The role of agri-environment schemes in conservation and environmental management
Batary, P. ; Dicks, L.V. ; Kleijn, D. ; Sutherland, W.J. - \ 2015
Conservation Biology 29 (2015)4. - ISSN 0888-8892 - p. 1006 - 1016.
land-use intensity - ecosystem services - agricultural landscapes - farmland birds - biodiversity - metaanalysis - europe - benefits - intensification - pollinators
Over half of the European landscape is under agricultural management and has been for millennia. Many species and ecosystems of conservation concern in Europe depend on agricultural management and are showing ongoing declines. Agri-environment schemes (AES) are designed partly to address this. They are a major source of nature conservation funding within the European Union (EU) and the highest conservation expenditure in Europe. We reviewed the structure of current AES across Europe. Since a 2003 review questioned the overall effectiveness of AES for biodiversity, there has been a plethora of case studies and meta-analyses examining their effectiveness. Most syntheses demonstrate general increases in farmland biodiversity in response to AES, with the size of the effect depending on the structure and management of the surrounding landscape. This is important in the light of successive EU enlargement and ongoing reforms of AES. We examined the change in effect size over time by merging the data sets of 3 recent meta-analyses and found that schemes implemented after revision of the EU's agri-environmental programs in 2007 were not more effective than schemes implemented before revision. Furthermore, schemes aimed at areas out of production (such as field margins and hedgerows) are more effective at enhancing species richness than those aimed at productive areas (such as arable crops or grasslands). Outstanding research questions include whether AES enhance ecosystem services, whether they are more effective in agriculturally marginal areas than in intensively farmed areas, whether they are more or less cost-effective for farmland biodiversity than protected areas, and how much their effectiveness is influenced by farmer training and advice? The general lesson from the European experience is that AES can be effective for conserving wildlife on farmland, but they are expensive and need to be carefully designed and targeted.
Water Markets: Insights from an Applied General Equilibrium Model for Extremadura, Spain
Solis, A.F. ; Zhu, X. - \ 2015
Water Resources Management 29 (2015)12. - ISSN 0920-4741 - p. 4335 - 4356.
resource - benefits - quality - demand
In Extremadura, a southwest region of Spain, water has been traditionally been seen as an abundant resource, but growing irrigation demands under a low price of about 0.01 €/m3 are outstripping the supply of raw water and competing with its other consumptive and non-consumptive uses. To deal with the water scarcity in the region, a water market can be established to achieve the highest value of water use, which ma allocate irrigation water tot he most efficient users. Hence, a Social Accounting Matrix and Water accounts (SAMWA) for 2005 is used as a central core to calibrate an Appplied General Eauilibrium (AGE) model. This model is formulated in the Negishi format which, as a welfare program, can price raw water by its marginal value. The main purpose of this paper is to obtain insights into the potential economy-wide gains from establishing a water market such that this resource is allocated efficiently. The impact of a water market policy is investigated under three scenarios. First, we simulate a decrease in the availability of raw waer in Extremadura due to climate change. Second, an investment in a more efficient irrigation techjnology is considered. Finally, we extend our AGE model by including the amenity services of water and investiate how the willingness to pay f soncumers would affect the efficient water allocation. We thus offer policy makers insights into how reginal policies could be designed under different circumstances for a better management of raw water in Extremadura.
Economic trade-offs of biomass use in crop-livestock systems: Exploring more sustainable options in semi-arid Zimbabwe
Homann Kee, S. ; Valbuena Vargas, D.F. ; Masikati, P. ; Descheemaeker, K.K.E. ; Nyamangara, J. ; Claessens, L.F.G. ; Erenstein, O. ; Rooyen, A.F. van; Nkomboni, D. - \ 2015
Agricultural Systems 134 (2015). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 48 - 60.
