Dossier Circulaire & Biobased Economy
Wubben, E.F.M. - \ 2019
biobased economy - bioenergy - biomass - renewable energy - biobased materials - biobased chemistry - clothing - bioplastics - fibres
The dossier Circular & Biobased Economy provides a great view on sustainable innovations that have WUR Inside. The chosen topics are as diverse as bioplastics for restoring ecosystems till promoting circular fashion. You can run these six knowledge clips in both English and Dutch, as so is the leading information. Finally, all related WUR-publications are only one click away.
Breaking down PAHS requires a lot of patience
Rietra, R.P.J.J. - \ 2018
biobased economy - biobased chemistry - aerobic digestion - sludges
Nieuwe perspectieven door bioraffinage
Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2018
biobased economy - biobased chemistry - biorefinery - biomass
Bioeconomy mapping report, D 1.1 : An overview of the bioeconomy
Bos, H.L. ; Kranendonk, R.P. ; Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Schrijver, R.A.M. ; Leeuwen, J.J.A. van - \ 2018
EU (Bloom ) - 45 p.
biobased economy - biomass - biobased materials - biobased chemistry
Which energy can be obtained from using poop?
Weusthuis, R.A. - \ 2017
Wageningen : WURcast
biobased economy - chemistry - biobased chemistry - biomass - bioenergy
Which new energy sources can be used in a biobased society?
Final report: Environmental assessment of algae-based PUFA production
Keller, H. ; Reinhardt, G. ; Rettenmaier, N. ; Schorb, A. ; Dittrich, M. ; Wolf, P.L. de; Voort, M.P.J. van der; Spruijt, J. ; Potters, J.I. ; Elissen, H.J.H. - \ 2017
Heidelberg : PUFAChain - 94
algae - biofuels - bioenergy - biobased economy - biomass - omega-3 fatty acids - plant oils - biobased chemistry - fermentation
Biobased materialen, circulaire economie en natuurlijk kapitaal
Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Smeets, E.M.W. ; Verhoog, A.D. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 109) - 37
biomassa - biobased economy - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - bioplastics - hernieuwbare energie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biobrandstoffen - recycling - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biomass - biobased economy - biobased materials - bioplastics - renewable energy - sustainability - biofuels - recycling - biobased chemistry
This preliminary study investigates the amount of biomass that would be needed in the Netherlands to replace the fossil raw materials used in the manufacture of plastics and how this transition to biobased plastics can be achieved. It is based on desk research and calculations of the area of agricultural land that would be needed to produce sufficient biobased material to meet Dutch demand for biobased plastics. In addition, interviews were held with experts on the institutional obstacles to such a transition. Far too little agricultural land is available in the Netherlands to produce the required amount of biomass needed to replace fossil plastics. Research with the aim of increasing the contribution made by biobased materials to the circular economy should focus on assessing the options for producing sustainable raw materials and on a comprehensive assessment of the sustainable use of biomass in various applications.
Schimmel kan efficiënt melkzuur maken: Vinding van Wageningen Universiteit Research (WUR)
Eggink, G. ; Weusthuis, R.A. - \ 2017
biobased chemistry - biobased economy - biotechnology - ethanol - bioenergy - lactic acid
More food, lower footprint : How circular food production contributes to efficiency in the food system
Scholten, M.C.T. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
biobased economy - biobased chemistry - cycling - environment - sustainability - nutrition - biomass - renewable energy - residual streams - agricultural wastes - organic wastes - crop residues - food production - biobased economy - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - kringlopen - milieu - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voeding - biomassa - hernieuwbare energie - reststromen - agrarische afvalstoffen - organisch afval - oogstresten - voedselproductie
Martin Scholten on circular food production. Ideas about how circular food production can contribute to the sustainable food security.
