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Ecotoxicological benthic impacts of experimental oil-contaminated marine snow deposition
Eenennaam, Justine S. van; Rohal, Melissa ; Montagna, Paul A. ; Radović, Jagoš R. ; Oldenburg, Thomas B.P. ; Romero, Isabel C. ; Murk, Albertinka J. ; Foekema, Edwin M. - \ 2019
Marine Pollution Bulletin 141 (2019). - ISSN 0025-326X - p. 164 - 175.
MOSSFA - Marine snow - benthic invertebrates - meiofauna - oil toxicity - Bioavailability
Marine Oil Snow Sedimentation and Flocculent Accumulation (MOSSFA) can pose serious threats to the marine benthic ecosystem as it results in a deposition of oil contaminated marine snow on the sediment surface. In a microcosm experiment we investigated the effects of oil in combination with artificial marine snow or kaolin clay on two benthic invertebrate species and benthic meiofauna. The amphipod showed a dose-dependent decrease in survival for both oil-contaminated clay and oil-contaminated marine snow. The gastropod was only affected by the highest concentration of oil-contaminated marine snow and had internal concentrations of PAHs with a similar distribution as oil-contaminated marine snow. Benthic copepods showed higher survival in presence
of marine snow. This study revealed that marine snow on the sediment after oil spills affects organisms in a trait-dependent way and that it can be a vector for introducing oil into the food web.
Assessing bottom trawling impacts based on the longevity of benthic invertebrates
Hiddink, Jan Geert ; Jennings, Simon ; Sciberras, Marija ; Bolam, Stefan G. ; Cambiè, Giulia ; McConnaughey, Robert A. ; Mazor, Tessa ; Hilborn, Ray ; Collie, Jeremy S. ; Pitcher, C.R. ; Parma, Ana M. ; Suuronen, Petri ; Kaiser, Michel J. ; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. - \ 2019
Journal of Applied Ecology 56 (2019)5. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 1075 - 1084.
benthic invertebrates - bottom trawl - fisheries management - impact assessment - life-history meta-analysis - seabed disturbance - systematic review
Bottom trawling is the most widespread human activity directly affecting seabed habitats. Assessment and effective management of the effects of bottom trawling at the scale of fisheries requires an understanding of differences in sensitivity of biota to trawling. Responses to disturbance are expected to depend on the intrinsic rate of increase in populations (r), which is expected to be linearly related to the reciprocal of longevity. We examine the relationship between the longevity of benthic invertebrates and their response to bottom trawling; both in terms of the immediate mortality following a trawl pass and their subsequent rates of recovery. We collate all available data from experimental and comparative trawling studies, and test how longevity influences these aspects of sensitivity. The shortest lived organisms (<1 year) increased in abundance shortly after experimental trawling but showed no response to trawling in long-term comparative studies. Conversely, the abundance of biota with a life span >1 year decreased by ~9% immediately following a trawl pass. The effect of bottom trawling in comparative studies increased with longevity, with a 2–3× larger effect on biota living >10 years than on biota living 1–3 years. We attribute this difference to the slower recovery rates of the long-lived biota. The observed relationship between the intrinsic rate of population increase (r, our metric of recovery rate) and the reciprocal of longevity matches theoretical expectation and predicts that the sensitivity of habitats to bottom trawling is higher in habitats with higher proportions of long-lived organisms. Synthesis and applications. Where the longevity of a species or the longevity distribution of a community is known or can be inferred, our estimates of depletion and intrinsic rate of increase can be combined with high-resolution maps of trawling intensity to assess trawling impacts at the scale of the fishery or other defined unit of assessment. Our estimates of r may also be used to estimate recovery times following other forms of seabed disturbance.