conservation agriculture - smallholder farmers - intensification - productivity - challenges - strategies - countries - benefits - tropics - africa
In complex mixed crop-livestock systems with limited resources and biomass scarcity, crop residues play an important but increasingly contested role. This paper focuses on farming systems in the semi-arid areas of Zimbabwe, where biomass production is limited and farmers integrate crop and livestock activities. Conservation Agriculture (CA) is promoted to intensify crop production, emphasizing the retention of surface mulch with crop residues (CR). This paper quantifies the associated potential economic tradeoffs and profitability of using residues for soil amendment or as livestock feed, and explores alternative biomass production options. We draw on household surveys, stakeholder feedback, crop, livestock and economic modeling tools. We use the Trade-Off Analysis Model for Multi Dimensional Impact Assessment (TOA-MD) to compare different CR use scenarios at community level and for different farm types: particularly the current base system (cattle grazing of maize residues) and sustainable intensification alternatives based on a CA option (mulching using maize residues ± inorganic fertilizer) and a maize– mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) rotation. Our results indicate that a maize–mucuna rotation can reduce trade-offs between CR uses for feed and mulch, providing locally available organic soil enhancement, supplementary feed and a potential source of income. Conservation Agriculture without fertilizer application and at non-subsidized fertilizer prices is not financially viable; whereas with subsidized fertilizer it can benefit half the farm population. The poverty effects of all considered alternative biomass options are however limited; they do not raise income sufficiently to lift farmers out of poverty. Further research is needed to establish the competitiveness of alternative biomass enhancing technologies and the socio-economic processes that can facilitate sustainable intensification of mixed crop-livestock systems, particularly in semi-arid environments.
The small intestine microbiota, nutritional modulation and relevance for health
Aidy, S.F. El; Bogert, B. van den; Kleerebezem, M. - \ 2015
Current Opinion in Biotechnology 32 (2015). - ISSN 0958-1669 - p. 14 - 20.
human gut microbiota - y gastric bypass - bariatric surgery - host - disease - inflammation - diversity - responses - benefits - cells
The intestinal microbiota plays a profound role in human health and extensive research has been dedicated to identify microbiota aberrations that are associated with disease. Most of this work has been targeting the large intestine and fecal microbiota, while the small intestine microbiota may also have a profound impact on various aspects of the host's physiology, including immune, metabolic and endocrine functions. This review highlights the recent advances made in the study of the human small intestine microbiota. In addition, it describes recent human and animal studies that underpin the importance of this part of the intestine for health of the host organism.
Overview of challenges and achievements in the Climate Adaptation of Cities and in the Climate Proof Cities program
Albers, R.A.W. ; Bosch, P.R. ; Blocken, B. ; Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F. van den; Hove, B. van; Split, T.J.M. ; Ven, F. van de; Hooff, T. van; Rovers, V. - \ 2015
Building and Environment 83 (2015). - ISSN 0360-1323 - p. 1 - 10.
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - stedelijke gebieden - temperatuur - governance - onderzoeksprojecten - nederland - climatic change - climate adaptation - urban areas - temperature - governance - research projects - netherlands - urban heat-island - building performance simulation - cfd simulation - environment - ventilation - future - generation - benefits
Despite all international, national and local initiatives to mitigate climate change, a certain degree of climate change is unavoidable. Urban environments in particular seem vulnerable to the consequences of climate change. How can cities, which are dynamic systems where most people live and work, prepare for such changes in climate? In the Netherlands, the Climate Proof Cities (CPC) research program (2010-2014) was established, aimed at: “strengthening the adaptive capacity and reducing the vulnerability of the urban system against climate change and to develop strategies and policy instruments for adapting our cities and buildings”. The program has contributed to the knowledge on assessing vulnerability of cities, on adaptation options and their effectiveness, and on governance of adaptation. Important features are the role of green infrastructures in combination with available water, improved building designs and collaboration between urban planners and water managers. Nonetheless, in spite of this effort and many other national and international efforts, research in these fields is still in its infancy, and much remains to be done. The broad scope of the CPC research program incited the establishment of this Special Issue. In addition, also papers from other researchers have been added to this Special Issue, in an attempt to provide a valuable – albeit inexhaustive – view on the challenges and achievements in adaptation of cities to climate change.