'Veelbelovend en bijna marktrijp' : onderzoek door Wageningen Universiteit Research naar biobased bindmiddelen in verf
Haveren, J. van - \ 2017
residual streams - biobased economy - chemicals - biobased chemicals - research - biobased chemistry - binding agents - biopolymers - paints
Bacterial cell factoriest : applying thermophiles to fuel the biobased economy
Kranenburg, Richard van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - ISBN 9789463431750 - 19
industriële microbiologie - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - bacteriën - genetische modificatie - thermofiele bacteriën - biomassaconversie - industrial microbiology - biobased chemistry - biobased economy - bacteria - genetic engineering - thermophilic bacteria - biomass conversion
The research of Bacterial Cell Factories aims to apply bacteria for production of biobased chemicals from renewable resources. The focus lies on thermophilic Gram-positives. This group of relatively unexplored thermophiles has many relevant characteristics that make them attractive as production organism for green chemicals. Development of genetic tools is a requirement for high-throughput engineering. The scientific challenge lies in exploring and exploiting the microbial physiology of the selected production organisms, involving an integrated approach of various disciplines. Successful development of such Bacterial Cell Factories is crucial for establishing the biobased economy.
PHA’s (Polyhydroxyalkanoates): General information on structure and raw materials for their production : A running document for “Kleinschalige Bioraffinage WP9: PHA”, Task 5
Kootstra, A.M.J. ; Elissen, H.J.H. ; Huurman, Sander - \ 2017
Lelystad : Wageningen UR, PPO/Acrres (Wageningen Plant Research report 727) - 29
biopolymers - biorefinery - polyhydroxyalkanoates - residual streams - bioprocess engineering - biobased chemistry - biobased economy - biopolymeren - bioraffinage - polyhydroxyalkanoaten - reststromen - bioproceskunde - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy
This report provides background information on structure and diversity of different polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and on feedstocks for their microbial production. The information that is contained in this report was compiled as a running document for the project “TKI-AgriFood Kleinschalige Bioraffinage” Work Package 9: “Fatty acid and PHA production based on residues” (In Dutch: “Vetzuuren PHA-productie op basis van residuen”) (TKI-AF-12040), and should be seen as such: a compilation of information regarded as interesting for the project partners.
Schimmel verbetert productie bioplastic
Weusthuis, Ruud ; Eggink, Gerrit - \ 2017
bioplastics - biochemistry - fungi - genetic engineering - biomass conversion - biobased chemistry - biobased economy
Onderzoekers van Wageningen Food & Biobased Research hebben samen met oliemaatschappij Total een genetisch gemodificeerde schimmel ontwikkeld waarmee bioplastics efficiënter kunnen worden geproduceerd
Biobased itaconzuur en methacrylzuur : Chemische bouwstenen van de toekomst
Es, D.S. van - \ 2016
Fluids Processing Benelux (2016)4. - ISSN 1874-7914 - p. 46 - 47.
biobased economy - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - zuren - biomassa - glucose - biochemie - biobased economy - biobased chemistry - biobased chemicals - acids - biomass - glucose - biochemistry
Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research is van plan een flinke stap te zetten in de productie van biobased itaconzuur en methacrylzuur. Deze zuren kunnen bouwstenen zijn voor hoogwaardige materialen, zoals biobased verf en drukinkt. De stoffen worden geproduceerd uit biomassa (glucose) en vormen alternatieven voor fossiele grondstoffen. Voor verdere ontwikkeling wordt samengewerkt met de Amerikaanse agrifoodproducent Archer Daniels Midland, leverancier voor de verfindustrie EOC Belgium en de Nederlandse verfproducent Van Wijhe Verf. Daan van Es, is senioronderzoeker bij Wageningen UR en treedt op als projectleider.
Biobased Economy: Suikerbieten, basis voor bioplastic
Haveren, J. van - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
biobased economy - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - productontwikkeling - suikerbieten - biomassaconversie - biobased economy - biobased materials - biobased chemistry - product development - sugarbeet - biomass conversion
Veel van onze producten, zoals plastics en andere materialen, zijn gebaseerd op niet-hernieuwbare, fossiele grondstoffen. Die grondstoffen -aardolie, aardgas en steenkool- raken langzaam maar zeker op. Suikerrijke biomassa, zoals suikerbieten, kan een goede duurzame bron zijn voor deze materialen. Jacco van Haveren, onderzoeker aan Wageningen University & Research, vertelt over de mogelijkheden.
