Preliminary assessment on the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern in raw and cooked seafood
Alves, Ricardo N. ; Maulvault, Ana L. ; Barbosa, Vera L. ; Cunha, Sara ; Kwadijk, Christiaan J.A.F. ; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana ; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara ; Aznar-Alemany, Òscar ; Eljarrat, Ethel ; Barceló, Damià ; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita ; Tediosi, Alice ; Marques, António - \ 2017
Food and Chemical Toxicology 104 (2017)June 2017. - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 69 - 78.
Seafood - perfluorinated compounds - brominated flame retardants - Pharmaceuticals - personal care products - bioaccessibility - Steaming
A preliminary assessment of the bioaccessibility of contaminants of emerging concern (CeCs), including perfluorinated compounds (PFCs; i.e. PFOS and PFUnA), brominated flame retardants (BFRs; i.e. BDE47, BDE100, a-HBCD) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs; i.e. venlafaxine, methylparaben and UV-filter OC) was performed in seafood species available in the European markets. Additionally, the effect of steaming on CeCs bioaccessibility was also investigated for the first time. Overall, steaming affected differentially contaminants' concentrations, for instance, decreasing PFOS levels in flounder, but increasing both BDE47 and BDE100. CeCs bioaccessibility varied according to seafood species and contaminant group, i.e. in general, lower bioaccessibility values were obtained for PBDEs (<70%, except for mackerel), while PFCs and PPCPs revealed higher bioaccessibility percentages (between 71 and 95%). The lowest bioaccessibility value was obtained for a-HBCD (mussel; 14%), whereas the highest percentage was observed in venlafaxine (mullet; 95%). Our preliminary study reports also, for the first time, the effects of steaming on CeCs bioaccessibility. In most cases, bioaccessibility was not affected by cooking, however, a decrease was observed in PBDEs and and mullet, respectively, thus lowering the potential health risks associated with seafood consumption.
In vitro selenium accessibility in pet foods is affected by diet composition and type
Zelst, M. van; Hesta, M. ; Alexander, L.G. ; Gray, K. ; Bosch, G. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Laing, G. Du; Meulenaer, B. de; Goethals, K. ; Janssens, G. - \ 2015
The British journal of nutrition 113 (2015)12. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1888 - 1894.
nutrient digestion - organic selenium - bioavailability - absorption - dog - bioaccessibility - selenomethionine - metabolism - prediction - fiber
Se bioavailability in commercial pet foods has been shown to be highly variable. The aim of the present study was to identify dietary factors associated with in vitro accessibility of Se (Se Aiv) in pet foods. Se Aiv is defined as the percentage of Se from the diet that is potentially available for absorption after in vitro digestion. Sixty-two diets (dog, n 52; cat, n 10) were in vitro enzymatically digested: fifty-four of them were commercially available (kibble, n 20; pellet, n 8; canned, n 17; raw meat, n 6; steamed meat, n 3) and eight were unprocessed (kibble, n 4; canned, n 4) from the same batch as the corresponding processed diets. The present investigation examined if Se Aiv was affected by diet type, dietary protein, methionine, cysteine, lysine and Se content, DM, organic matter and crude protein (CP) digestibility. Se Aiv differed significantly among diet types (P<0·001). Canned and steamed meat diets had a lower Se Aiv than pelleted and raw meat diets. Se Aiv correlated positively with CP digestibility in extruded diets (kibbles, n 19; r 0·540, P =0·017) and negatively in canned diets (n 16; r - 0·611, P =0·012). Moreover, the canning process (n 4) decreased Se Aiv (P =0·001), whereas extrusion (n 4) revealed no effect on Se Aiv (P =0·297). These differences in Se Aiv between diet types warrant quantification of diet type effects on in vivo Se bioavailability.
Levels of lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium in clays for oral use on the Dutch market and estimation of associated risks
Reeuwijk, N.M. ; Klerx, W.N.M. ; Kooijman, M. ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Rietjens, I.M.C.M. ; Martena, M.J. - \ 2013
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 30 (2013)9. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 1535 - 1545.