Disentangling the effects of CO2 and short-lived climate forcer mitigation
Rogelj, J. ; Schaeffer, M. ; Meinshausen, M. ; Shindell, D.T. ; Hare, W. ; Klimont, Z. ; Velders, G.J.M. ; Amann, M. ; Schellnhuber, H.J. - \ 2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (2014)46. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 16325 - 16330.
greenhouse-gas emissions - cumulative carbon emissions - air-pollution - black carbon - copenhagen accord - human health - pathways - benefits - challenges - consistent
Anthropogenic global warming is driven by emissions of a wide variety of radiative forcers ranging from very short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), like black carbon, to very long-lived, like CO2. These species are often released from common sources and are therefore intricately linked. However, for reasons of simplification, this CO2–SLCF linkage was often disregarded in long-term projections of earlier studies. Here we explicitly account for CO2–SLCF linkages and show that the short- and long-term climate effects of many SLCF measures consistently become smaller in scenarios that keep warming to below 2 °C relative to preindustrial levels. Although long-term mitigation of methane and hydrofluorocarbons are integral parts of 2 °C scenarios, early action on these species mainly influences near-term temperatures and brings small benefits for limiting maximum warming relative to comparable reductions taking place later. Furthermore, we find that maximum 21st-century warming in 2 °C-consistent scenarios is largely unaffected by additional black-carbon-related measures because key emission sources are already phased-out through CO2 mitigation. Our study demonstrates the importance of coherently considering CO2–SLCF coevolutions. Failing to do so leads to strongly and consistently overestimating the effect of SLCF measures in climate stabilization scenarios. Our results reinforce that SLCF measures are to be considered complementary rather than a substitute for early and stringent CO2 mitigation. Near-term SLCF measures do not allow for more time for CO2 mitigation. We disentangle and resolve the distinct benefits across different species and therewith facilitate an integrated strategy for mitigating both short and long-term climate change.
Ecosystem Services and Opportunity Costs Shift Spatial Priorities for Conserving Forest Biodiversity
Schroter, M. ; Rusch, G.M. ; Barton, D.N. ; Blumentrath, S. ; Nordén, B. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)11. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 12 p.
protected areas - trade-offs - rich forests - conservation - landscapes - strategies - payments - benefits - science - norway
Inclusion of spatially explicit information on ecosystem services in conservation planning is a fairly new practice. This study analyses how the incorporation of ecosystem services as conservation features can affect conservation of forest biodiversity and how different opportunity cost constraints can change spatial priorities for conservation. We created spatially explicit cost-effective conservation scenarios for 59 forest biodiversity features and five ecosystem services in the county of Telemark (Norway) with the help of the heuristic optimisation planning software, Marxan with Zones. We combined a mix of conservation instruments where forestry is either completely (non-use zone) or partially restricted (partial use zone). Opportunity costs were measured in terms of foregone timber harvest, an important provisioning service in Telemark. Including a number of ecosystem services shifted priority conservation sites compared to a case where only biodiversity was considered, and increased the area of both the partial (+36.2%) and the non-use zone (+3.2%). Furthermore, opportunity costs increased (+6.6%), which suggests that ecosystem services may not be a side-benefit of biodiversity conservation in this area. Opportunity cost levels were systematically changed to analyse their effect on spatial conservation priorities. Conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services trades off against timber harvest. Currently designated nature reserves and landscape protection areas achieve a very low proportion (9.1%) of the conservation targets we set in our scenario, which illustrates the high importance given to timber production at present. A trade-off curve indicated that large marginal increases in conservation target achievement are possible when the budget for conservation is increased. Forty percent of the maximum hypothetical opportunity costs would yield an average conservation target achievement of 79%.
The economic power of the Golden Rice opposition
Wesseler, J.H.H. ; Zilberman, D. - \ 2014
Environment and Development Economics 19 (2014)6. - ISSN 1355-770X - p. 724 - 742.
birth-weight - vitamin-a - health - uncertainty - benefits - growth - impact - costs - gm
Vitamin A enriched rice (Golden Rice) is a cost-efficient solution that can substantially reduce health costs. Despite Golden Rice being available since early 2000, this rice has not been introduced in any country. Governments must perceive additional costs that overcompensate the benefits of the technology to explain the delay in approval. We develop a real option model including irreversibility and uncertainty about perceived costs and arrival of new information to explain a delay in approval. The model has been applied to the case of India. Results show the annual perceived costs have to be at least US$199 million per year approximately for the last decade to explain the delay in approval of the technology. This is an indicator of the economic power of the opposition towards Golden Rice resulting in about 1.4 million life years lost over the past decade in India.
