Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Multi-objective decision-making for dietary assessment and advice
    Lemmen - Gerdessen, J.C. van - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Vorst; P. van 't Veer, co-promotor(en): G.D.H. Claassen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437073 - 136
    questionnaires - food - fractionation - modeling - diet - food intake - decision making - diet counseling - vragenlijsten - voedsel - fractionering - modelleren - dieet - voedselopname - besluitvorming - dieetadvisering

    Unhealthy diets contribute substantially to the worldwide burden of non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and diabetes. Globally, non-communicable diseases are the leading cause of death, and numbers are still rising, which makes healthy diets a global priority. In Nutrition Research, two fields are particularly relevant for formulating healthier diets: dietary assessment, which assesses food and nutrient intake in order to investigate the relation between diet and disease, and dietary advice, which translates food and nutrient recommendations into realistic food choices. Both fields face complex decision problems: which foods to include in dietary assessment or advice in order to pursue the multiple objectives of the researcher or fulfil the requirements of the consumer. This thesis connects the disciplines of Nutrition Research and Operations Research in order to contribute to formulating healthier diets.

    In the context of dietary assessment, the thesis proposes a MILP model for the selection of food items for food frequency questionnaires (a crucial tool in dietary assessment) that speeds up the selection process and increases standardisation, transparency, and reproducibility. An extension of this model gives rise to a 0-1 fractional programming problem with more than 200 fractional terms, of which in every feasible solution only a subset is actually defined. The thesis shows how this problem can be reformulated in order to eliminate the undefined fractional terms. The resulting MILP model can solved with standard software.

    In the context of dietary advice, the thesis proposes a diet model in which food and nutrient requirements are formulated via fuzzy sets. With this model, the impact of various achievement functions is demonstrated. The preference structures modelled via these achievement functions represent various ways in which multiple nutritional characteristics of a diet can be aggregated into an overall indicator for diet quality. Furthermore, for Operations Research the thesis provides new insights into a novel preference structure from literature, that combines equity and utilitarianism in a single model.

    Finally, the thesis presents conclusions of the research and a general discussion, which discusses, amongst others, the main modelling choices encountered when using MODM methods for optimising diet quality.

    Summarising, this thesis explores the use of MODM approaches to improve decision-making for dietary assessment and advice. It provides opportunities for better decision-making in research on dietary assessment and advice, and it contributes to model building and solving in Operations Research. Considering the added value for Nutrition Research and the new models and solutions generated, we conclude that the combination of both fields has resulted in synergy between Nutrition Research and Operations Research.

    Towards sustainable tuna fishing: understanding the role of private incentive mechanisms
    Tolentino-Zondervan, Frazen - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.G.J.M. Oude Lansink; S.R. Bush, co-promotor(en): P.B.M. Berentsen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436236 - 205
    tuna - fishing - sustainability - sea fishing - marine fisheries - marine animals - environmental protection - value chain analysis - decision making - philippines - south east asia - business economics - tonijn - vis vangen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - sportzeevisserij - zeevisserij - zeedieren - milieubescherming - waardeketenanalyse - besluitvorming - filippijnen - zuidoost-azië - bedrijfseconomie

    Unsustainable fishing practices, including the use of non-selective fishing methods and Illegal Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing, contribute to the decline of tuna fish stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO). This has led to emergence of different public and private governance arrangements to foster the sustainable exploitation of tuna stocks. This thesis focuses on the performance of three innovative private incentive mechanisms: Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs), International Seafood Sustainability Foundation’s Pro-active Vessel Register and eco-FADs, and Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certification, to deliver economic incentives for improved production. The overall objective of this thesis is to evaluate the extent to which private incentive mechanisms influence Filipino fishers’ decision to improve their fishing practices.

    In order to address the overall objective, this thesis first analyses and compares the ways existing private incentive mechanisms influence the upgrading strategies of Filipino tuna fishers in the value chains (in chapter 2). Second, it evaluates the important determinants for small-scale handline fishers’ decisions to participate in two FIPs for yellowfin tuna in the Philippines (in chapter 3). Third, it examines the effect of MSC certification on the allocation of fishing days by Filipino purse seiners operating in Parties to Nauru Agreement (in chapter 4). And finally, it analyses the profitability of investments in measures needed to comply with private incentive mechanisms by Filipino purse seiners (in chapter 5).

    The findings show that overall, the incentive mechanisms are able to improve the practices of fishers, however only to a limited extent. The first two chapters (chapters 2 and 3) show that producers first need to have the capabilities to meet the requirements of private incentive mechanisms, so that they can be included in the value chain and that they can realise the incentives offered by these mechanisms. However, being capable does not guarantee that producers will improve their practices. As shown in the last two chapters (chapters 4 and 5), producers must also have the willingness to upgrade, based on their risk attitude and on the ability of the economic incentive to cover the additional costs and to compensate for the increase of the risks of participation of producers. Given that producers have the availability of capabilities to upgrade and that the benefit is sufficient to opt for participation, then producers may decide to improve their practices, which may contribute to the sustainability improvement goal of private incentive mechanisms. As a consequence of this finding, the incentives, inclusiveness, and improvements must be taken into account in both the design and implementation of private incentive mechanisms.