Planten nabootsen : onderzoek naar fotosynthese gaat vruchten afwerpen
Klein Lankhorst, Rene ; Aarts, Mark ; Amerongen, Herbert van - \ 2016
biobased economy - biobased chemistry - biofuels - photosynthesis - biotechnology - biobased chemicals - energy sources - solar energy - renewable energy - techniques
Planten zijn meesters in het gebruik van zonlicht. Daarmee zetten ze water en kooldioxide om in suikers en zuurstof. Wageningse onderzoekers kunnen dit proces nabootsen en verbeteren. Zo willen ze biobrandstoffen maken en beter groeiende gewassen
FIAD: impuls aan ontwikkeling bioaromaten
Haveren, Jacco van - \ 2016
aromatic hydrocarbons - biorefinery - bioprocess engineering - biobased chemistry - biobased economy - applied research
Een internationaal consortium van zes partijen, waaronder Wageningen UR en TNO, bundelen onder de vlag van Shared Research Center Biorizon hun krachten in een nieuw onderzoeksproject naar toepassingsmogelijkheden van bioaromaten. De industrie gaat nu monstermateriaal uit de labs en pilotinstallaties testen in de praktijk.
Biobased chemicals from polyhydroxybutyrate
Spekreijse, Jurjen - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan Sanders, co-promotor(en): Elinor Scott; Harry Bitter. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578630 - 148
bioprocess engineering - biopolymers - waste water treatment - polyhydroxyalkanoates - acrylics - propylene - biomass conversion - biobased chemistry - biobased economy - bioproceskunde - biopolymeren - afvalwaterbehandeling - polyhydroxyalkanoaten - acrylaten - propyleen - biomassaconversie - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy
Currently, most chemicals and materials are obtained from fossil resources. After use, these chemicals and materials are converted to CO2. As discussed in chapter 1, this causes a build-up of CO2 in the atmosphere, the main driving force of global warming. In order to reach a sustainable system, biomass could be used as a resource for chemicals and materials instead. A biorefinery approach, where all parts of biomass are used to its full potential is essential. Taking this into consideration, wastewater streams of current biobased processes could be an excellent source for chemicals and materials. However, wastewater is often dilute and heterogeneous of nature. To overcome these challenges, wastewater rich in carbon can be processed by microorganisms to obtain a biodegradable polyester, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). However, the mechanical properties of this polymer make it unsuitable as polymeric material. Moreover, processing of PHA is challenging. To circumvent these issues, we propose a conversion of the inferior PHA to methyl acrylate and propylene (Figure 7.1) which can be used in current processing infrastructure. PHA rich cells are obtained from the purification of wastewater. The PHA obtained can be purified and converted to MC (Figure 7.1, chapter 2) or the PHA rich cells can be used directly (Figure 7.1, chapter 3). For the second step, the conversion of methyl crotonate (MC) to methyl acrylate and propylene, the catalyst was immobilised (Figure 7.1, chapter 4). The current state of ethenolysis reaction on biomass was reviewed (Figure 7.1, chapter 5). The conversion of PHA to methyl acrylate and propylene enables the use of carbon from wastewater streams without the disadvantages related to the direct use of PHA.
In chapter 2, the first step of the conversion of PHA to methyl acrylate and propylene was investigated. Since PHA obtained from wastewater exists mostly as polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), this was chosen as a starting material for our studies. It was shown that PHB could be converted to MC using methanol at 200 °C.. MC has the advantage of being immiscible with water, which aids its separation. In chapter 2, the pathway of the reaction was clarified, which was subsequently used to optimise the conditions of this conversion. The conversion of PHB to MC proceeds via a thermolysis to crotonic acid (CA), which is followed by an esterification to MC. The formation of CA is the rate determining step below 18 bar, where above 18 bar this changes to the esterification to MC. A selectivity of 60% to MC is obtained with a full conversion of PHB with 18 bar being the optimal pressure for the conversion.
Microorganisms produce PHA within their cells, which poses challenges to the downstream processing of PHA as the material has to be isolated from within the cells and dried. The isolation and drying of PHB is costly and is responsible for a large part of the production costs of PHA. In order to reduce the costs of PHA for the production of biobased chemicals, the conversion of PHA to MC was tested using whole cells. In chapter 3, PHA rich cells were directly converted to MC using the optimised conditions found in chapter 2. The influence of fermentation salts, water and the presence of valerate monomers in the PHA were studied. It was found that the valerate monomers have no influence on the conversion. Fermentation salts do influence the conversion depending on the salt. Magnesium hydroxide catalyses the conversion of PHB to MC, where magnesium sulphate catalyses the formation of methyl 3-hydroxybutyrate as side product. The reaction tolerates up to 20% water, which means that the drying step in the downstream processing of PHA can be significantly reduced.
