Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Risicobeoordeling van contaminanten in afval- en reststoffen bestemd voor gebruik als covergistingsmateriaal
    Ehlert, P.A.I. ; Wijnen, H.J. van; Struijs, J. ; Dijk, T.A. van; Schöll, L. van; Poorter, L.R.M. de - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 70) - 158
    biogas - co-vergisting - arsenicum - residuen - zware metalen - verontreinigende stoffen - pesticiden - biociden - mestbeleid - landbouwbeleid - organische verontreinigende stoffen - risicoschatting - biogas - co-fermentation - arsenic - residues - heavy metals - pollutants - pesticides - biocides - manure policy - agricultural policy - organic pollutants - risk assessment
    A number of wastes and by-products were reviewed for their suitability as substrates for co-digestion with animalmanure to produce biogas and a digestate for use as a fertiliser. The review included 21 substances proposed byLTO Noord (Dutch Farmers Union – Northern Netherlands) and Biogas Branche Organisatie (BBO, the Dutch BiogasIndustry Association) for inclusion in Annex Aa of the Fertiliser Act. At the request of the Ministry of EconomicAffairs a further 6 substances were added (21+6). In addition, 119 substances were re-reviewed in connection witha change to the reference composition for animal manure. The review focused on the possible adverseenvironmental effects of using the digestate as a fertiliser and followed the protocol for assessing the value andrisks of waste used as a fertiliser, version 2.1. The risk assessment included the inorganic contaminants (Cd, Cr, Cu,Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn, As) and organic contaminants (dioxine, PCBs, PAHs, mineral oil, residues of crop protectionproducts) as required by the Fertiliser Act. For all the wastes and by-products, data on composition were collectedfrom the literature and from analyses provided by stakeholders. Expert judgment was used where data were notavailable or were insufficient to conduct a risk assessment as prescribed by the protocol. Criteria for expertjudgment were developed for such situations. Two alternative risk assessment methods were developed for theresidues of pesticides and biocides, based partly on expert judgement. These methods were compared with themethod prescribed by the protocol. These three methods reflect different policy judgements; the protection level setby policymakers will determine which method should be used. The 21+6 substances were evaluated in accordancewith the protocol and using the three methods for evaluating the residues of pesticides and biocides. The resultswere compared with registered co-digestion materials in Flanders, Denmark and Germany. Recommendations aregiven to support policy decisions on the choice of alternative risk assessment method to be used to permit the codigestionof wastes and by-products in biogas production that produce an agronomically and environmentallyacceptable digestate for fertiliser use
    Ontwikkeling van toepassingen met plasmawater in de glastuinbouw
    Quaedvlieg, William ; Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D. ; Hollinger, T.C. ; Noordam, Marianne ; Slootweg, G. ; Broek, R.C.F.M. van den; Kolk, Jan Paul van der; Ruijven, J.P.M. van; Stijger, I. - \ 2016
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1391) - 68
    teelt onder bescherming - gewasbescherming - biociden - desinfectie - irrigatiewater - radicalen - bevruchtingsvermogen - protected cultivation - plant protection - biocides - disinfection - irrigation water - radicals - fertilizing ability
    In collaboration with Vitalfluid, TU Eindhoven, FloraHolland, Bactimm, Alewijnse and Medical faculty of UMC Radboud Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture studied horticultural application for the use of plasma activated water. This research was funded by the GO programm Oost Nederland, the European Fund for Regional Development (EFRO) and Top sector Horticulture & Propagation materials. By using a specialized plasma reactor, an indirect air dielectric barrier discharge in close proximity to water can create an acidified, nitrogen-oxide containing solution called plasma-activated water (PAW). Plasma water is tested for properties as a biocidal product, plant protection treatment and as a fertilizer in horticultural applications. Mild plasma water with a short production time (15 min) can effectively control bacteria and meet the biocidal product legislation. Strong plasma water with a longer production time (45 min) is necessary for controlling molds as Fusarium, Botrytis and powdery mildew. The tomato mosaic virus can be reduced with strong plasma up to 80%. The crop treatments showed no damage on young gerbera plants, lettuce and tomato plants. Application of plasma water through the irrigation system to promote plant growth is not promising, because nitrogen supply is in general not limited. Application as seed disinfection is possible with low concentrations of plasma water.
    Dermal absorption and toxicological risk assessment : pitfalls and promises
    Buist, H. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ruud Woutersen; Ivonne Rietjens, co-promotor(en): J.J.M. van de Sandt. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577275 - 200
    skin - absorption - permeability - in vitro - experiments - exposure assessment - risk assessment - toxicology - biocides - rodenticides - preservatives - disinfection - huid - absorptie - permeabiliteit - in vitro - experimenten - blootstellingsbepaling - risicoschatting - toxicologie - biociden - rodenticiden - conserveermiddelen - desinfectie