pregnant-women - trace-elements - contaminated soils - geophagy - bioaccessibility - bioavailability - supplementation - nutrition - aluminum - tanzania
Pregnant women in Africa, Asia and Suriname, and some immigrants in Western societies, traditionally consume clay products known by a variety of names such as mabele, calabash chalk, sikor and pimba. Furthermore, clay is used for health purposes in Western societies. Because certain clays can contain high levels of metals and metalloids, the aim of this study was to determine lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium in clay products for oral use available on the Dutch market. Traditional clays originating from Africa (n = 10) and Suriname (n = 26), and health clays (n = 27) were sampled from 2004 up to and including 2012. Total metal and metalloid contents were measured by ICP-MS and showed maximum levels of lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium of 99.7, 45.1, 2.2 and 0.75 mg kg(-1), respectively. In the absence of maximum limits for these type of clays, the potential exposure was estimated from the determined concentration, the estimated daily use level of the clays, and the estimated bioaccessibility of the different metals and arsenic. The intake estimates were compared with existing health-based guidance values. For lead, the use of 34 of the 36 traditional clays and two of the 27 health clays would result in intake levels exceeding the toxicological limit by up to 20-fold. Use of 15 of the 35 traditional clays and 11 of the 27 health clays would result in intake levels exceeding the toxicological limit for inorganic arsenic by up to 19-fold. Although limited bioaccessibility from the clay may limit the exposure and exceedance of the health-based guidance values, it was concluded that lead and arsenic intakes from some clay products could be of concern also because of their use by pregnant women and the potential developmental toxicity. As a result the use of these products, especially by pregnant women, should be discouraged
Risk assessment for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in urban soils: chemical availability as the central concept
Rodrigues, S.R. ; Cruz, N. ; Coelho, C. ; Henriques, B. ; Carvalho, L. ; Duarte, A.C. ; Pereira, E. ; Römkens, P.F.A.M. - \ 2013
Environmental Pollution 183 (2013). - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 234 - 242.
potentially toxic elements - 5 european cities - heavy-metals - contaminated soils - trace-elements - extraction - bioaccessibility - pools - bioavailability - extractability
To assess the geochemical reactivity and oral bioaccessibility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils from the Porto area, four extractions were performed including Aqua Regia (AR; pseudototal), 0.43 M HNO(3) (reactive), 0.01 M CaCl(2) (available), and 0.4 M glycine at pH = 1.5, SBET method (oral bioaccessible pool). Oral bioaccessibility in urban soils was higher than in samples from rural, industrial and mining areas which is most likely related to sources of metals and parent materials of corresponding soils. The availability and reactivity were described well by non-linear Freundlich-type equations when considering differences in soil properties. The resulting empirical models are able to predict availability and reactivity and can be used to improve the accuracy of risk assessment. Furthermore, a close 1:1 relationship exists between results from the 0.43 M HNO(3) method and the SBET method which substantially facilitates risk assessment procedures and reduces analytical costs.
Approaches to the safety assessment of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) in food
Cockburn, A. ; Bradford, R. ; Buck, N. ; Kampers, F.W.H. - \ 2012
Food and Chemical Toxicology 50 (2012)6. - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 2224 - 2242.
vitro digestion models - nanoparticle uptake - protein corona - polymeric nanoparticles - gastrointestinal-tract - silica nanoparticles - particle-size - in-vivo - toxicity - bioaccessibility
A systematic, tiered approach to assess the safety of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in foods is presented. The ENM is first compared to its non-nano form counterpart to determine if ENM-specific assessment is required. Of highest concern from a toxicological perspective are ENMs which have potential for systemic translocation, are insoluble or only partially soluble over time or are particulate and bio-persistent. Where ENM-specific assessment is triggered. Tier 1 screening considers the potential for translocation across biological barriers, cytotoxicity, generation of reactive oxygen species, inflammatory response, genotoxicity and general toxicity. In silica and in vitro studies, together with a sub-acute repeat-dose rodent study, could be considered for this phase. Tier 2 hazard characterisation is based on a sentinel 90-day rodent study with an extended range of endpoints, additional parameters being investigated case-by-case. Physicochemical characterisation should be performed in a range of food and biological matrices. A default assumption of 100% bioavailability of the ENM provides a 'worst case' exposure scenario, which could be refined as additional data become available. The safety testing strategy is considered applicable to variations in ENM size within the nanoscale and to new generations of ENM.
Presence of Nano-Sized Silica during In Vitro Digestion of Foods Containing Silica as a Food Additive
Peters, R.J.B. ; Kramer, E.H.M. ; Oomen, A.G. ; Rivera, Z.H. ; Oegema, G. ; Tromp, P.C. ; Fokkink, R.G. ; Rietveld, A. ; Marvin, H.J.P. ; Weigel, S. ; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M. ; Bouwmeester, H. - \ 2012
ACS Nano 6 (2012)3. - ISSN 1936-0851 - p. 2441 - 2451.