    Understanding heterogeneity in decision-making among elderly consumers: the case of functional foods
    Zanden, Lotte D.T. van der - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.C.M. van Trijp, co-promotor(en): P.W. Kleef; R.A. de Wijk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431439 - 161
    voedselopname - ouderen - voedselsamenstellingtabellen - voedselverrijking - ouderenvoeding - leeftijdsgroepen - marketing - marketing van voedingsmiddelen - ziekenhuisdiëten - besluitvorming - consumenten - voedselconsumptie - food intake - elderly - food composition tables - food enrichment - elderly nutrition - age groups - marketing - food marketing - hospital diets - decision making - consumers - food consumption

    The population of elderly has grown considerably over the past few decades, due to reduced birth rates and increased life expectancy. Old age is, however, still associated with a higher incidence of various health conditions that pose a threat to quality of life and result in high healthcare costs. Various products and services could help elderly to stay active and healthy for longer if they were adopted, such as mobility aids, home modifications and functional foods. A key challenge is to position products and services like these on the market in such a way that elderly can see their value and will start using them. In doing this, it is crucial to know what elderly need and to understand how they make decisions. This thesis therefore aims to provide a deeper understanding of decision-making among elderly consumers. It does so using functional foods as an example, and concentrates on answering the following research questions: 1) Which types of wants, inferences and intentions characterize the elderly consumer population? 2) What are relevant ways to distinguish between elderly consumers? and 3) How can elderly consumers be motivated to form consumption intentions for products and services aimed at promoting their wellbeing?

    An experience-sampling paradigm shows that there are age-related differences in both desires (i.e. wants), such as the desire for food, and goals, such as the goal to work (i.e. intentions), but not in the way these wants and intentions interact with each other (Chapter 2). Young and old consumers experience the same types of conflict between their wants and intentions. The extent of conflict does change with age however, such that older adults experience conflict less often and less strongly than younger adults. This age-related difference can be partly explained by the way in which consumers perceive the time they have left in their lives. Those who perceive time as limited, experience more conflict. Zooming in on product-specific decision-making, a series of focus groups indicates that elderly consumers overall want to use healthy products that they use frequently as a basis for enrichment with protein (Chapter 3). Most elderly do not display intentions to purchase and use such products, however, either because they do not feel the need to use functional foods or because they hold various negative inferences regarding functional foods, such as a high price or bad taste. Importantly, elderly consumers differ strongly in their wants, inferences and intentions, suggesting that segmentation of this population is warranted.

    A narrative review reveals that there are various ways to segment the elderly consumer population, for example based on age, future time perspective or purchase behaviour, and every approach has its strengths and weaknesses (Chapter 4). Based on the objectives of a segmentation approach one can, however, make an informed decision regarding which segmentation base to use. In the functional food market, elderly consumers may best be segmented using a segmentation base on the food or product level (i.e. rather than the person level) that results in segments in which consumers have similar needs and wants, for example the attributes benefits that consumers seek. A segmentation study shows that using such a segmentation base results in segments that provide concrete instructions for the development of functional foods (Chapter 5). The resulting segments of elderly have unique preferences that do not necessarily reflect those of the average elderly consumer and thereby provide useful insights that can help increase our understanding of elderly consumers.

    Segmentation also provides a basis for tailoring products to the needs and wants of elderly consumers. A segmentation study illustrates that such tailoring can increase elderly consumers’ willingness to try protein-enriched foods for the first time (i.e. trial purchase), as well as their willingness to use such products on a more regular basis (i.e. repeat purchase) (Chapter 5). For a small group of elderly, tailoring proves to be ineffective, however, as they categorically reject all types of protein-enriched foods presented to them. These elderly are relatively uninterested in the concept of functional foods, which may be due to negative inferences surrounding such products. Overcoming the activation of such negative inferences may be useful in motivating elderly consumers to use protein-enriched foods. A field study in a hospital setting shows that the implementation of a verbal prompt intervention that motivates consumers to make decisions without much can increase the consumption of protein (Chapter 6). By understanding and capitalizing on cognitive biases in human decision-making, interventions like these can motivate consumers to form consumption intentions even when they hold negative inferences about products or services.

    Overall, this thesis shows that although elderly consumers share an age bracket they are strongly heterogeneous in their wants, inferences and intentions. This heterogeneity is robust, as it can even be observed when zooming in on decision-making regarding a specific product category (i.e. protein-enriched foods). Our understanding of the elderly consumer population increases by studying this heterogeneity, as it provides insights beyond those that apply to the group of elderly that reflect the average. In studying heterogeneity, it pays off to focus on bases that are predictive of behaviour while demographic characteristics like age provide only few insights. Industry and health institutions can also benefit from an increased understanding of the composition of the elderly population and how they make decisions. Such understanding may provide them with concrete instructions for the development and commercialization of products and services for this growing group of consumers.