Data from: Assessing bottom-trawling impacts based on the longevity of benthic invertebrates
Hiddink, Jan Geert ; Jennings, Simon ; Sciberras, Marija ; Bolam, Stefan G. ; Cambiè, Giulia ; Mcconnaughey, Robert A. ; Mazor, Tessa ; Hilborn, Ray ; Collie, Jeremy S. ; Pitcher, C.R. ; Parma, Ana M. ; Suuronen, Petri ; Kaiser, Michel J. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. - \ 2018
fisheries management - bottom trawl - benthic invertebrates - impact assessment - meta-analysis - systematic review - life history - seabed disturbance
Bottom trawling is the most widespread human activity directly affecting seabed habitats. Assessment and effective management of the effects of bottom trawling at the scale of fisheries requires an understanding of differences in sensitivity of biota to trawling. Responses to disturbance are expected to depend on the intrinsic rate of increase of populations (r), which is expected to be linearly related to the reciprocal of longevity. 2. We examine the relationship between the longevity of benthic invertebrates and their response to bottom trawling; both in terms of the immediate mortality following a trawl pass and their subsequent rates of recovery. We collate all available data from experimental and comparative trawling studies, and test how longevity influences these aspects of sensitivity. 3. The shortest-lived organisms (<1yr) increased in abundance shortly after experimental trawling, but showed no response to trawling in longer-term comparative studies. Conversely, the abundance of biota with a life-span >1yr decreased by ~9% immediately following a trawl pass. The effect of bottom trawling in comparative studies increased with longevity, with a 2-3× larger effect on biota living >10yr than on biota living 1-3yr. We attribute this difference to the slower recovery rates of the longer-lived biota. 4. The observed relationship between the intrinsic rate of population increase (r, our metric of recovery rate) and the reciprocal of longevity matches theoretical expectation and predicts that the sensitivity of habitats to bottom trawling is higher in habitats with higher proportions of long-lived organisms. 5. Synthesis and Applications. Where the longevity of a species or the longevity distribution of a community is known or can be inferred, our estimates of depletion and intrinsic rate of increase can be combined with high-resolution maps of trawling intensity to assess trawling impacts at the scale of the fishery or other defined unit of assessment. Our estimates of r may also be used to estimate recovery times following other forms of seabed disturbance.
Contrasting the roles of section length and instream habitat enhancement for river restoration success: a field study on 20 European restoration projects
Hering, D. ; Aroviita, J. ; Baattrup-Pedersen, A. ; Brabec, K. ; Buijse, T. ; Ecke, F. ; Friberg, N. ; Gielczewski, Marek ; Januschke, K. ; Köhler, J. ; Kupilas, Benjamin ; Lorenz, A.W. ; Muhar, S. ; Paillex, Amael ; Poppe, Michaela ; Schmidt, T. ; Schmutz, S. ; Vermaat, J. ; Verdonschot, R.C.M. ; Verdonschot, P.F.M. ; Wolter, Christian ; Kail, J. - \ 2015
aquatic macrophytes - benthic invertebrates - fish - floodplain - flow patterns - food web - ground beetles - riparian vegetation - stable isotopes
1. Restoration of river hydromorphology often has limited detected effects on river biota. One frequently discussed reason is that the restored river length is insufficient to allow populations to develop and give the room for geomorphologic processes to occur. 2. We investigated ten pairs of restored river sections of which one was a large project involving a long, intensively restored river section and one represented a smaller restoration effort. The restoration effect was quantified by comparing each restored river section to an upstream non-restored section. We sampled the following response variables: habitat composition in the river and its floodplain, three aquatic organism groups (aquatic macrophytes, benthic invertebrates and fish), two floodplain-inhabiting organism groups (floodplain vegetation, ground beetles), as well as food web composition and land–water interactions reflected by stable isotopes. 3. For each response variable, we compared the difference in dissimilarity of the restored and nearby non-restored section between the larger and the smaller restoration projects. In a second step, we regrouped the pairs and compared restored sections with large changes in substrate composition to those with small changes. 4. When comparing all restored to all non-restored sections, ground beetles were most strongly responding to restoration, followed by fish, floodplain vegetation, benthic invertebrates and aquatic macrophytes. Aquatic habitats and stable isotope signatures responded less strongly. 5. When grouping the restored sections by project size, there was no difference in the response to restoration between the projects targeting long and short river sections with regard to any of the measured response variables except nitrogen isotopic composition. In contrast, when grouping the restored sections by substrate composition, the responses of fish, benthic invertebrates, aquatic macrophytes, floodplain vegetation and nitrogen isotopic composition were greater in sections with larger changes in substrate composition as compared to those with smaller changes. 6. Synthesis and applications. The effects of hydromorphological restoration measures on aquatic and floodplain biota strongly depend on the creation of habitat for aquatic organisms, which were limited or not present prior to restoration. These positive effects on habitats are not necessarily related to the restored river length. Therefore, we recommend a focus on habitat enhancement in river restoration projects.