    Absorption of toxic substances via the skin is an important phenomenon in the assessment of the risk of exposure to these substances. People are exposed to a variety of substances and products via the skin, either directly or indirectly, while at work, at home or in public space. Pesticides, organic solvents and metalworking fluids are seen to be important contributors to adverse health effects due to occupational exposure via the skin. In daily life, cosmetics, clothing and household products are the most relevant commodities with respect to exposure via the skin.

    Given the importance of skin exposure in the assessment of the risk of toxic substances, the objective of this thesis was to further develop, evaluate and improve methods for including skin absorption data this assessment.

    In this thesis, four factors influencing dermal absorption, namely dermal loading (chapters 3 and 6), irritative/corrosive potential (chapters 3 and 4), frequency of exposure (chapters 3, 4 and 5) and the vehicle used (chapter 5), were investigated in more detail. Furthermore, a model to extrapolate infinite dose absorption data to finite dose conditions, baptized Dermal Absorption Model for Extrapolation (DAME), was developed and tested.


    n chapter 2 of this thesis, the relationship between relative dermal absorption and dermal loading was investigated. Hundred-and-thirty-eight dermal publicly available absorption experiments with 98 substances were evaluated. The results obtained revealed that dermal loading ranged mostly between 0.001 and 10 mg/cm2. In 87 experiments (63%), an inverse relationship was observed between relative dermal absorption and dermal loading. On average, relative absorption at high dermal loading was 33 times lower than at low dermal loading. Known skin irritating and volatile substances less frequently showed an inverse relationship between dermal loading and relative absorption. It was concluded that when using relative dermal absorption in regulatory risk assessment, its value should be determined at or extrapolated to dermal loadings relevant for the exposure conditions being evaluated.


    n chapter 3 of this thesis, a literature search was presented with the aim to investigate whether neglecting the effects of repeated exposure may lead to an incorrect estimate of dermal absorption. The results demonstrated that the effect of repeated versus single exposure does not demonstrate a unique trend. Nevertheless, an increase in daily absorption was frequently observed upon repeated daily exposure. The little information available mostly concerned pharmaceuticals. However, consumers and workers may be repeatedly exposed to other types of chemicals, like disinfectants and cleaning products, which often contain biocidal active substances that may decrease the barrier function of the skin, especially after repeated exposure. These biocidal products, therefore, may present a safety risk that is not covered by the current risk assessment practice since absorption data are usually obtained by single exposure experiments. Consequently, it was decided to investigate the importance of this issue for biocide safety evaluation. As the literature search revealed that hardly any data on absorption upon repeated dermal exposure to biocides are available, it was concluded that data need to be generated by testing.