    Socio-economic modelling of rabies control in Flores Island, Indonesia
    Wera, Ewaldus - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Henk Hogeveen, co-promotor(en): Monique Mourits. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430586 - 182
    rabies - rabies virus - control programmes - control methods - dogs - indonesia - decision making - vaccination - hondsdolheid - hondsdolheidvirus - bestrijdingsprogramma's - bestrijdingsmethoden - honden - indonesië - besluitvorming - vaccinatie

    Rabies is a zoonotic viral disease that can cause encephalomyelitis both in animals and humans. Since its introduction in Flores Island, Indonesia in 1997, it has been a serious public health threat with significant economic consequences. To control the disease, annual dog vaccination campaigns have been implemented to vaccinate all dogs free of any charge. Nevertheless, the campaigns have not been successful in eliminating rabies from the island.

    The main objective of this dissertation was to support future decisions on the control of rabies in Flores Island by providing insight into the role of socio-demographic and psychological factors of dog owners in the uptake of rabies control measures and by analyzing the cost-effectiveness of alternative mass dog vaccination strategies.

    By means of a cost accounting model, the costs of the currently applied rabies control measures in Flores Island were estimated at US$1.12 million (range: US$0.60–1.47 million) per year. The costs of culling roaming dogs resulted in the highest cost portion (39%), followed by the costs of post-exposure treatment (35%) and mass vaccination (24%).

    Risk factors associated with the uptake level of rabies control measures were analysed based upon an extensive survey among 450 dog-owners in the regencies of Sikka and Manggarai. Only 52% of these dog owners had at least one of their dogs vaccinated during the 2012 vaccination campaign. Vaccination uptake was significantly higher for dog owners who resided in Sikka, kept female dogs for breeding, had a monthly income of more than one million rupiah, and had easy access to their village.

    A study based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour demonstrated that the actual intention of dog owners to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign was high (> 90%). The attitude item ‘vaccinating dogs reduces rabies cases in humans’, and the perceived behavioural control items ‘availability of time’ and ‘ability to confine dogs’ were shown to be significantly associated with this intention level. Relevant considerations to improve the participation level in future vaccination campaigns are therefore appropriate time management as well as the provision of skills to confine dogs during the vaccination.

    The cost-effectiveness of different mass dog vaccination strategies was evaluated by means of a deterministic model simulating transmission of rabies virus through the dog population of one village. Annual vaccination using a short-acting vaccine at a coverage of 50% was far from being cost-effective, suggesting that the currently applied rabies control in Flores Island is not an efficient investment in reducing human rabies burden. An increased investment in either an increase in the current coverage or in a switch from the short-acting vaccine to the long-acting vaccine type would certainly pay off.

    D3.3: Good practice guidelines for stakeholder and citizen participation in bioeconomy strategies
    Davies, Sara ; Ribeiro, Barbara ; Millar, Kate ; Miller, Stephen ; Vironen, Heidi ; Charles, David ; Griestop, Laura ; Hasenheit, Marius ; Kiresiewa, Zoritza ; Hoes, A.C. ; Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Bianchini, Chiara - \ 2016
    EU - 35
    biobased economy - government policy - public participation - case studies - decision making - multi-stakeholder processes - biobased economy - overheidsbeleid - publieke participatie - gevalsanalyse - besluitvorming - multi-stakeholder processen
    This document has been developed as part of Work Package 3 of the BioSTEP project, which has examined current participatory practices, involving both stakeholders and citizens, in bioeconomy strategies in six case studies, namely: Two case studies at national level (Finland and Germany); Four case studies at regional level (Bio-based Delta in the Netherlands, Saxony-Anhalt in Germany, Scotland in the United Kingdom, and the Veneto in Italy). Key documentary sources include international and national practice-based literature on stakeholder and public engagement, as well as other BioSTEP publications. Two earlier reports (Charles et al., 2016; Davies et al., 2016) provide a detailed overview of participation in these six case studies of national and regional bioeconomy strategies. Building on this work, as well as on a review of existing research on stakeholder and citizen engagement in the bioeconomy, this document sets out guidance and suggestions for designing and undertaking engagement with stakeholders and citizens in relation to national and regional bioeconomy strategies.
    Sustainable consumption and marketing
    Dam, Y.K. van - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hans van Trijp. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576490 - 176
    consumer behaviour - marketing - consumption - household consumption - market research - decision making - behavioural changes - behaviour - economic psychology - sustainability - consumentengedrag - marketing - consumptie - huishoudelijke consumptie - marktonderzoek - besluitvorming - gedragsveranderingen - gedrag - economische psychologie - duurzaamheid (sustainability)

    Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the ‘importance’ of ‘sustainability’ has a meaning that is not directly translated into purchases.