Directional movement in response to altered flow in six lowland stream Trichoptera
Verdonschot, P.F.M. ; Besse, A.A. ; Dekkers, T.B.M. ; Verdonschot, R.C.M. - \ 2014
Hydrobiologia 740 (2014)1. - ISSN 0018-8158 - p. 219 - 230.
lotic macroinvertebrates - benthic invertebrates - field experiments - upstream movements - river systems - drift - colonization - habitat - refugia - insect
Understanding the trait adaptations associated with mobility in Trichoptera larvae under different flow conditions would enhance the understanding of survival mechanisms under flow stress induced by spates. In stream mesocosms, we mimicked a lowland stream spate by suddenly increasing current velocity above an organic habitat patch from 10 to 30 or 50 cm/s. Subsequently, we investigated whether short-term, small-scale movements in six Trichoptera species were not random but directional and whether the type of movement was related to the magnitude of flow increase. Main types of response distinguished were as follows: (1) resistance, in which the species remained in the habitat patch, (2) upstream or downstream crawling, and (3) being dislodged from the streambed and drift downstream (vulnerability). The type of response observed was related to the species’ ecological preferences and morphological traits. The experiment showed that movement in Trichoptera larvae was directional and flow-dependent. Drift was the main mechanism observed with an increase in current velocity, but upstream crawling and aggregation in the habitat patch were observed as well. The type and magnitude of the response were highly species specific. It appeared that each combination of morphological and behavioral adaptations developed individually for each species under niche-specific conditions.
Patterns and processes of habitat-specific demographic variability in exploited marine species
Vasconcelos, R.P. ; Eggleston, D.B. ; Pape, O. le; Tulp, I.Y.M. - \ 2014
ICES Journal of Marine Science 71 (2014)3. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 638 - 647.
sole solea-solea - essential fish habitat - plaice pleuronectes-platessa - nursery grounds - concentration hypothesis - quantitative description - population connectivity - relative contributions - benthic invertebrates - estuarine nurseries
Population dynamics are governed by four demographic rates: births, deaths, immigration, and emigration. Variation in these rates and processes underlying such variation can be used to prioritize habitat conservation and restoration as well as to parameterize models that predict habitat-specific effects on population dynamics. The current understanding of patterns of habitat-specific demographic variability in exploited marine species, as well as processes underlying these patterns, was reviewed. We describe patterns of (i) habitat-specific density, followed by ontogenetic changes in habitat use, such as (ii) immigration (i.e. use as a settlement habitat) and (iii) emigration (i.e. use as a habitat for secondary dispersal to and from), and demographic rates such as (iv) growth, and (v) mortality. Despite the importance of coastal habitats for fish and invertebrate species and the vulnerability of these habitats to human impacts, there was ambiguous evidence on their role in driving of population dynamics. Roughly 63% of the studies were descriptive, 21% experimental, and 11% used a combination of descriptive and experimental approaches, whereas 5% used meta-analyses. Habitat-specific density was the most common pattern quantified, followed by growth and mortality, with relatively few examples of studies of habitat-specific larval settlement. There were many examples of the influence of coastal habitats on survival, growth, and movement, especially at young stages, and there was an emerging focus on the effects of habitat degradation on demographic rates. There needs to be an increased effort on quantifying habitat-specific demographic rates and integrating these to better predict the effects of coastal habitats on the dynamics of exploited marine populations.
Sediment toxicity testing of organic chemicals in the context of prospective risk assessment: A review
Diepens, N.J. ; Arts, G.H.P. ; Brock, T.C.M. ; Smidt, H. ; Brink, P.J. van den; Heuvel-Greve, M.J. van den; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2014
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 44 (2014)3. - ISSN 1064-3389 - p. 255 - 302.
species sensitivity distributions - amphipod corophium-volutator - midge chironomus-riparius - fresh-water sediments - polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbon - field-collected sediment - aquatic food webs - quality guidelines - benthic invertebrates - whole-sediment
Sediment toxicity tests play an important role in prospective risk assessment for organic chemicals. This review describes sediment toxicity tests for microorganisms, macrophytes, benthic invertebrates and benthic communities. Current approaches in sediment toxicity testing are fragmentary and diverse. This hampers the translation of single species test results between freshwater, estuarine and marine ecosystems and to the population and community levels. A more representative selection of species and endpoints as well as a unification of dose metrics and exposure assessment methodologies across groups of test species, constitutes a first step towards a balanced strategy for sediment toxicity testing of single organic compounds in the context of prospective risk assessment.