    To cover the entire range of biocidal products in such testing, a representative series of biocidal substances should be tested, making in vitro testing of dermal absorption the preferred choice over in vivo testing. Based on an inventory made, it appeared that the 16 product types represented among the biocidal products authorised in the Netherlands could be clustered into 6 more or less homogeneous categories based on similarity in active substances. This result could facilitate experimental testing by providing a basis for selection of a limited number of representative compounds to be evaluated.


    n chapter 4 of this thesis, the importance of the effect of repeated dermal exposure on skin permeability for biocide safety evaluation was investigated, using a selection of nine representative biocides from the inventory made in chapter 3. The in vitro dermal penetration of tritiated water and [14C]propoxur was chosen as a measure of the permeability and integrity of human abdominal skin after single and repeated exposure. The results indicated that single and repeated exposure to specific biocidal products (e.g. the quaternary ammonium chlorides DDAC and ADBAC) may significantly increase skin permeability, especially when the compounds are applied at high concentrations, while a substance like formaldehyde may reduce skin permeability under specific conditions.


    n chapter 5 of this thesis, the in vitro dermal absorption kinetics of the quaternary ammonium compound didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) during single and repeated exposure was studied in more detail. In addition, the influence of biocidal formulations on the absorption of DDAC was investigated, because it was expected that formulation characteristics may be another factor influencing its dermal absorption. The analysis of biocidal products on the Dutch market, reported in chapter 3, indicated that DDAC is often used in combination with other active ingredients. DDAC was most frequently combined with formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde and/or alkyldimethylbenzyl­ammo­nium chloride (ADBAC). Consequently, commercial formulations containing one or more of these additional active ingredients were selected, in addition to one formulation containing only DDAC as an active ingredient. The selected commercial formulations tended to reduce skin penetration of DDAC. This was most pronounced with the formulation containing the highest concentration of formaldehyde (196 mg/mL) and glutaraldehyde (106 mg/mL), which reduced the flux of DDAC across the skin by 95%. The reduction caused by the only tested formulation containing no other active ingredients than DDAC, and thus incorporating no aldehydes, was smallest, and did not reach statistical significance.


    n chapter 6 of this thesis, a simple in silico model to predict finite dose dermal absorption from infinite dose data (kp and lag time) and the stratum corneum/water partition coefficient (KSC,W) was developed. This model was tentatively called Dermal Absorption Model for Extrapolation (DAME). As dermal exposure may occur under a large variety of conditions leading to quite different rates of absorption, such a predictive model using simple experimental or physicochemical inputs provides a cost-effective means to estimate dermal absorption under different conditions.

    To evaluate the DAME, a series of in vitro dermal absorption experiments was performed under both infinite and finite dose conditions using a variety of different substances. The kp’s and lag times determined in the infinite dose experiments were entered into DAME to predict relative dermal absorption value under finite dose conditions. For six substances, the predicted relative dermal absorption under finite dose conditions was not statistically different from the measured value. For all other substances, measured absorption was overpredicted by DAME, but most of the overpredicted values were still lower than 100%, the European default absorption value for the tested compounds.

    In conclusion, our finite dose prediction model (DAME) provides a useful and cost-effective estimate of in vitro dermal absorption, to be used in risk assessment for non-volatile substances dissolved in water at non-irritating concentrations.


    n chapter 7 of this thesis, the results of the research reported in chapters 2 to 6 were put into perspective, the pitfalls and promises emanating from them discussed and general conclusions drawn. The possible influence of vehicles on absorption and the possible impact of irritative or corrosive vehicles or chemicals on the skin barrier have been demonstrated in this thesis. An in silico predictive model tentatively called DAME was developed, which enables the user to evaluate a variety of dermal exposure scenarios with limited experimental data (kp and lag time) and easy to obtain physicochemical properties (MW and log KOW). The predictions of our experiments reported in chapter 6 were compared to those of the Finite Dose Skin Permeation (FDSP) model published on the internet by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). DAME outperformed FDSP (R2 of the correlation predicted/measured potential absorption 0.64 and 0.12, respectively). At present, the applicability domain of DAME is limited to non-volatile substances dissolved in aqueous solvents. However, in future the model will be adapted to include volatile substances as well.

    Altogether, it is concluded that dermal exposure can be an important factor in risks posed by chemicals and should be taken into account in risk assessment. The methods to actually do this are still open for further improvement to better account for the various factors influencing skin penetration and to develop adequate combinations of in vitro and in silico models that can accurately predict human dermal absorption.