    The cognitive and motivational perceptual structures of sustainability among light users of sustainable products are empirically compared to the Brundlandt definition (needs of future generations) and the Triple-P-Baseline (people, planet, prosperity) definition of sustainability. Results show that light users cognitively can distinguish between the social and temporal dimensions of the Brundlandt definition, as well as the people, planet and prosperity dimensions of the Triple-P definition of sustainability. In the motivational structure of light users of sustainable products, all attributes that do not offer direct and personal benefits are collapsed into a single dimension. This single dimension explains purchases more parsimoniously than a more complex structure, and is itself explained by a set of psychographic predictors that appears to be related to identity.

    Perceived relevance and determinance are two distinct constructs, underlying the overall concept of attribute importance. Attribute relevance is commonly measured by self-reported importance in a Likert type scale. In order to measure attribute determinance a survey based measure is developed. In an empirical survey (N=1543) determinance of sustainability related product attributes is measured through a set of forced choice items and contrasted to self-reported relevance of those attributes. In line with expectations, a priori determinance predicts sustainable food choice more efficiently than perceived relevance. Determinance of sustainability related product attributes can be predicted by future temporal orientation, independently of relevance of these attributes.

    These results support an interpretation of the attitude to behaviour gap in terms of construal level theory, and this theory allows for testable hypotheses on low construal motivators that should induce light users to purchase sustainable products. Sustainable consumption is viewed as a dilemma between choices for immediate (low construal) benefits and choices that avoid long-term collective (high construal) harm.

    Identity theory suggests that self-confirmation could be a driving motive behind the performance of norm-congruent sustainable behaviour. Through identity people may acquire the intrinsic motivation to carry out pro-environmental behaviour. This view is tested in two empirical studies in The Netherlands. The first study shows that sustainable identity predicts sustainable preference, and that the effect of identity on preference is partly mediated by self-confirmation motives. The second study confirms that sustainable identity influences the determinance of sustainable attributes, and through this determinance has an impact on sustainable product choice. This effect is partly mediated by stated relevance of these attributes.

    Sustainable certification signals positive sustainable quality of a product, but fail to create massive demand for such products. Based on regulatory focus theory and prospect theory it is argued that negative signalling of low sustainable quality would have a stronger effect on the adoption of sustainable products than the current positive signalling of high sustainable quality. The effects of positive vs. negative signalling of high vs. low sustainable quality on attitude and preference formation are tested in three experimental studies. Results show (1) that negative labelling has a larger effect on attitude and preference than positive labelling, (2) that the effect of labelling is enhanced by regulatory fit, and (3) that the effect of labelling is mediated by personal norms, whereas any additional direct effect of environmental concern on preference formation is negligible.

    Overall the present thesis suggests that the attitude to behaviour gap in sustainable consumption can be explained as a conflict between high construal motives for the abstract and distant goals of sustainable development and the low construal motives that drive daily consumption. Activating low construal motives for sustainable consumption, be it intrinsic motives to affirm a sustainable self-concept or loss aversion motives, increases sustainable consumer behaviour. Applying these insights to marketing decision making opens a new line of research into the individual, corporate, and institutional drivers that may contribute to the sustainable development of global food markets.