Avian response to tidal freshwater habitat creation by controlled reduced tide system
Beauchard, O. ; Jacobs, S. ; Ysebaert, T. ; Meire, P. - \ 2013
Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 131 (2013). - ISSN 0272-7714 - p. 12 - 23.
bird species-diversity - ecological restoration - benthic invertebrates - managed realignment - estuary - marsh - communities - shorebirds - colonization - assemblages
Human activities have caused extensive loss of estuarine wetlands, and the restoration of functional habitats remains a challenging task given several physical constraints in strongly embanked estuaries. In the Schelde estuary (Belgium), a new tidal marsh restoration technique, Controlled Reduced Tide system (CRT), is being implemented in the freshwater zone. A polder area of 8.2 ha was equipped with a CRT to test the system functionality. Among different ecological compartments that are studied for assessing the CRT restoration success, avifauna was monitored over three years. The tidal regime generated a habitat gradient typical of tidal freshwater wetlands along which the distributions of bird and ecological groups were studied. 103 bird species were recorded over the three years. In addition to many generalist bird species, several specialist species typical of the North Sea coast were present. Thirty-nine species of local and/or international conservation interest were encountered, emphasising the importance of this habitat for certain species. Species communities and ecological groups were strongly habitat specific and non-randomly organized across habitats. Spatiotemporal analyses highlighted a rapid habitat colonization, and a subsequent stable habitat community structure across seasons in spite of strong seasonal species turnovers. Hence, these findings advocate CRT implementation as a means to effectively compensate for wetland habitat loss.
Mobility of lowland stream trichoptera under experimental habitat and flow conditions
Verdonschot, P.F.M. ; Besse, A.A. ; Dekkers, T.B.M. ; Verdonschot, R.C.M. - \ 2012
Limnologica 42 (2012)3. - ISSN 0075-9511 - p. 227 - 234.
benthic invertebrates - field experiments - upstream movements - running waters - river systems - drift - colonization - community - patterns - behavior
The species-specific mobility of six species of lowland stream Trichoptera was studied in flume experiments with different habitats and current flows. The test species were selected according to their occurrence along the environmental gradient from more natural towards highly disturbed sandy, lowland streams of the North-West European plain. Two groups of species were distinguished, three species occurring more frequently towards the natural end versus three occurring more frequently towards the disturbed end of the stream disturbance gradient. Experiments were conducted in a temperature and light controlled environment in indoor, re-circulating, man-made stream channels with four replicate gutters each. The bottom of each gutter held ten trays filled with five selected habitat materials (two trays each), which provided refugia and food. Three flow treatments with constant current velocities of 10, 30, or 50 cm/s were applied. Movements were scored based on visual observations of the position of each individual at fixed time points. The first day after release, individuals moved around very actively; this ‘release effect’ was removed from further analyses. The trichopteran species occurring near the more natural end of the disturbance gradient exhibited significantly less mobility (on average 10–15% of individuals actively moved around) than the species from the more disturbed end of the gradient (on average 30–40% of individuals actively moved around). The first group of trichopteran species also spent significantly longer times in the leaves habitat compared to the other three species, which moved more or less independent of habitat. With increasing current velocity, all test species moved more frequently, particularly the species from the more disturbed end of the gradient. This could indicate behavior to avoid dislodgement. The mobility of all species exceeded the mobility needed to use habitat resources of food and shelter, both present in excess. Therefore, short-term movement could also be (partly) a random behavior. Overall, the more tolerant species from the disturbed end of the gradient showed more mobility and flexibility than the species occurring under more or less natural stream conditions. This was consistent with the hypothesis that mobility is an adaptation of tolerant, ubiquitous species. Mobility is an adaptation of r-strategists.
Dispersal of invasive species by drifting
Riel, M.C. van; Velde, G. van der; Vaate, A. bij de - \ 2011
Current Zoology 57 (2011)6. - ISSN 1674-5507 - p. 818 - 827.