Handling multi-functionality of livestock in a life cycle assessment: the case of smallholder dairying in Kenya
Weiler, V. ; Udo, H.M.J. ; Viets, T.C. ; Crane, T.A. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2014
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 8 (2014). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 29 - 38.
milk-production - food-production - systems - highlands - benefits
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an acknowledged method to assess the contribution of livestock production to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Most LCA studies so far allocate GHG emissions of livestock to marketable outputs. Smallholder systems, however, provide several products and services besides the production of marketable products. We explored how to account for multi-functionality within the LCA method in a case of smallholder milk production in the Kaptumo area in Kenya. Expressed per kg of milk, GHG emissions were 2.0 (0.9–4.3) kg CO2-e, respectively in case of food allocation, 1.6 (0.8–2.9) kg CO2-e in case of economic function allocation and 1.1 (0.5–1.7) kg CO2-e in case of livelihood allocation. The two Carbon Footprint (CF) estimates of milk production considering multi-functionality were comparable to CF estimates of milk in intensive milk production systems. Future LCA's of smallholder systems should account for multi-functionality, because CF results and consequently mitigation options change depending on the functions included.
Enhancing life prospects of socially vulnerable youth through sport participation: a mixed method study
Super, S. ; Hermens, N.J. ; Verkooijen, K.T. ; Koelen, M.A. - \ 2014
BMC Public Health 14 (2014). - ISSN 1471-2458 - 13 p.
physical activity/sport - school-children - health - interventions - coherence - programs - sense - education - exercise - benefits
Background Sport participation has been associated with improved life prospects such as academic performance and employability prospects. As such, promoting sport participation might be a way to increase life prospects, especially for socially vulnerable youth because they are less physically active than their peers. However, the evidence for the causal effect of sport participation on these outcomes is still limited and little is known about factors that play a role in this possible effect. The aim of this study is four-fold. First, the causal effect of sport participation on life prospects is studied and the underlying mechanisms of this relation are explored. Secondly, the life experiences of the youngsters in the sport context, that may contribute to skill development, are studied. Thirdly, social conditions for a positive effect are explored, as sport is likely to have a positive effect under specific conditions. Fourthly, this study aims to provide insights on the elements of successful partnerships between youth care organisations and local sport clubs. Methods and design This protocol reports on a mixed method study. An intervention that aims to increase the sport participation of socially vulnerable youth, between 12–23 years old, is implemented in three regions of a Rotterdam youth care organisation. The youngsters in the two control regions receive care-as-usual. The main outcome variables, collected via questionnaires, are the life prospect, sense of coherence and self-regulation skills of the youngsters after 6 and 18 months of follow-up. The Motivational Climate Scale is administered to explore the social conditions for a positive effect and interviews are conducted with sport coaches to explore their role in skill development. Interviews with the youngsters are conducted to gain insight on the life experiences that may lead to skill development. The elements of successful partnerships are collected during interviews with youth care professionals, sport coaches and other stakeholders in the sport context. Discussion The results of this study can support efforts of youth care organisations and local sport clubs to improve the life prospects of socially vulnerable youth through sport participation.
Ecosystem Services as a Contested Concept: A Synthesis of Critique and Counter-arguments
Schröter, M. ; Zanden, E.H. van der; Oudenhoven, A.P.E. van; Remme, R.P. ; Serna-Chavez, H.M. ; Groot, R.S. de; Opdam, P. - \ 2014
Conservation Letters 7 (2014)6. - ISSN 1755-263X - p. 514 - 523.