The second step of the conversion of PHA to methyl acrylate and propylene involves an ethenolysis, a cross metathesis of MC with ethylene. This ethenolysis reaction requires a homogeneous catalyst. One of the most active catalysts for this conversion is the ruthenium based Hovey-Grubbs 2nd generation. However, the required high loading of this catalyst makes it an expensive part of the conversion. In order to enable reusing of the catalyst, immobilisation of the Hovey-Grubbs catalyst was investigated in chapter 4. The catalyst was immobilised inside a metal organic framework (MOF). For this purpose MIL-101-NH2(Al) was used for its large cavities connected by small openings. This allows the catalyst to reside inside the cavities, while the small openings prevent it from leaching out. The catalyst was successfully immobilised using a mechanochemical approach. This method can be applied on other catalysts as well, which was shown by the immobilisation of Zhan catalyst. Both immobilised catalysts show metathesis activity for multiple reaction cycles. It was found that the MOF, MIL-101-NH2(Al), partially undergoes a structural change to form MIL-53-NH2(Al). When MIL-53-NH2(Al) was used as starting MOF the catalyst was trapped but inactive. It was concluded that when starting from MIL-101-NH2(Al), the catalyst trapped in the parts of the material that was converted to MIL-53-NH2(Al) are catalytically inactive.
To investigate the current state of the art of the use of ethenolysis on biomass, a literature review was performed in chapter 5. The results of the ethenolysis of methyl oleate (MO) were compared in order to investigate the most important parameters. It was found that the purity of the ethylene feed has the biggest influence on the turn over numbers (TONs) and that a higher purity ethylene has shown a larger impact on the ethenolysis of MO than the development of novel catalysts. When electron poor substrates are used, the highest TONs are obtained with the less stable Hoveyda-Grubbs 2nd generation. However, no studies were performed on the influence of ethylene purity on these reactions and higher TONs may be achieved using a higher purity ethylene.
In chapter 6, the results and conclusions of the thesis are summarised. The implications of these findings are discussed and suggestions for further research within the field are given.
Uitstel of afstel : Hoogwaardige toepassingen voor plantinhoudsstoffen
Poot, Eric - \ 2016
phytochemicals - biobased chemicals - biobased chemistry - agroindustrial sector - biobased economy
Van oudsher wordt de waarde en enorme biodiversiteit van plantinhoudsstoffen onderkend. Toch verloopt het traject van het verwerken van nieuwe inhoudsstoffen voor hoogwaardige commerciële toepassingen in de farmaceutische, voedingsmiddelen- en cosmetische industrie vooralsnog moeizaam. Waar liggen de obstakels en hoe zijn deze te overwinnen? Interview met o.a. Eric Poot van Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw
Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for itaconate production
Vuoristo, K.S. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Eggink; Johan Sanders, co-promotor(en): Ruud Weusthuis. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576001 - 162
fermentation - escherichia coli - aspergillus niger - biobased chemistry - bioengineering - acids - organic acids - glutamates - tca - production - chemicals - fermentatie - escherichia coli - aspergillus niger - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - bioengineering - zuren - organische zuren - glutamaten - tca - productie - chemicaliën
Interest in sustainable development together with limited amounts of fossil resources have increased the demand for production of chemicals and fuels from renewable resources. The market potential for bio-based products is growing and a transition from petrochemicals to biomass-based chemicals is ongoing. Itaconic acid is a C5-dicarboxylic acid which can be produced by microbial conversion processes. It can be easily polymerized and is an appealing building block for the chemical industry with many potential applications. However, biobased chemicals have to compete with their petrochemical counterparts, and yield and productivity of the microbial processes are therefore of the utmost importance. Traditionally itaconic acid is produced using the ascomycete Aspergillus terreus. This process is not competitive with petrochemical processes due to high production costs caused by low yields, and difficult and expensive product recovery. Maximizing product yield is important to lower production costs. This thesis looked at ways to reach theoretical maximum yield in a recombinant production host, Escherichia coli.