corophium-curvispinum crustacea - lower mississippi river - ponto-caspian invader - fresh-water shrimps - small stony stream - dikerogammarus-villosus - macroinvertebrate drift - benthic invertebrates - field experiments - recent colonizer
Drifting can be an effective way for aquatic organisms to disperse and colonise new areas. Increasing connectivity between European large rivers facilitates invasion by drifting aquatic macroinvertebrates. The present study shows that high abundances of invasive species drift in the headstream of the river Rhine. Dikerogammarus villosus and Chelicorophium curvispinum represented up to 90% of the total of drifting macroinvertebrates. Drift activity shows seasonal and diel patterns. Most species started drifting in spring and were most abundant in the water column during the summer period. Drift activity was very low during the winter period. Diel patterns were apparent; most species, including D. villosus, drifted during the night. Drifting macroinvertebrates colonised stony substrate directly from the water column. D. villosus generally colonised the substrate at night, while higher numbers of C. curvispinum colonised the substrate during the day. It is very likely that drifting functions as a dispersal mechanism for crustacean invaders. Once waterways are connected, these species are no longer necessarily dependent on dispersal vectors other than drift for extending their distribution range
Comparison of two methods for estimating the abundance, diversity and habitat preference of fluvial macroinvertebrates in contrasting habitats
Alonso, A. ; Camargo, J.A. - \ 2010
Limnologica 40 (2010)1. - ISSN 0075-9511 - p. 23 - 29.
aquatic plant management - community-wide patterns - invertebrate fauna - submerged macrophytes - benthic invertebrates - surface-area - chalk stream - system - power - microdistribution
In this research we evaluate the effects of the method used for estimating the potential surface available for benthic macroinvertebrates in macrophyte and unvegetated habitats on several metrics and habitat preference of aquatic macroinvertebrates in the upper catchment of the Henares River (Guadalajara, Central Spain). Three sampling sites were selected: a well-preserved stream (site A), a stream with no wood riparian vegetation (site B), and a straightened and deforested reach (site Q. Two habitats were selected in each site: unvegetated habitat (i.e., substrata without macrophytes) and macrophyte habitat (i.e., substrata covered by macrophytes). In each habitat, six macroinvertebrate samples (including all macrophytes or mineral particles) were collected using a Hess sampler. Diversity and density of major families were referred to the surface of the Hess sampler ( = Hess surface method) and to the actual surface of either mineral particles or macrophytes actual surface method). In general, for the actual Surface method, biomass, richness, dominance, and diversity metrics were higher in the mineral habitat than in the macrophyte habitat. This trend was different for the Hess surface method. In general, densities turned out to be higher in the unvegetated habitat than in the macrophyte habitat when using the actual Surface method, but the reverse occurred when using the Hess Surface method. This fact is relevant for river biomonitoring, especially when reaches with different dominant Substrates (macrophytes vs mineral) are compared using just one of the methods. It is concluded that the macrobenthic metrics and density values are influenced by the method used to estimate the potential available surface for aquatic macroinvertebrates.
The effect of operating conditions on aquatic worms eating waste sludge
Hendrickx, T.L.G. ; Temmink, H. ; Elissen, H.J.H. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2009
Water Research 43 (2009)4. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 943 - 950.
afvalwaterbehandeling - licht - temperatuur - opgelost zuurstof - ammoniak - lumbricidae - slibzuivering - aquatische wormen - waste water treatment - light - temperature - dissolved oxygen - ammonia - sludge treatment - aquatic worms - lumbriculus-variegatus muller - benthic invertebrates - water treatment - toxicity - oligochaete - sediments - metabolism - reduction - exposure
Several techniques are available for dealing with the waste sludge produced in biological waste water treatment. A biological approach uses aquatic worms to consume and partially digest the waste sludge. In our concept for a worm reactor, the worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) are immobilised in a carrier material. For correct sizing and operation of such a worm reactor, the effect of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, ammonia concentration, temperature and light exposure were studied in sequencing batch experiments. DO concentration had an effect on both sludge consumption rate and sludge reduction efficiency. Sludge consumption rate was four times higher at DO concentrations above 8.1 mg/L, when compared to DO concentrations below 2.5 mg/L. Sludge reduction was 36 and 77% at these respective DO concentrations. The effect is most likely the result of a difference in gut residence time. An increase in unionised ammonia concentration drastically decreased the consumption rate. Ammonia is released by the worms at a rate of 0.02 mg N/mg TSS digested; therefore, replacing the effluent in the worm reactor is required to maintain a low ammonia concentration. The highest sludge consumption rates were measured at a temperature around 15 °C, whilst the highest TSS reduction was achieved at 10 °C. Not exposing the worms to light did not affect consumption or digestion rates. High temperatures (above 25 °C) as well as low DO concentrations (below 1 mg/L) in the worm reactor should be avoided as these lead to significant decreases in the number of worms. The main challenges for applying the worm reactor at a larger scale are the supply of oxygen to the worms and maintaining a low ammonia concentration in the worm reactor. Applying a worm reactor at a waste water treatment plant was estimated to increase the oxygen consumption and the ammonia load by 15¿20% and 5% respectively.