    Naar een groene planologie: planologie in Wageningen
    Valk, A.J.J. van der - \ 2015
    Rooilijn 48 (2015)1. - ISSN 1380-2860 - p. 62 - 69.
    landschap - landgebruiksplanning - besluitvorming - regionale planning - klimaatverandering - hydrologie - platteland - landscape - land use planning - decision making - regional planning - climatic change - hydrology - rural areas
    In Wageningen heeft de planologie van meet af aan haar plaats tussen de technische wetenschappen moeten vinden en hervinden. Naast aansprekende resultaten, zoals de lagenbenadering die in Wageningen is ontwikkeld, heeft dat geleid tot permanent theoretiseren van de complexe wederzijdse inwerking tussen menselijk handelen en bodem, water en klimaat. Groene planologie en het landschap als centraal onderzoeksobject bepalen de huidige positie en theorievorming van de planologie.
    Kansen en belemmeringen voor omschakeling naar de biologische sector
    Meeusen, M.J.G. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-148)
    agrarische bedrijfsvoering - landbouw bedrijven - biologische landbouw - landbouwsector - besluitvorming - investeringsbeslissingen - boeren - nederland - farm management - farming - organic farming - agricultural sector - decision making - investment decisions - farmers - netherlands
    De vraag naar biologische producten groeit harder dan het aanbod van de Nederlandse biologische sector. De vraag die het ministerie van Economische Zaken stelt is welke factoren de omschakeling van de gangbare naar de biologische sector belemmeren en hoe deze omschakeling gestimuleerd kan worden. Daartoe heeft ze het LEI Wageningen UR gevraagd om interviews met marktpartijen te houden en een enquête uit te zetten om de overwegingen bij biologische boeren te peilen. Belangrijke uitkomst is dat de sector vooral zelf de regie wil houden op het omschakelproces en voor de overheid een faciliterende rol ziet.
    Sociale dynamiek in Het Nieuwe Telen : Aangrijpingspunten voor opschaling naar 2000 ha in 2020
    Buurma, J.S. ; Beers, P.J. ; Smit, P.X. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI 2015-051) - ISBN 9789086157136 - 54
    glastuinbouw - ondernemerschap - teeltsystemen - duurzame landbouw - doelstellingen - kennisoverdracht - energiebesparing - klimaatregeling - samenleving - tendensen - besluitvorming - sociale factoren - nederland - greenhouse horticulture - entrepreneurship - cropping systems - sustainable agriculture - objectives - knowledge transfer - energy saving - air conditioning - society - trends - decision making - social factors - netherlands
    De huidige studie richt zich op de sociale dynamiek in de kopgroep van de brede praktijk: welke sociale processen vinden daar plaats? Met het verkregen inzicht probeert KaE een versnelling in de introductie van HNT te bewerkstelligen, en daarmee de taakstelling van 2.000 ha HNT in 2020 haalbaar te maken. Voor versnelling van de introductie van Het Nieuwe Telen (HNT), een nieuwe en energiebesparende benadering voor klimaatsturing in de glastuinbouw, kan het beste worden samengewerkt met de zogenoemde ‘gewasgerichte ondernemers’. Deze ondernemers zijn te herkennen aan hun passie voor klimaatsturing, hun voorkeur om te leren met collega’s en hun behoefte om plantgezondheid te borgen. Een extra argument is dat de gewasgerichte ondernemers binnen de glastuinbouw verreweg de grootste deelgroep (circa 50% van populatie met circa 60% van het areaal) vormen. Naast de gewasgerichte ondernemers bestaan marktgerichte en kostengerichte ondernemers. Deze deelgroepen redeneren vanuit andere bedrijfsomstandigheden en andere prioriteiten (Tabel S.1). Zij vergen een eigen benadering bij de introductie van HNT. De marktgerichte ondernemers proberen de maatschappelijke meerwaarde van HNT in de markt te verzilveren. Daar kan de glastuinbouw van leren. De kostengerichte ondernemers wachten op een blauwdruk voor HNT. Zij kunnen leren van de voortschrijdende HNT-inzichten van de gewasgerichte ondernemers.
    Besteed zorg aan het wensenlijstje en het objectief doormeten : Silke Hemming over keuze juiste diffuse kasdek
    Staalduinen, J. van; Hemming, S. - \ 2015
    Onder Glas 12 (2015)6/7. - p. 10 - 11.
    glastuinbouw - beglazing - diffuus glas - optische eigenschappen - condenseren - verstrooiing - besluitvorming - bemonsteren - behoeften - greenhouse horticulture - glazing - diffused glass - optical properties - condensation - scattering - decision making - sampling - requirements
    Dat een diffuus kasdek – met of zonder antireflectiecoating – meerwaarde biedt ten opzichte van traditioneel basisglas weten telers inmiddels. Het is echter niet eenvoudig om tot een juiste glaskeuze te komen. Onderzoekster Silke Hemming zet de relevante aspecten op een rij. Een onderschatte factor is het doormeten van glasmonsters op basis van goede steekproeven bij grootschalige nieuwbouwprojecten.
    Decision-making guidance for pesticide registration : pesticide risk reduction programme - Ethiopia
    Valk, H. van der; Vliet, P. van; Peeters, F.M. - \ 2015
    Alterra Wageningen UR : Wageningen (Alterra-report 2659) - 39
    pesticiden - toelating van bestrijdingsmiddelen - registratie - besluitvorming - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - risicovermindering - ethiopië - pesticides - authorisation of pesticides - registration - decision making - decision support systems - risk reduction - ethiopia
    Economic analysis of Dutch agricultural land use in a changing policy environment
    Boere, E.J.M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wim Heijman, co-promotor(en): Jack Peerlings; Stijn Reinhard. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573352 - 207
    regionale economie - landgebruik - economische analyse - landbouwgrond - landbouwbeleid - financieel landbouwbeleid - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - quota's - grondprijzen - besluitvorming - landbouwprijzen - landbouwverzekering - regional economics - land use - economic analysis - agricultural land - agricultural policy - agricultural financial policy - cap - quotas - land prices - decision making - agricultural prices - agricultural insurance