sustainability research - saving nature - biodiversity - conservation - science - policy - benefits - classification - agriculture - valuation
We describe and reflect on seven recurring critiques of the concept of ecosystem services and respective counter-arguments. First, the concept is criticized for being anthropocentric while others argue that it goes beyond instrumental values. Second, some argue that the concept promotes an exploitative human-nature relationship, while others state that it re-connects society to ecosystems, emphasizing humanity's dependence on nature. Third, concerns exist that the concept may conflict with biodiversity conservation objectives while others emphasize complementarity. Fourth, the concept is questioned because of its supposed focus on economic valuation, while others argue that ecosystem services science includes many values. Fifth, the concept is criticized for promoting commodification of nature, while others point out that most ecosystem services are not connected to market-based instruments. Sixth, vagueness of definitions and classifications are stated to be a weakness, while others argue that vagueness enhances transdisciplinary collaboration. Seventh, some criticize the normative nature of the concept implying that all outcomes of ecosystem processes are desirable. The normative nature is indeed typical for the concept, but should not be problematic when acknowledged. By disentangling and contrasting different arguments we hope to contribute to a more structured debate between opponents and proponents of the ecosystem services concept.
Livelihood roles of cattle and prospects for alternative land uses at the wildlife/livestock interface in South Africa
Chaminuka, P. ; Udo, H.M.J. ; Eilers, C.H.A.M. ; Zijpp, A.J. van der - \ 2014
Land Use Policy 38 (2014). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 80 - 90.
benefits - livestock - policy - conservation - management - valuation - poverty - systems - costs - areas
The emergence of wildlife ranching as an alternative land use option to agriculture, in Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs), has cast renewed interest on the role of cattle farming in rural livelihoods in areas close to wildlife parks. This study analysed the contribution of cattle to livelihoods and relationships between cattle and potential wildlife land uses in rural areas near Kruger National Park. Data were collected through household surveys, key informant interviews and community workshops. About 11% of households studied owned cattle, and cattle income constituted 29% of total household income. Benefits from cattle were also derived by households without cattle. About 71% of households had at least three sources of income, reflecting diversity of livelihoods. Wildlife related land uses were perceived by some households as threatening cattle production, whilst others viewed them as opportunities for alternative livelihoods. We conclude that cattle production has important livelihood roles, but is not sufficient as a driver of economic development in these areas. Incentives to encourage diversification of livelihoods at the wildlife/livestock interface, with possibilities for rural communities to explore wildlife based land uses should be put in place. In addition, land use policy and planning in such areas should focus on creating institutional mechanisms through which programmes integrating conservation and rural development goals can benefit rural communities
Waterbirds increase more rapidly in Ramsar-designated wetlands than in unprotected wetlands
Kleijn, D. ; Cherkaoui, I. ; Goedhart, P.W. ; Hout, J. van der; Lammertsma, D.R. - \ 2014
Journal of Applied Ecology 51 (2014)2. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 289 - 298.
agri-environment schemes - migratory birds - migrant birds - conservation - biodiversity - benefits - decline - arrival - africa - areas
There is a general lack of information on how international conservation treaties affect biodiversity. The Ramsar convention on the protection of internationally important wetlands is such an international conservation policy. It initiated the worldwide establishment of over 2000 protected areas currently covering more than 200 million ha. The convention came into force in 1975 but to date it remains unknown whether it actually produces biodiversity benefits.
Tenure and participation in local REDD+ projects: Insights from southern Cameroon
Awono, A. ; Somorin, O.A. ; Atyi, R.E. ; Levang, P. - \ 2014
Environmental Science & Policy 35 (2014). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 76 - 86.
forest tenure - governance - benefits - regimes - rights
The new climate change mitigation scheme for developing countries known as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) has been proposed as a way of reducing carbon emissions in the forest sector, whilst also protecting and improving the livelihoods and wellbeing of communities. This paper argues that it is important to resolve tenure ambiguity and ensure that communities participate in the REDD+ process by engaging them in project development and implementation. Drawing on data collected in six villages under two REDD+ projects targeted in Cameroon, this paper addresses four questions: (1) What are the tenure conditions at the two study sites? (2) How have the project proponents perceived the tenure and other challenges and how do they plan to address those challenges? (3) What have the proponents done to engage communities in the process of establishing REDD+? (4) Are communities informed about and satisfied with the process of establishing REDD+? The paper shows that while the proponents have worked to resolve tenure issues and engage communities, there is still frustration among project participants because of a lack of progress toward implementing compensation and benefit sharing system. The paper concludes that it is crucial to safeguard the rights, access and participation of local communities, and benefits to them, throughout the design and implementation of REDD+ projects.