Living in highly dynamic polluted river floodplaines, do contaminants contribute to population and community effects?
Klok, C. ; Kraak, M.H.S. - \ 2008
Science of the Total Environment 406 (2008)3. - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 455 - 461.
whole-sediment bioassays - lumbricus-rubellus - benthic invertebrates - chironomus-riparius - risk-assessment - heavy-metals - toxicity tests - lake-sediments - small mammals - impact
The aim of this paper was to collect evidence for the effects of contaminants on biota in a highly dynamic river Rhine floodplain. To this purpose we reviewed the results of circa 10 studies performed in this floodplain. The floodplain was contaminated with elevated levels of cadmium, copper, PAHs, and PCBs and high levels of zinc which were at some sites above legislative values. The results showed that the present contaminants were accumulated by the floodplain inhabiting organisms, but meanwhile population and community effects were ambiguous. Only for the mayfly Ephoron virgo clear effects were detected at the level of the single floodplain. The absence of clear population and community effects is puzzling since at lower contaminant concentrations adverse effects were detected in other environments. Factors that may mask toxic effects include flooding and food quality and quantity. We conclude that given the site specific conditions, being an open, eutrophic system with a highly dynamic flooding pattern, assessment of the contribution of toxicants to observed population density or biomass and community composition requires 1] an increase in number of replicates; 2] a larger scale of investigation and 3] comparison to stable systems with comparable contamination levels.
Sampling method, storage and pretreatment of sediment affect AVS concentrations with consequences for bioassay responses
Lange, H.J. de; Griethuysen, C. van; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2008
Environmental Pollution 151 (2008)1. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 243 - 251.
acid-volatile sulfide - fresh-water sediments - floodplain lake-sediments - rhine-meuse delta - macroinvertebrate community - asellus-aquaticus - benthic invertebrates - chironomus-riparius - trace-metals - toxicity
Sediment treatment and sediment storage may alter sediment toxicity, and consequently biotic response. Purpose of our study was to combine these three aspects (treatment-toxicity-biotic response) in one integrated approach. We used Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) concentrations as a proxy of the disturbance of the sediment. AVS and Simultaneously Extracted Metal (SEM) concentrations were compared to bioassay responses with the freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate Asellus aquaticus. Storage conditions and sediment treatment affected AVS but not SEM levels. AVS can be used as a proxy for sediment disturbance. The best way to pretreat the sediment for use in a bioassay in order to maintain initial AVS conditions was to sample the sediment with an Ekman grab, immediately store it in a jar without headspace, and freeze it as soon as possible. In a survey using seven different sediments, bioassay responses of A. aquaticus were correlated with SEM and AVS characteristics.
Including sorption to black carbon in modelling bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Uncertainty analysis and comparison with field data
Hauck, M. ; Hendriks, A.J. ; Huijbregts, M.J.A. ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Heuvel-Greve, M.J. van den; Moermond, C.T.A. ; Veltman, K. ; Vethaak, A.D. - \ 2007
Environmental Science and Technology 41 (2007)8. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 2738 - 2744.
contaminated sediments - benthic invertebrates - rate constants - polychlorinated-biphenyls - organic contaminants - equilibrium ratios - species weight - mytilus-edulis - native pahs - accumulation
Model estimations of bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been higher than field or laboratory data. This has been explained by strong sorption to black carbon (BC). In this paper, eight previously published bioaccumulation datasets were reinterpreted in terms of additional BC sorption. Biota-Solids Accumulation Factors (BSAFs) of PAHs typically decreased by 1-2 orders of magnitude and were better in line with field data in marine, fresh water, and terrestrial ecosystems. Probabilistic BC-inclusive modeling showed that if BC content is not accurately known, uncertainty in BSAFs is 2-3 orders of magnitude (90 percentile confidence interval) due to uncertainty in the BC sorption term. When BC contents are measured, the deviation between model estimations and field measurements reduces to about a factor of 3. This implies that including routine measurements of BC contents is crucial in improving risk estimations of PAHs.