    This study empirically investigates farmers’ decision-making on agricultural land use change in the Netherlands. Five driving factors influencing decision making on both on-farm land adjustments and changes to the size of the farm are selected: increased price volatility, milk quota, land prices, direct payments and insurance possibilities. By analysing the influence of increased output price volatility and risk on land use change, it is first shown that opposite effects between complementing and substituting land uses are present, leading to competition within the dairy sector and within crop production. Second, by employing a duration model over the period before, during and towards milk quota abolition, it is empirically shown that quota hamper the pace of change in land used for milk production on dairy farms. Third, the price of agricultural land is analysed by taking into account four categories that all influence the price of land: the direct influence via the returns from land, institutional regulations, the spatial environment and local market conditions. It is shown that the financial crisis leads to a decline in the effects of local market conditions, but the announcement of milk quota abolition in 2008 has led to an increase in the effects of the spatial environment. The last two driving factors analyse policy measures using a mathematical programming model. Fourth, it is found that the 2013 Common Agricultural Policy reforms will cause farmers to shift away from crops previously eligible for payments, with the initial shift of the direct payment reform enhanced by the move towards direct payments combined with a green payment. Fifth, small changes in land allocation towards more volatile crops are observed when the possibility of whole farm and crop-specific insurance is offered. In general it is found that when production risk is decreased, this opens the possibility to increase risk in other areas, such as farm expansion. When the total amount of farmland is treated as variable, changes to land cannot be explained by changes in revenues and risk alone. Land use change is now also influenced by long-term decision making based on expectations on future costs and revenues, and other factors such as farm characteristics, institutional and transaction characteristics and the influence of location and economic conjecture.

    Affect and cognition in attitude formation towards familiar and unfamiliar attitude objects: the case of nanotechnology
    Giesen, R.I. van - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hans van Trijp, co-promotor(en): Arnout Fischer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573390 - 187
    nanotechnologie - houding van consumenten - attitudes - besluitvorming - technologie - voedseltechnologie - kennisniveau - kenvermogen - nanotechnology - consumer attitudes - attitudes - decision making - technology - food technology - knowledge level - cognition
    Together, the chapters in this thesis show that although the default is to rely on affect, in attitude formation toward unfamiliar attitude objects, people are able to draw on cognitive inferences provided that there are enough cues available (e.g. product context, high Need for Cognition, or being more often exposed). In addition, whether people rely on affect or cognition depends on which process is the easiest. The attitude component which is decisive in the attitude formation process requires the least elaborate process. This thesis contributes to a better process understanding as both affective-cognitive and deliberative-intuitive dimensions were simultaneously studied. Finally, it is concluded that attitudes toward unfamiliar attitude objects, in this case nanotechnology applications, are still subject to change. This has implications for communication about new technologies, as it is important to address both affective and cognitive aspects.
    Knowledge for Climate 2008-2014
    Driessen, P.P.J. ; Vellinga, P. ; Deelen, C.L. van; Slegers, M.F.W. ; Döpp, S. ; Heinen, M. ; Pater, F. de; Piek, O. ; Nieuwaal, K. van - \ 2015
    Utrecht : Foundation Knowledge for Climate (Report / Knowledge for Climate KfC 153/2015) - ISBN 9789492100146 - 132
    klimaatverandering - regionale planning - waterbeheer - besluitvorming - internationale samenwerking - climatic change - regional planning - water management - decision making - international cooperation
    This is the final report (eindrapport) of the national Knowledge for Climate (KfC) research program. The program was set up in 2007 to explore the consequences of climate change for the Netherlands and how they should be managed. To that end, an independent foundation was established with the objective of “promoting evidence-based and practice- driven knowledge about climate in the public interest, including making that knowledge available to the public. The foundation has achieved that objective, together with stakeholders, by organizing and funding research and encouraging the processes of knowledge dissemination and application. Follow-up foundations are: Delta Alliance International, Climate Adaptation Services, Waterbuffer Foundation. The program did not aim to influence regional and local authorities directly. It provided the knowledge needed to improve decision-making regarding long term spatial planning investments. The program provided the tools – for example the Climate Adaptation Atlas – so that local and regional authorities can get to work on adaptation.
    The knowledge management arena: agent-based modelling of the pig sector
    Osinga, S.A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Adrie Beulens, co-promotor(en): Gert Jan Hofstede. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572270 - 218
    kennismanagement - informatiemanagement - varkenshouderij - besluitvorming - boeren - kennis - knowledge management - information management - pig farming - decision making - farmers - knowledge

    Abstract belonging to PhD thesis:
    The knowledge management arena: agent-based modelling of the pig sector
    Sjoukje A. Osinga
    Wageningen University, Information technology group

    To be defended on 22nd of April, 2015
    Promotor: Em. Prof. ir AJM (Adrie) Beulens, Information technology group
    Co-promotor: Dr ir GJ (Gert Jan) Hofstede, Information technology group

    Complex adaptive systems are characterized by multiple levels of behaviour: the behaviour of individual components and the behaviour of the entire system. In this thesis we study this relationship by means of agent-based models. By modelling individuals (agents) and their behaviour only, and simulating this behaviour over time, we generate emerging patterns: we did not explicitly put them in. We try to understand these patterns by reasoning back to individual level (multi-level analysis).