Economic assessment of Q fever in the Netherlands
Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Prins, J. ; Bergevoet, R.H.M. - \ 2013
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 112 (2013)1-2. - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 27 - 34.
vaccination - epidemics - zoonosis - benefits - outbreak - disease - burden
In this paper the economic impact of controlling the Q fever epidemic in 2007-2011 in the Netherlands is assessed. Whereas most of the long-term benefits of the implemented control programme stem from reduced disease burden and human health costs, the majority of short-term intervention costs were incurred in the dairy goat sector. The total intervention cost in agriculture amounted approximately 35,000 Euro per DALY occurred. By culling of infected animals, breeding prohibition and vaccination, the epidemic seems to be under control. As the dairy goat vaccination programme continues, future expenses in maintaining the current protected status are relatively low. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Assessing the potential of dual-purpose maize in southern Africa: A multi-level approach
Homann-Kee Tui, S. ; Blümmel, M. ; Valbuena, D.F. ; Chirima, A. ; Maskati, P. ; Rooyen, A.F. van; Kassie, G.T. - \ 2013
Field Crops Research 153 (2013). - ISSN 0378-4290 - p. 37 - 51.
crop-livestock systems - net primary production - sub-saharan africa - water productivity - benefits
This paper explores the potential and challenges of increasing production of food and feed on existing maize fields in mixed crop-livestock systems in the semi-arid areas of southern Africa. It integrates results from different sources of data and analysis: 1. Spatial stratification using secondary data for GIS layers: Maize mega-environments combined with recommendation domains for dual-purpose maize were constructed for Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe, stratifying the countries by demand factors (livestock densities and human population densities) and feed availability. Relative biomass contributions to feed resources from rangelands were compared to those from croplands to explore the usefulness of global datasets for feed supply estimations. 2. Verification through farming systems analysis: the potential demand for maize residues as feed (maize cropping patterns, maize yields and uses, feed deficits) was compared at contrasting sites, based on household survey data collected on 480 households in 2010. 3. Maize cultivar analysis: Genotypic variability of maize cultivars was compared to evaluate the potential contribution (stover quantity and quality) of dual-purpose maize to reduce feed deficits. The study results illustrate high spatial variability in the demand for and supply of maize residues. Northern Malawi is characterized by high livestock density, high human population density and high feed availability. Farmers achieve maize yields of more than 2 t/ha resulting in surplus of residues. Although livestock is important, southwest Zimbabwe has low livestock densities, low human populations and low feed availability; farming systems are more integrated and farmers make greater use of maize residues to address feed shortages. Central Mozambique also has low cattle densities, low human populations and low feed availability. More rangelands are available but maize yields are very low and livestock face severe feed shortages. The investigation of 14 advanced CIMMYT maize landraces cultivars and 15 advanced hybrids revealed significant variations in grain and stover yield and fodder quality traits. Where livestock densities are high and alternative feed resources are insufficient, maize cultivars with superior residue yield and fodder quality can have substantial impact on livestock productivity. Cultivars at the higher end of the quality range can provide sufficient energy for providing livestock maintenance requirements and support about 200 g of live weight gain daily. Maize cultivars can be targeted according to primary constraints of demand domains for either stover quantity or stover fodder quality and the paper proposes an approach for this based on voluntary feed intake estimates for maize stover.
Modelling risk aversion to support decision-making for controlling zoonotic livestock diseases
Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Bergevoet, R.H.M. ; Ge, L. - \ 2013
Revue scientifique et technique / Office International des Epizooties 32 (2013)3. - ISSN 0253-1933 - p. 605 - 617.
global burden - benefits
Zoonotic infectious livestock diseases are becoming a significant burden for both animal and human health and are rapidly gaining the attention of decision-makers who manage public health programmes. If control decisions have only monetary components, governments are generally regarded as being risk-neutral and the intervention strategy with the highest expected benefit (lowest expected net costs) should be preferred. However, preferences will differ and alternative intervention plans will prevail if (human) life and death outcomes are involved. A rational decision framework must therefore consider risk aversion in the decision-maker and controversial values related to public health. In the present study, risk aversion and its impact on both the utility for the monetary component and the utility for the nonmonetary component is shown to be an important element when dealing with emerging zoonotic infectious livestock diseases and should not be ignored in the understanding and support of decisionmaking. The decision framework was applied to several control strategies for the reduction of human cases of brucellosis (Brucella melitensis) originating from sheep in Turkey.
