds - watershed management - highlands - ethiopia
Land degradation in the form of soil erosion and nutrient loss is a major constraint to farming activities and agricultural development in the highlands of Ethiopia. Though large-scale conservation projects have been initiated and carried out by the government during the past few decades, the conservation measures introduced have not been sustained by most farmers and land degradation continued to be a problem. The main objective of this research was to examine soil and water conservation practices in the Beressa watershed of the Ethiopian central highlands and identify the constraints and opportunities for a better conservation intervention. The analysis was carried out in view of the history of land use dynamics, farming and livelihood changes, past conservation activities, and policy regime changes.Chapter 2: Long-term dynamics in land resource use and the driving forces The dynamics in land resources use between 1957 and 2000 was analysed. It was revealed that the watershed area underwent through substantial land use changes during the 43-year period. The most important changes were destruction of the natural vegetation cover, increased plantations, and expansion of grazing land. Cropland, which comprised of the largest proportion of the watershed area, increased slightly despite a quadrupling in the density of human population. The land use changes were driven by a combination of several factors; demographic pressure, soil degradation and water scarcity, introduction of cattle breeding program, and policy (land, economic) regime changes. It was indicated that farmers tended to change gradually from sole dependence on annual cropping to tree planting and livestock production to cope with the problems of soil degradation and smaller farm size. Functioning rural markets stimulated farmers to participate in tree planting and selling dung-cakes. Apparently, little attention has been paid to investments in SWC and local soil fertility amendments to combat degradation problems. It was concluded that increased erosion and related nutrient losses due to limited conservation investments as well as the removal of potentially available soil nutrients through the sale of manure are real threats to the future of agriculture in the area. Chapter 3: The dung-cakes threaten agricultural development The extent of farmers' involvement in making and selling dung-cakes and the implications on agricultural activities in general and soil fertility management in particular was investigated. Estimates of the amount of dung-cakes households sell annually and the loss of soil nutrients was analysed. Data were obtained by employing a combination of methods that include socio-economic survey, soil sample analysis, market survey, discussions with the local farmers and literature review. It was shown that farmers in the downstream part of the watershed area were more involved in dung-cake selling. Most farmers process about 90% of their cattle manure into the dung-cakes. It was revealed that 40% of the household income was obtained from the sale of the dung-cakes in the market in Debre Birhan town. On average a farm household exports about 43.5 kg N, 9.0 kg P, and 41.4 kg K y -1 through the sale of the dung-cakes. While there is increased demand for chemical fertilizers by the farmers, actual utilization is constrained by high and increasing market prices, lack of credit services and risks associated with rainfall failure. It was concluded that poverty, market access, and soil degradation were the most important factors influencing farmers' participation in selling dung-cakes.Chapter 4: Farmers' knowledge and practicesA survey was conducted to explore farmers' perception of erosion problems and soil fertility changes as well as their conservation knowledge and practices in the watershed area. The results showed 72% of the 147 interviewed farmers recognized erosion problems. But most of the farmers associated severity of erosion problems with the appearance of visual evidence (rills and gullies) only. It was indicated that the majority of the farmers believe erosion could be stopped, and they applied a range of practices for erosion control and fertility improvement; stone terraces/bunds, waterways, drainage ditches, and contour ploughing. It was found that farmers have been changing and adapting the measures to fit local requirements. Apart from erosion control, the farmers also applied various practices for soil fertility maintenance which include crop rotation and animal manure.Though farmers were aware of the multiple benefits of organic matter for fertility improvement, intensity of manure application was largely limited by the use for fuel and sale as well as distant farm locations that impose labour constraints. Farmers tend to accept and use conservation practices that offer them short-term benefits instead of technologies that require long-term investments. It was concluded that conservation interventions should consider farmers' knowledge and practices in the design of conservation technologies. Chapter 5: Determinants of adoption and continued use of stone terraces