Modelling decreased food chain accumulation of HOCs due to strong sorption to carbonaceous materials and metabolic transformation
Moermond, C.T.A. ; Traas, T.P. ; Roessink, I. ; Veltman, K. ; Hendriks, A.J. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2007
Environmental Science and Technology 41 (2007)17. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 6185 - 6191.
polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons - semipermeable-membrane devices - hydrophobic organic-chemicals - brominated flame retardants - web bioaccumulation model - black carbon - rate constants - benthic invertebrates - uncertainty analysis - aquatic ecosystems
The predictive power of bioaccumulation models may be limited when they do not account for strong sorption of organic contaminants to carbonaceous materials (CM) such as black carbon, and when they do not include metabolic transformation. We tested a food web accumulation model, including sorption to CM, on data from a model ecosystem experiment with historically contaminated sediment. In combination with measured CM contents of the sediment, the model gave good fits for the biota that are known not to metabolize PAHs (macrophytes, periphyton, floating algal biomass). The same model was applied to invertebrates and fish but now with optimization of their metabolic transformation rates (km). For fish, these rates correlated empirically with log KOW: Log km = -0.8 log KOW + 4.5 (r2adj = 0.73). For invertebrates, log km did not correlate with logKOW. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the model output is highly sensitive to sediment CM content and sorption parameters, moderately sensitive to metabolic transformation rates, and slightly sensitive to lipid fraction of the organism and diet-related parameters. It is concluded that CM-inclusive models yield a better assessment of accumulation than models without sorption to CM. Furthermore, inclusion of CM in a model enables metabolic transformation rates to be calculated from the remaining overestimation in the model results when compared to measured data.
Assessment of European streams with diatoms, macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and fish: a comparative metric-based analysis of organism response to stress
Hering, D. ; Johnson, R.K. ; Kramm, S. ; Schmutz, S. ; Szoszkiewicz, K. ; Verdonschot, P.F.M. - \ 2006
Freshwater Biology 51 (2006)9. - ISSN 0046-5070 - p. 1757 - 1785.
water-quality - running waters - biotic integrity - benthic invertebrates - community structure - assessment system - ecological change - melbourne region - land-use - river
1. Periphytic diatoms, macrophytes, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish were sampled with standard methods in 185 streams in nine European countries to compare their response to degradation. Streams were classified into two main stream type groups (i.e. lowland, mountain streams); in addition, the lowland streams were grouped into four more specific stream types. 2. Principal components analysis with altogether 43 environmental parameters was used to construct complex stressor gradients for physical¿chemical, hydromorphological and land use data. About 30 metrics were calculated for each sample and organism group. Metric responses to different stress types were analysed by Spearman Rank Correlation. 3. All four organism groups showed significant response to eutrophication/organic pollution gradients. Generally, diatom metrics were most strongly correlated to eutrophication gradients (85% and 89% of the diatom metrics tested correlated significantly in mountain and lowland streams, respectively), followed by invertebrate metrics (91% and 59%). 4. Responses of the four organism groups to other gradients were less strong; all organism groups responded to varying degrees to land use changes, hydromorphological degradation on the microhabitat scale and general degradation gradients, while the response to hydromorphological gradients on the reach scale was mainly limited to benthic macroinvertebrates (50% and 44% of the metrics tested correlated significantly in mountain and lowland streams, respectively) and fish (29% and 47%). 5. Fish and macrophyte metrics generally showed a poor response to degradation gradients in mountain streams and a strong response in lowland streams. 6. General recommendations on European bioassessment of streams were derived from the results.
Contaminated sediments and bioassay responses of three macroinvertebrates, the midge larva Chironomus riparius, the water louse Asellus aquaticus and the mayfly nymph Ephoron virgo
Lange, H.J. de; Haas, E.M. de; Maas, H. ; Peeters, E.T.H.M. - \ 2005
Chemosphere 61 (2005)11. - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 1700 - 1709.
floodplain lake-sediments - acid volatile sulfide - rhine-meuse delta - benthic invertebrates - cadmium accumulation - in-situ - community structure - hyalella-azteca - gammarus-pulex - toxicity tests
Bioassays are widely used to estimate ecological risks of contaminated sediments. We compared the results of three whole sediment bioassays, using the midge larva Chironomus riparius, the water louse Asellus aquaticus, and the mayfly nymph Ephoron virgo. We used sediments from sixteen locations in the Dutch Rhine-Meuse Delta that differed in level of contamination. Previously developed protocols for each bioassay were followed, which differed in sediment pretreatment, replication, and food availability. The Chironomus bioassay was conducted in situ, whereas the other two were conducted in the laboratory. The measured endpoints, survival and growth, were related to contaminant levels in the sediment and to food quantity in water and sediment. Only the response of A. aquaticus in the bioassay was correlated with sediment contamination. Food availability in overlying water was much more important for C. riparius and E. virgo, thereby masking potential sediment contaminant effects. We conclude that growth of A. aquaticus was depressed by sediment contamination, whereas growth of E. virgo and C. riparius was stimulated by seston food quantity. We discuss that the trophic state of the ecosystem largely affects the ecological risks of contaminated sediments
Analyzing the causes for the persistence of chironomids in flood plain lake sediments
Haas, E.M. de; Haaren, R. van; Koelmans, A.A. ; Kraak, M.H.S. ; Admiraal, W. - \ 2005
Archiv für Hydrobiologie 162 (2005)2. - ISSN 0003-9136 - p. 211 - 228.