    Plasmawater, een veelbelovend ontsmettings- en gewasbeschermingsmiddel
    Quaedvlieg, William ; Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D. ; Lemmers, M.E.C. ; Ruijven, J.P.M. van; Kolk, J.P. van der; Slootweg, G. ; Stijger, I. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw - 1
    tuinbouw - gewasbescherming - pectobacterium carotovorum - botrytis cinerea - fusarium - tomatenmozaïekvirus - gerbera - biociden - landbouwkundig onderzoek - fytotoxiciteit - corrosie - ontsmettingsmiddelen - glastuinbouw - horticulture - plant protection - pectobacterium carotovorum - botrytis cinerea - fusarium - tomato mosaic virus - gerbera - biocides - agricultural research - phytotoxicity - corrosion - disinfectants - greenhouse horticulture
    Voor dit onderzoek is gekeken of plasmawater onder laboratorium- en semi-praktijk condities verschillende soorten micro-organismen (bacteriën, schimmels en virussen) kan afdoden op het gewas. Tevens is gelet op de veiligheid voor het gewas (fyto-tox) en kas (corrosie). Poster van het PlantgezondheidEvent 2016.
    Plasma geactiveerd water veelbelovend voor de glastuinbouw : inzet als ontsmettings- of gewasbeschermingsmiddel
    Kierkels, T. ; Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D. ; Broek, R.C.F.M. van den - \ 2015
    Onder Glas 12 (2015)4. - p. 54 - 55.
    glastuinbouw - gewasbescherming - ontsmettingsmiddelen - reactieve zuurstof soorten - oxidatie - proeven - biociden - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - greenhouse horticulture - plant protection - disinfectants - reactive oxygen species - oxidation - trials - biocides - sustainability
    De eerste proeven met plasma geactiveerd water zijn veelbelovend. In het lab worden Erwinia en Botrytis afgedood of sterk teruggedrongen. Daarmee kan het plasma geactiveerde water wellicht een alternatief vormen voor ontsmetting met chloor. Daarnaast zijn er ook mogelijkheden om het gewas te beschermen tegen ongewenste organismen. Een groot samenwerkingsverband verkent de mogelijkheden verder.
    Toepassing van plasma geactiveerd water tegen plantenziekten
    Broek, R.C.F.M. van den; Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D. ; Noordam, M. ; Hollinger, T.C. ; Leenders, P. - \ 2015
    Wageningen UR
    gewasbescherming - tuinbouw - conferenties - plagenbestrijding - biociden - glastuinbouw - botrytis - erwinia - proeven - gerbera - plant protection - horticulture - conferences - pest control - biocides - greenhouse horticulture - botrytis - erwinia - trials - gerbera
    Doelstellingen van dit onderzoek: Effectiviteit testen van plasmawater als biocide in labtesten met een bacterie, Erwinia en een schimmel, Botrytis. Effectiviteit in de naoogst tegen Botrytis op gerberabloemen. Ontwikkelen van praktijkmeting van plasmawater die gerelateerd is aan biocidewerking (nog in uitvoering).Poster van PlantgezondheidEvent 12 maart 2015.
    Ontwikkeling van veilige toepassingen voor gewasbehandelingen met electrolysewater in de glastuinbouw
    Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D. ; Vries, R.S.M. de; Blok, C. ; Boer-Tersteeg, P.M. de; IJdo, M.L. ; Bosch, C. ; Ayik, A. ; Bruning, H. - \ 2013
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten WUR GTB 1240) - 50
    water - elektrolyse - glastuinbouw - gewasbescherming - milieubescherming - arbeidsomstandigheden - plantenvoeding - biociden - ultrasone behandeling - verneveling - druppelbevloeiing - nederland - water - electrolysis - greenhouse horticulture - plant protection - environmental protection - working conditions - plant nutrition - biocides - ultrasonic treatment - nebulization - trickle irrigation - netherlands