    Our application domain is knowledge management in the pig sector. Through a series of cases, we study the relationship between farmers' decision outcomes and their implications for the sector (bottom-up), and, vice versa, the relationship between sector-wide interventions and their effect on farmers' decision outcomes (top-down). Farmers make decisions based on knowledge, which diffuses through the population. We develop our agent-based models and the representation of knowledge throughout the thesis. Our final model is applicable to not only the pig sector, but to any sector with autonomous suppliers who need to make decisions based on criteria to be matched. A secondary aim of this thesis is methodological: to convey the merits of applying agent-based modelling to this type of multi-level research problem.

    Our cases concern each farmer's decision of which quality market to supply his pigs to (agent level). As outcome, we observe the spectrum of emerging quality market shares (sector level). Knowledge is assumed to be a prerequisite for market entry, and defined as everything a farmer needs to know to match the entrance criteria set by a market segment, as perceived by that farmer. Knowledge management refers to both the individual farmer's activities to coordinate a market's criteria with his own options, and the activities at sector level to influence all farmers' decision behaviour.

    One case addresses reproducing a well-known sector-level phenomenon (the pork cycle) by modelling individuals only. Other cases study the effect on emerging market shares of experimenting with agent-level properties: the amount of available knowledge and the conditions under which knowledge can be exchanged, and knowledge quality. The last case investigates the effect of experimenting with sector-level properties on individual farmer behaviour: two different policy interventions, and variations in demand. We apply multi-level analysis to seek explanations for emergent patterns in terms of individual farmer behaviour. Expert validation is used to evaluate the plausibility of model outcomes and explanations with respect to the real world.

    Results show that (1) the presence of sufficient knowledge in the system is more important than the network structure between knowledge exchanging agents for emerging quality market shares; (2) efficient knowledge management increases quality, but there is a limit to that efficiency; and (3) imposing policies on a sector the hard way is not necessarily more effective than making gradual changes, while the latter is more friendly for the individuals. Multi-level analysis proves to give added value to the results: in two cases, an unexpected pattern in model outcomes occurred, for which multi-level analysis could provide an explanation in model terms. Judged by the experts, the explanation for one of the patterns was deemed plausible in reality.

    In conclusion we can say that both varying individual properties and varying system-level properties result in responsive behaviour that can be explained in model terms, and that is to some extent plausible in reality. Knowledge representation power appears to differ per model. Dependent on the aim of the model, representation power can be kept deliberately modest (as in the pork cycle model), or can be rich (as in the final model, that allows representing different types of knowledge). We believe that the representation power of agent-based models make them sufficiently suitable to represent a real-world case, as long as the model has a well-defined purpose. We recommend agent-based modelling as a method, with multi-level analysis providing added value. We believe that extending this line of research is promising for any discipline where complex adaptive systems are object of study, of which knowledge management is an example.