In this section, the determinants of sustained adoption of introduced stone terraces that have been widely promoted in past conservation interventions were analysed. A sequential decision-making model using the bivariate probit approach was employed to identify the factors influencing farmers' adoption decision and continued investments. The results revealed that adoption was influenced by farmers' age, farm size, perception of the technology's profitability, slope, livestock number, and soil fertility, while the decision to continue using the practice is influenced by actual technology profitability, slope, soil fertility, family size, farm size and participation in off-farm work. The results indicated the importance of household/farm and plot level factors in farmers' conservation decision. It was concluded that:
Managementreview 2005 en kwaliteitsplan 2006 van het Centrum voor Visserijonderzoek (CVO)
Baerveldt, A.V. - \ 2006
IJmuiden : RIVO (CVO rapport 06.003) - 9
beheer van waterbekkens - visserijbeheer - onderzoek - kwaliteit - bedrijfsvoering - visserij - visserij-ecologie - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - watershed management - fishery management - research - quality - management - fisheries - fisheries ecology - scientific research
Dit rapport is het managementreview van het Centrum voor Visserijonderzoek (CVO) voor 2005 en het kwaliteitsplan voor 2006. Het beschrijft de resultaten van audits en evaluaties en welke maatregelen in 2005 zijn genomen om de werkwijze van het CVO te verbeteren. Naar aanleiding van de evaluatie van 2005 is voor 2006 een kwaliteitsplan opgesteld met een aantal acties ter verbetering van de werkwijze van het CVO.
NCR-days 2005 November 3-4 : book of abstracts
Os, A.G. van; Alterra - Centrum Landschap, - \ 2005
Delft : NCR (NCR-publication ) - 51
rivieren - beheer van waterbekkens - waterbeheer - watervoorziening - waterkwaliteit - geologische sedimentatie - integraal waterbeheer - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - rivers - watershed management - water management - water supply - water quality - geological sedimentation - integrated water management - surface water quality
The Netherlands Centre for River Studies (NCR) aims to provide an open platform for all people interested in scientific research and communication on river issues. To that end NCR organises once a year the socalled NCRdays, where on two consecutive days scientists present their ongoing river studies, in order to maximise the exchange of ideas and experiences between the participants and to provide the researchers a sounding board for their study approach and preliminary results. Based on these contacts they can improve their approach and possibly establish additional cooperation.
Towards integrated watershed management in highland Ethiopia: the Chemoga watershed case study
Bewket, W. - \ 2003
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Geert Sterk. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789058088703 - 169
beheer van waterbekkens - landgebruik - geïntegreerde systemen - hooglanden - ethiopië - gevalsanalyse - erosiebestrijding - boeren - participatie - watershed management - land use - erosion control - farmers - participation - integrated systems - highlands - ethiopia - case studies
Resource degradation is a critical problem in highland Ethiopia. Past soil and water conservation efforts did not bring about significant results. Hence, there is an urgent need to tackle the problem through new conservation approaches and technologies. This thesis discusses the need for and possibilities of implementing integrated watershed management (IWM) approach. A typical highland watershed (the Chemoga watershed) was selected for the research, and multifaceted investigations were conducted on the extent, rate and processes of resource degradation and the existing resource-use and management practices. The results reveal that there are interlinked problems of resource degradation: expansion of croplands at the expense of natural vegetative covers, a high rate of soil erosion, adverse changes in some soil properties and depletion of the water resource. A strong physical interdependence was observed between upstream and downstream land uses both at the watershed and subwatershed scales. These facts suggest that IWM approach is the appropriate option for resource conservation in the Chemoga watershed in particular and highland Ethiopia in general. Effective implementation of the IWM approach will require: microwatershed-level planning and pursuing of farmer participatory processes, building upon indigenous knowledge systems and addressing of farmers priorities, ensuring of land tenure security, implementation of targeted and effective incentive systems and providing of client-oriented extension service.