gastrointestinal uptake - particle-size - bioaccessibility - model - contaminants - absorption - hazard
The presence, dissolution, agglomeration state, and release of materials in the nano-size range from food containing engineered nanoparticles during human digestion is a key question for the safety assessment of these materials. We used an in vitro model to mimic the human digestion. Food products subjected to in vitro digestion included (i) hot water, (ii) coffee with powdered creamer, (iii) instant soup, and (iv) pancake which either contained silica as the food additive E551, or to which a form of synthetic amorphous silica or 32 nm SiO2 particles were added. The results showed that, in the mouth stage of the digestion, nano-sized silica particles with a size range of 5–50 and 50–500 nm were present in food products containing E551 or added synthetic amorphous silica. However, during the successive gastric digestion stage, this nano-sized silica was no longer present for the food matrices coffee and instant soup, while low amounts were found for pancakes. Additional experiments showed that the absence of nano-sized silica in the gastric stage can be contributed to an effect of low pH combined with high electrolyte concentrations in the gastric digestion stage. Large silica agglomerates are formed under these conditions as determined by DLS and SEM experiments and explained theoretically by the extended DLVO theory. Importantly, in the subsequent intestinal digestion stage, the nano-sized silica particles reappeared again, even in amounts higher than in the saliva (mouth) digestion stage. These findings suggest that, upon consumption of foods containing E551, the gut epithelium is most likely exposed to nano-sized silica.
Digestibility and absorption of deoxynivalenol-3-ß-glucoside in in vitro models
Nijs, W.C.M. de; Top, H.J. van den; Portier, L. ; Oegema, G. ; Kramer, E.H.M. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. - \ 2012
World Mycotoxin Journal 5 (2012)3. - ISSN 1875-0710 - p. 319 - 324.
mass-spectrometry - digestion model - deoxynivalenol - wheat - bioaccessibility - mycotoxins - caco-2 - food
Certain mycotoxins may be present in plant materials as their glucosides. The question is whether these glucosides may be hydrolysed into their parent compounds in the gastro-intestinal tract (GI-tract), thus increasing the exposure. Therefore, the potential hydrolysis of deoxynivalenol-3-ß-glucoside (DON-3G) to deoxynivalenol (DON) was assessed in two in vitro models representing the human upper GI-tract (mouth, stomach and small intestine). In a fed digestion model, there was no evidence of release of DON from DON-3G, spiked at a level of 2,778 µg DON- 3G/kg food. This shows that the conditions in the GI-tract do not result in hydrolysis of this glucoside into the original mycotoxin. The absorption and transformation of DON-3G in the small intestine was assessed in an in vitro model with human Caco-2 cells in a Transwell system. No evidence was found for the transformation of DON-3G to DON by the Caco-2 cells in both the apical or basolateral side in 24 hours (cells were exposed to 2.4 nmol DON- 3G/ml medium). However, when DON itself was added to the apical side an amount of 23% of the spiked DON was detected in the basolateral side after 24 hours (cells were exposed to 2.3 nmol/ml medium). In conclusion, no evidence was found in the in vitro experiments for significant elevated exposure of humans to DON, since DON- 3G was not hydrolysed to DON in the digestion model representing the upper part of the GI-tract and DON-3G was not hydrolysed to DON by the intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. It was shown that bioavailability of DON-3G in humans may be low as compared to DON since Caco-2 cells did not absorb DON-3G, in contrast to DON.
Arsenic bioavailability in the soil amended with leaves of arsenic hyperaccumulator, Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.)
Du, X. ; Cui, Y.S. ; Weng, L.P. ; Cao, Q. ; Yang Zhu, Yang - \ 2008
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 27 (2008)1. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 126 - 130.
contaminated soils - physiochemical properties - adsorption-desorption - immobilization - kinetics - iron - bioaccessibility - fractionation - decomposition - remediation
An incubation experiment was carried out to better understand the fate of As during the decomposition of As-rich Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.) leaves and to assess As bioavailability in soil. Dried fern leaves with an As concentration of 1,150 +/- 14 microg/g were amended with unpolluted soil at 1 and 3%. After aging for one, three, and six months, germinated wheat was planted in the soil. After two months, wheat plants were harvested. Results showed that As concentration in shoots and roots significantly increased with increasing amounts of As-rich leaf additions in soil samples and decreased over the incubation time (p <0.001). For treatments with 3% fern leaf incubation, the average of As concentration in shoots was 1.59 microg/g dry weight after one month of incubation, nearly 20-fold higher than that of the nonamended treatment; after six months of incubation, As concentration in shoots was 0.48 microg/g, almost 10-fold higher than the corresponding nonamended treatment. Based on a sequential extraction method, As showed a shift from weakly adsorbed fractions to more strongly adsorbed fractions during the incubation, hence resulting in less As bioavailability. Arsenic concentrations in shoots and roots could be well described with linear functions of As concentrations distributed in different fractions. In conclusion, aging effect should be considered during risk assessment of As in soil-plant systems where As is recycled by the plant.