Chapter 2 describes the construction of an itaconate biosynthesis pathway in E. coli. The key enzyme of microbial itaconate production is cis-Aconitate decarboxylase (CadA) that converts the citric acid cycle intermediate cis-aconitate into itaconate. We focused on optimizing heterologous expression of cadA from Aspergillus terreus in E. coli. Initially this resulted in low CadA activities and production of trace amounts of itaconate. CadA was primarily present as inclusion bodies, explaining the low activity. The activity was significantly improved by using lower cultivation temperatures and mineral medium and this resulted in enhanced itaconate titres. The itaconate titre was further increased in aerobic bioreactor cultures by introducing citrate synthase and aconitase from Corynebacterium glutamicum and by deleting genes encoding phosphate acetyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase. The maximum itaconate yield from glucose obtained in this study was only 0.09 mol/mol, due to high flux of carbon to by-products such as acetate and pyruvate. Pyruvate is a precursor molecule for itaconate biosynthesis and its accumulation suggested that the activity of CadA might be one of the rate limiting steps. It was concluded that further optimization of cadA expression, and reduction of acetate formation should be achieved to obtain higher itaconate yield.
As sufficient cis-aconitate decarboxylase activity is crucial for itaconate production, in chapter 3 ways to increase the activity of CadA were investigated. A recently characterized cis-aconitate decarboxylase of mammalian origin was therefore expressed in E.coli. The novel cis-aconitate decarboxylase from Mus musculus encoded by immunoresponsive gene 1 (irg1) produced comparable amounts of itaconate as CadA from A. terreus. In addition, the effects of codon optimization and harmonization on enzymatic activities of heterologously expressed cadA and irg1 were studied. Codon harmonization increased the activity of CadA in cell free extracts, but this did not result in higher itaconate production in bioreactor cultures. This suggests that other factors such as itaconate transport may limit the production.
In chapter 4, proof of principle for an anaerobic fermentation process for the production of itaconic acid was obtained by using the mixed acid fermentation pathway of E. coli. Itaconic acid production was redox balanced by co-producing succinate or ethanol with H2 and CO2. Expression of cadA together with citrate synthase (gltA) and aconitase (acnA) from Corynebacterium glutamicum resulted in 0.66 mM (1.2 % Cmol) itaconate under anaerobic conditions. Unexpectedly, strains started to produce significant amounts of glutamate when the itaconate pathway was introduced. As glutamate production depends on the availability of nitrogen in the medium, a nitrogen-limited medium was tested to diminish glutamate production. This enhanced the production of itaconate to up to 2.9 mM (5.4 % C mol %). Here, anaerobic production of itaconate from glucose was reported for the first time. The observed itaconate yields and productivities were still modest. Eliminating the pathways to major by-products like glutamate, succinate, and acetate, and enhancing the pathway between pyruvate and itaconate is crucial to obtain a cost-competitive anaerobic itaconic acid process production.
To investigate how itaconate production can be improved, the insights from the previous chapters together with existing scientific literature were combined with our pathway design proposals in chapter 5. The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is an important source of precursors for biobased chemicals. The opinion article takes a closer look at the metabolic engineering of TCA cycle for the production of chemicals high yield. For most TCA cycle products the maximum pathway yield is much lower than the theoretical maximum yield. For succinate, this was solved by creating two pathways to the product, using both branches of the TCA cycle, connected by the glyoxylate shunt. A similar solution cannot be applied directly for production of compounds from the oxidative branch of the TCA cycle because irreversible reactions are involved: the conversion of acetyl-CoA and glyoxylate to malate in the glyoxylate shunt and the conversion of 2-oxoglutarate into succinyl-CoA in the TCA cycle. This way, the pathway yield for products originating from the oxidative TCA cycle branch such as citrate, itaconate and L-glutamate becomes identical to the theoretical maximum. Future research should focus on implementing these solutions in suitable production hosts, and increasing the ATP yield of the production pathways. This will minimize the oxygen requirement of the process, or even allow for anaerobic operation, and should lead to reduced operational costs and maximal product yields.
In chapter 6 the implications of the overall results of this thesis for the current research status of itaconate production are presented. Solutions to optimize itaconate production strains and production process were proposed.