    Dit onderzoek had als doel om de werking van electrolysewater te verbinden met de chemische eigenschappen en op zoek te gaan naar veilige toepassingen als gewasbehandeling voor de glastuinbouwsector. Vijf producenten hebben voor dit onderzoek de gewenste samenstelling van electrolysewater aangeleverd. Alle producten met daarin 36-65 ppm vrij chloor waren binnen vijf minuten 100% effectief tegen de bacterie, Erwinia chrysanthemi en de schimmel, Botrytis cinerea. De grenzen van gewasschade in de kiemplantentest werden sterker bepaald door de hoeveelheid natriumzout en EC gehalte van de electrolysevloeistof dan de hoeveelheid vrij chloor. In een korte meedruppelproef met tomaat zijn verschillende concentraties vrij chloor (0, 4, 8, 20 ppm) gedoseerd aan het voedingswater. Er werd geen gewasschade gevonden of negatief effect op de wortelkolonisatie van Trianum door de geringe chloorwaardes (vrij en totaal) die na vier weken bij de druppelaar werden teruggemeten. Testen met gewasbehandelingen laten zien dat éénmalige behandelingen tot 300 ppm geen gewasschade geven. Bij meerdere toepassingen is groeiremming te voorkomen door lagere concentraties te gebruiken of blootstellingstijd te beperken. Electrolysewater kan een veilig en bruikbaar alternatief bij het terugdringen van het fungicidegebruik.
    Elektrochemisch geactiveerd water in elf vragen (onderzoek van Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw geleid door J. Hofland-Zijlstra)
    Sleegers, J. ; Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, ; Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D. - \ 2011
    Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij 66 (2011)20. - ISSN 0042-2223 - p. 34 - 35.
    sierteelt - gewasbescherming - biociden - elektrochemie - elektrische energie - waterzuivering - irrigatie - cultuurmethoden - ornamental horticulture - plant protection - biocides - electrochemistry - electrical energy - water treatment - irrigation - cultural methods
    Telers hebben de laatste tijd veel interesse in elektronisch geactiveerd water. Dit wordt door diverse leveranciers op de markt gebracht. Wat doet het en wat zijn de verschillen tussen de producten?
    Toepasssing van Aquanox in de glastuinbouw
    Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D. ; Grosman, A.H. ; Hamelink, R. ; Groot, E.B. de; Reinders, J. - \ 2011
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten GTB 1092) - 52
    glastuinbouw - gewasbescherming - plantenziektebestrijding - biociden - schimmelbestrijding - desinfectie - waterzuivering - kasgewassen - verneveling - greenhouse horticulture - plant protection - plant disease control - biocides - fungus control - disinfection - water treatment - greenhouse crops - nebulization
    Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw heeft samen met Reinders Vernevelings- en Ontsmettingstechniek het project uitgevoerd naar Toepassingen van Aquanox in de glastuinbouw. Gefinancierd door Productschap Tuinbouw en Ministerie EL&I. Screeningstesten onder laboratoriumcondities geven aan dat er een brede werking is tegen schimmels en bacteriën. Virusdeeltjes in plantensap werden echter nog onvoldoende gedood door geactiveerd water. Screening van het gedrag van insecten op overleving na 24 uur in een vernevelingsbehandeling met Aquanox gaf geen doding op natuurlijke plaagbestrijders. Een lichte bestrijdende werking werd gevonden op witte vlieg, spintmijt en Californische trips. De proeven met tomaat, komkommer, roos, Poinsettia en gerbera geven aan dat er een bestrijdend effect is van geactiveerd water tegen echte meeldauw en Botrytis. Het vervolgonderzoek zal gericht zijn op vermindering van corrosierisico’s en vermindering van risico op gewasschade binnen diverse toepassingen in de teelt
    Toepassing van Aquanox in de glastuinbouw
    Hofland-Zijlstra, Jantineke - \ 2011
    greenhouse horticulture - plant protection - plant disease control - biocides - application - crop losses
    Het hoe en waarom van toelatingsonderzoek
    Zeeland, M.G. van; Bulle, A.A.E. ; Hoek, H. - \ 2009 2009 (2009)10-11-2009.