sediment - verontreinigende stoffen - chironomus riparius - benthos - waterverontreiniging - stroomvlakten - zware metalen - meren - biotesten - nederland - ecotoxicologie - waterbodems - rijn - waal - sediment - pollutants - chironomus riparius - benthos - water pollution - floodplains - heavy metals - lakes - bioassays - netherlands - ecotoxicology - water bottoms - river rhine - river waal - quality triad approach - benthic invertebrates - community composition - marine sediment - riparius larvae - toxicity - diptera - river - deformation
The aim of the present study was to analyse the causes for the absence and persistence of chironomids in sediments with a complex pollution history. Observations on the benthic community composition in floodplain lake sediments of the River Rhine, differing in contaminant level and food quality, were combined with laboratory and in situ bioassays, using the midge Chironomus riparius as a model species. The positive relation between food quality and the diversity of the communities indicated that food quality is an important factor regulating benthic community composition, overriding the potential effects of contaminants. Nevertheless, in sediments with high contaminant levels, high densities of species classified as 'pollution-tolerant', such as Chironomus sp., were observed. The laboratory bioassays verified that the contaminant concentrations in these sediments had no direct effect on survival and growth of C. riparius, although higher contaminant concentrations in the sediment resulted in a higher incidence of mentum deformities. Also, the high growth rate of C. riparius in the in situ enclosures in two of the most contaminated sediments indicated chemical stress and mentum deformities did not exclude rapid growth. This observation agrees with the abundance of the resident pollution-tolerant chironomids of the Chironomus plumosus group. In addition, the in situ bioassay pointed out that predation on chironomids added to the field enclosures was significant and is also an important factor in regulating the abundance of chironomids. In sediments with the highest food quality and low levels of contaminants the opportunistic chironomids may have been outcompeted by benthic invertebrate taxa that are not able to persist at more contaminated sites. It is concluded that tolerance of opportunistic chironomids, such as Chironomus sp., combined with their rapid rate of development, enables them to persist in contaminated sediments that are organically enriched avoiding competition with other invertebrates
Combined effects of copper and food on the midge Chironomus riparius in whole sediment bioassays
Haas, E.M. de; Paumen, M.L. ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Kraak, M.H.S. - \ 2004
Environmental Pollution 127 (2004)1. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 99 - 107.
organic-matter content - toxicity tests - benthic invertebrates - contaminated sediments - lumbriculus-variegatus - tentans - growth - bioaccumulation - bioavailability - ecosystems
Effects observed in whole-sediment bioassays must be seen as the joint effect of all sediment characteristics. In whole-sediment bioassays. however. adverse effects oil test organisms are usually attributed to the presence of contaminants and effects of food are often ignored. The aim of this study was to analyze the response of the midge Chironomus riparius to sediment spiked with different combinations of food and copper. The responses of C. riparius to these spiked sediments were assessed in 10-day whole-sediment bioassays. Decreases in survival, dry weight, and length of C. riparius were observed with increasing copper concentrations. However. an increase in the amount of food resulted in an increase of larval dry weight and length until copper concentrations reached a critical threshold of 200 mg/kg. fit addition, an increase in the amount of food resulted in a decrease of accumulated copper ill the larvae. The present study demonstrated that the combination of copper and food in the sediment determines the performance of C. riparius in whole-sediment bioassays. The dependency of C. riparius oil high feeding levels, which mask toxic effects, questions its suitability as a test organism for whole-sediment bioassays. Because benthic communities in polluted ecosystems are often exposed to varying levels of both food and toxicants it is concluded that the trophic state of the ecosystem may alter the ecological risk of sediment-bound toxicants to opportunistic benthic invertebrates such as C. riparius. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.