    Samen met ondernemers naar een weerbare bodem - Bodemweerbaarheid in de praktijk
    Hospers, M. ; Lamers, J.G. ; Cuijpers, W.J.M. ; Broek, R.C.F.M. van den - \ 2015
    Louis Bolk Instituut en PPO-AGV - 29
    duurzame landbouw - bodemweerbaarheid - duurzame ontwikkeling - gewasbescherming - cultuurmethoden - besluitvorming - ondernemerschap - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - veldgewassen - sustainable agriculture - soil suppressiveness - sustainable development - plant protection - cultural methods - decision making - entrepreneurship - farm management - field crops
    De land- en tuinbouw ontwikkelt zich in de richting van steeds intensievere en complexere bedrijfssystemen. Vanuit de sector groeit het besef dat de chemische benadering van ziekten en plagen haar grenzen begint te bereiken. Ook de consument verlangt van de producent dat de inzet van chemische middelen gereduceerd wordt en gezocht wordt naar andere, meer duurzame oplossingen. Een van de oplossingsrichtingen is het creëren van een gezonde, veerkrachtige en weerbare bodem. Op zulke bodems groeit een gezond gewas met een goede opbrengst die minder gevoelig is voor ziekten en plagen en efficiënter omgaat met nutriënten waardoor er minder verliezen optreden. Hierdoor hoeven telers minder gewasbeschermingsmiddelen en nutriënten te gebruiken en kunnen ze, met een beter inkomen, milieuvriendelijker telen. De doelstelling van het project was om, samen met ondernemers, na te gaan of er een relatie te leggen was tussen bodemweerbaarheid en wat er in de praktijk gebeurt. Verder is ook nagegaan of er uit het onderzoek maatregelen te destilleren waren die voor de praktijk interessant kunnen zijn.
    Update Checklist Energiebesparende Maatregelen
    Wildschut, J. - \ 2014
    BloembollenVisie (2014). - ISSN 1571-5558 - p. 23 - 23.
    tuinbouwbedrijven - bloembollen - energiebesparing - bedrijfsmanagement - maatregelen - controlelijsten - besluitvorming - market gardens - ornamental bulbs - energy saving - business management - measures - checklists - decision making
    De laatste versie van de Checklist Energiebesparende Maatregelen is inmiddels vijf jaar oud. Door PPO Bloembollen en DLV Plant is deze nu geactualiseerd. De bedoeling van de checklist is dat bloembollenbedrijven zelf een zogenoemde shortlist kunnen maken van voor hen interessante mogelijkheden. Samen met adviseurs of installateurs kan dan uitgewerkt worden welke maatregelen op het bedrijf het meest lucratief zijn.
    UCAM: Urban Climate Assessment and Management : wijkgerichte beoordeling van hitte in de stad
    Groen, R. ; Zoete, J. ; Klompmaker, J. ; Schilt, M. ; Steeneveld, G.J. ; Koopmans, S. ; Sluijter, R. ; Hurk, B. van den; Eskes, H. ; Wolters, D. ; Min, E. - \ 2014
    Den Haag : Witteveen+Bos - 38
    stedelijke gebieden - temperatuur - klimaatverandering - luchtverontreiniging - gezondheid - besluitvorming - methodologie - urban areas - temperature - climatic change - air pollution - health - decision making - methodology
    De laatste jaren is er steeds meer aandacht voor stedelijke hitte. Het weer in de stad is een dynamisch micro-meteorologisch systeem. De stedelijke omgeving heeft op veel manieren een invloed op dit systeem. Ongeveer alle fysieke aspecten van een wijk hebben in meer of mindere mate een invloed op de stralingsbalans, temperatuur en wind. Gezamenlijk met de aanwezige milieufactoren in de stad, denk aan luchtverontreiniging, verslechtert het leefmi- lieu tijdens hittegolven. Het leefmilieu tijdens hittegolven heeft op veel verschillende manie- ren een negatieve uitwerking op de economie en de volksgezondheid. In dit project is nagegaan welke belemmeringen er zijn ten aanzien de beoordeling en vermindering van hitteproblematiek. Doel is om tot een heldere besluitvorming te komen.
    Dynamiek in participatief ontwerpen : samen met bewoners van de Sint Martens Hof in Arnhem een gemeenschappelijke tuin ontwerpen
    Veen, E.J. ; Cate, B. ten - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 308) - 64
    tuinarchitectuur - tuinen - ontwerpend onderzoek - gemeenschappelijk bezit - stakeholders - besluitvorming - gelderland - garden architecture - gardens - research by design - common property resources - stakeholders - decision making - gelderland
    Sint Martens Hof is een vereniging die twintig stadshuizen renoveert. De woningen zijn particulier eigendom en hebben naast een kleine eigen tuin samen één gemeenschappelijke binnentuin. De Wetenschapswinkel is gevraagd om een ontwerp op hoofdlijnen te maken voor een duurzame tuin. Naast vooraf benoemde randvoorwaarden stelde het terrein zelf ook enkele eisen aan het ontwerp, zoals het omgaan met hoogteverschil. Met name het proces van besluitvorming staat centraal in dit rapport. Vergelijking met andere projecten laat zien dat de houding van de gemeente belangrijk is, het enthousiasme van betrokkenen cruciaal; er moet synergie en dynamiek ontstaan.
    De strategie rond dak- en gevelgroen
    Hop, M.E.C.M. ; Hiemstra, J.A. - \ 2014
    Randwijk : Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving, Bloembollen, Boomkwekerij & Fruit - 27
    groene gevels - groene daken - vegetatiebeheer - stedelijke gebieden - ecosysteemdiensten - economische analyse - neerslag - woningen - particulier eigendom - besluitvorming - kosten-batenanalyse - green walls - green roofs - vegetation management - urban areas - ecosystem services - economic analysis - precipitation - dwellings - private ownership - decision making - cost benefit analysis
    In dicht bevolkte stadsdelen is een groot deel van de daken privaat eigendom, en hebben stadsbesturen de vergroening van de daken niet in eigen hand. Groene daken leveren echter diensten die juist voor de stad als geheel gewenst zijn. Voor de particuliere eigenaar wegen de aanlegkosten niet op tegen de te verwachten private baten. Het stadsbestuur zal er dus voor moeten zorgen dat het voor eigenaren de moeite waard wordt om een groen dak aan te leggen, wil de stad van de voordelen kunnen profiteren. In de literatuurstudie is daarom ook gekeken naar de oplossingsrichtingen die worden genoemd, om de aanleg van dak- en gevelgroen te stimuleren. Daarnaast is uitgezocht of de oplossingsrichtingen alle bezwaren kunnen wegnemen. In Nederland zijn 12 gemeentes die een subsidieregeling voor groene daken hebben of hadden. Als onderdeel van de hier beschreven studie is daarom in vraaggesprekken met een deel van deze gemeentes nagegaan hoe deze regelingen in de praktijk functioneren.
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