    akkerbouw - gewasbescherming - pesticiden - biociden - toelating van bestrijdingsmiddelen - vollegrondsteelt - vollegrondsgroenten - arable farming - plant protection - pesticides - biocides - authorisation of pesticides - outdoor cropping - field vegetables
    Dit artikel beschrijft wat er nodig is voordat een bestrijdingsmiddel wordt toegelaten op de Nederlandse markt.
    Ondersteuning project 'Schone Bronnen' met oplossingen voor waterkwaliteitsproblemen
    Werd, H.A.E. de; Beltman, W.H.J. ; Wenneker, M. ; Zeeland, M.G. van; Lans, A.M. van der; Maas, A.A. van der - \ 2009
    waterkwaliteit - pesticiden - biociden - reductie - emissie - dosering - waterzuivering - verontreinigd water - gewasbescherming - water quality - pesticides - biocides - reduction - emission - dosage - water treatment - polluted water - plant protection
    Posterpresentatie. Gewasbeschermingsmiddelen en biociden veroorzaken waterkwaliteitsproblemen. Binnen het project ‘Schone Bronnen’ zoeken de deelnemers aan het ‘Convenant Duurzame Gewasbescherming’ naar oplossingen. Van een aantal stoffen en emissieroutes is nog onvoldoende bekend om tot oplossingen te komen
    Biobedden : achtergrondinformatie en onderbouwing ontwerp biobed op proefbedrijf Vredepeel
    Clevering, O.A. ; Weide, R.Y. van der - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving B.V. (PPO / Rapport )
    pesticiden - verontreinigingsbeheersing - emissie - biociden - waterzuivering - biologische behandeling - afvoerwater - pesticides - pollution control - emission - biocides - water treatment - biological treatment - effluents
    Deze notitie verkent de mogelijkheden omtrent de vraag: Hoe kan effluent en organisch restmateriaal uit biobedden en hiervan afgeleide systemen binnen de bestaande wet- en regelgeving verwijderd worden? Binnen het onderzoek naar emissiereductie van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen en biociden wordt onderzocht of biologische zuiveringsystemen zoals biobedden of hiervan afgeleide systemen effectief en praktisch toepasbaar zijn in Nederland. Het ministerie van VROM, de Unie van Waterschappen en de gemeente Hillegom zijn benaderd om hun zienswijze hierop weer te geven. Hun reacties zijn verwerkt in deze notitie
    Ondersteuning project `Schone Bronnen' Oplossingen voor waterkwaliteitsproblemen
    Werd, H.A.E. de; Beltman, W.H.J. ; Wenneker, M. ; Zeeland, M.G. van; Lans, A.M. van der; Maas, A.A. van der - \ 2007
    gewasbescherming - pesticiden - biociden - waterkwaliteit - waterverontreiniging - emissie - reductie - spuiten - probleemoplossing - plant protection - pesticides - biocides - water quality - water pollution - emission - reduction - spraying - problem solving
    Gewasbeschermingsmiddelen en biociden veroorzaken waterkwaliteitsproblemen. De partners uit het ‘Convenant Duurzame gewasbescherming’ zoeken binnen ‘Schone Bronnen’ naar oplossingen. Voor een aantal stoffen weten zij nog onvoldoende om tot oplossingen te komen. Wageningen UR brengt daarom ontbrekende kennis in of doet onderzoek om ontbrekende kennis boven tafel te krijgen
    Accumulation of metals, polycyclic (Halogenated) aromatic hydrocarbons, and biocides in zebra mussel and eel fron the Rhine and Meuse rivers
    Hendriks, A.J. ; Pieters, H. ; Boer, J. de - \ 1998
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 17 (1998)10. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 1885 - 1898.
    waterkwaliteit - waterverontreiniging - mossels - palingen - zware metalen - polycyclische koolwaterstoffen - biociden - biologische monitoring - bioaccumulatie - ecotoxicologie - rijn - maas - water quality - water pollution - mussels - eels - heavy metals - polycyclic hydrocarbons - biocides - biomonitoring - bioaccumulation - ecotoxicology - river rhine - river meuse
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