Co-investments in land management: lessons from the Galessa watershed in Ethiopia
Adimassu, Zenebe ; Kessler, A. ; Stroosnijder, L. - \ 2013
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 20 (2013)6. - ISSN 1350-4509 - p. 532 - 541.
grass-roots - soil conservation - degradation - highlands - adoption - systems - benefits - africa
The use of co-investment activities to motivate farmers to carry out sustainable land management is increasingly recognized. Several co-investment efforts have been implemented to combat land degradation and increase agricultural production in the Ethiopian highlands. Nevertheless, these co-investment activities have not been documented. Moreover, the impacts of these activities have not been evaluated. This study presents a co-investment initiative for sustainable land management in the Galessa watershed in Ethiopia. It documents successful co-investment activities that trigger farmers to carry out land management practices, and assesses the impact of these activities on farmers’ land management investments. The most important co-investment activities that trigger farmers to invest in land management are co-investments in awareness creation, water provision, technology, and governance. Of these activities, co-investing in water provision is most successful, because it directly solves one of the basic needs of farmers in the watershed. Results reveal that the experimental group of farmers (participants in the co-investment initiative) – compared to the control group (nonparticipants) – invested significantly more in land management practices such as soil bunds, composting, and tree planting. This article concludes that use of multiple co-investment activities are crucial to trigger farmers to invest in land management in Ethiopia.
Assessing phosphate rock depletion and phosphorus recycling options
Koppelaar, R.H.E.M. ; Weikard, H.P. - \ 2013
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 23 (2013)6. - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 1454 - 1466.
economics - perspective - benefits - biomass - waste - flows
We analyze global elemental phosphorus flows in 2009 for (1) mining to products, (2) animal and human manure flows, (3) crop harvests and animal production, (4) food production, (5) soil erosion, (6) and crop uptake. Informed by the flow assessment the potential and cost of phosphorus usage reduction and recycling measures are quantified, and fed into a constructed phosphorus supply-demand model with reserve assessment to assess the impact of these measures on phosphate rock resource availability. According to our results in 2009 globally 21.4 Mt elemental phosphorus from rock phosphate was consumed in products of which 17.6 Mt used as fertilizers, fully able to cover erosion losses and outputs in agriculture in aggregate, but insufficient from the perspective of bio-available phosphorus in soils. We find substantial scope for phosphorus use reduction, at potentially 6.9 Mt phosphorus, or 32% of 2009 phosphate rock supply. Another 6.1 Mt, or 28% can technologically be recycled from waterways and wastewater, but at a cost substantially above any foreseeable phosphate rock fertilizer price. The model results suggests phosphate rock reserves are sufficient to meet demand into the 22nd century, and can be extended well into the 23rd century with assessed use reduction and recycling measures
Typology and indicators of ecosystem services for marine spatial planning and management
Bohnke-Henrichs, A. ; Baulcomb, C. ; Koss, R. ; Hussain, S. ; Groot, R.S. de - \ 2013
Journal of Environmental Management 130 (2013)11. - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 135 - 145.
economic valuation - biodiversity - coastal - goods - area - classification - conservation - benefits
The ecosystem services concept provides both an analytical and communicative tool to identify and quantify the link between human welfare and the environment, and thus to evaluate the ramifications of management interventions. Marine spatial planning (MSP) and Ecosystem-based Management (EBM) are a form of management intervention that has become increasingly popular and important globally. The ecosystem service concept is rarely applied in marine planning and management to date which we argue is due to the lack of a well-structured, systematic classification and assessment of marine ecosystem services. In this paper we not only develop such a typology but also provide guidance to select appropriate indicators for all relevant ecosystem services. We apply this marine-specific ecosystem service typology to MSP and EBM. We thus provide not only a novel theoretical construct but also show how the ecosystem services concept can be used in marine planning and management.