Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Does topsoil removal in grassland restoration benefit both soil nematode and plant communities?
    Resch, Monika Carol ; Schütz, Martin ; Graf, Ulrich ; Wagenaar, Roel ; Putten, Wim H. ; Risch, Anita C. - \ 2019
    Journal of Applied Ecology 56 (2019)7. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 1782 - 1793.
    biodiversity - biological indicators - food web structure - long-term recovery - propagule availability - restoration success - semi-natural grasslands - topsoil removal

    Successful restoration of semi-natural grasslands on grasslands previously subject to intensive management needs to overcome manifold barriers. These include high soil fertility, the dominance of a few fast-growing plant species, degraded soil faunal communities and missing propagules of the targeted above- and below-ground flora and fauna. A combination of removing the topsoil and introducing propagules of target plants has become one of the major tools for nature conservation agencies and practitioners to reduce soil fertility and restore former species-rich grasslands in various European countries. Using topsoil removal as a restoration measure has provoked an ongoing debate between supporting nature conservation and rejecting soil protection agencies. Although it favours species-rich plant communities, it strongly disturbs soil communities and affects physical and chemical soil properties and processes. Currently, there is a lack of long-term data to assess how restored grassland ecosystems develop and recover after topsoil removal. Here, we used two well-established bioindicators, soil nematodes and plants, to quantify restoration success of topsoil removal in comparison with alternative restoration measures and target communities 22 years after intervention. The nematode community composition indicated reduced nutrient availability in the restored systems, as was aimed at by topsoil removal. Nevertheless, after this 22-year period following topsoil removal, nematode composition and structure revealed successful recovery. Plant communities benefitted from the reduction of soil nutrients after topsoil removal as indicated by higher numbers of plant species and higher Shannon diversity. Furthermore, topsoil removal strongly promoted the re-establishment of plant species of the target plant community. Synthesis and applications. Overall, our study demonstrates how a massive intervention by topsoil removal proved successful in converting intensively managed into species-rich grasslands. This contrasts with the mild intervention of repeated mowing and removing of the harvested plant material. We show that, in the long run, potential negative effects of topsoil removal on the soil fauna can be successfully overcome and plant communities can develop into targeted species-rich grassland.

    Beehold : the colony of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L) as a bio-sampler for pollutants and plant pathogens
    Steen, J.J.M. van der - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Huub Rijnaarts, co-promotor(en): Tim Grotenhuis; Willem Jan de Kogel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577510 - 206
    apis mellifera - honey bees - honey bee colonies - biological indicators - sampling - instruments - pollution - pollutants - heavy metals - plant pathogenic bacteria - erwinia amylovora - erwinia pyrifoliae - analytical methods - apis mellifera - honingbijen - honingbijkolonies - biologische indicatoren - bemonsteren - instrumenten (meters) - verontreiniging - verontreinigende stoffen - zware metalen - plantenziekteverwekkende bacteriën - erwinia amylovora - erwinia pyrifoliae - analytische methoden

    Bio-sampling is a function of bio-indication. Bio-indication with honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera L) is where the research fields of environmental technology and apiculture overlap. The honeybees are samplers of the environment by collecting unintentionally and simultaneously, along with nectar, pollen, water and honeydew from the flowers or on the leaves, other matter (in bio-indication terms: target matter) and accumulating this in the colony. Collected target matter, in this thesis heavy metals, the plant pathogens Erwinia pyrifoliae and Erwinia amylovora and the soil pollutant γ-HCH, is collected from the colony by subsampling. Subsampling the honeybee colony is done by taking and killing bees from the hive (sacrificial) or by collecting target matter from the bee’s exterior without killing the bee (non-sacrificial). In environmental technology terms the application of the honeybee colony is a Passive Sampling Method (PSM). In this thesis the possibilities and restrictions of the PSM honeybee colony are explored.

    Bio-indication is a broad research field with one common factor: a living organism (bio) is applied to record an alteration of the environment (indication). The environment may be small such as a laboratory or big such as an ecosystem. Alterations in the organism may vary from detecting substances foreign to the body to mortality of the organism. In environmental technology the concept Source-Path-Receptor (SPR) is applied to map the route of a pollutant. It describes where in the environment the pollution is, how it moves through the environment and where it ends. This environment is the same environment of all living organisms, ergo also honeybees. Honeybees depend on flowers for their food. In the SPR concept, a flower can be a source, path or receptor. Along with collecting pollen, nectar, water and honeydew, target matter is collected by honeybees. Each honeybee functions as a micro-sampler of target matter in the environment, in this case the flower. Each honeybee is part of a honeybee colony and in fact the honeybee colony is the bio-sampler. The honeybee colony is a superorganism. The well-being of the colony prevails over the individual honeybee. Food collection is directed by the colony’s need. Foragers are directed to the most profitable food sources by the bee dance and food exchange (trophallaxis). The result of this feature is that mainly profitable sources are exploited and poor food sources less or not at all. During the active foraging period hundreds to thousands of flowers are visited daily. The nectar, pollen, water and honeydew plus the unintentionally collected target matter is accumulated in the honeybee colony. In order to obtain target matter the colony must be subsampled. This is done by picking bees from the hive-entrance (hive-entering bees) or inside the hive (in-hive bees) and processing them for analysis (sacrificial). This is the most commonly applied method. However, it is possible to subsample the colony without picking and processing the bees by collecting target matter from the hive-entering bee’s exterior (non-sacrificial). For non-sacrificial subsampling of the honeybee colony the Beehold device with the sampling part Beehold tube has been developed. The results of bio-indication with honeybee colonies are qualitative and indicative for follow up study (Chapter 1).

    Six bio-indication studies with honeybee colonies for bio-indication of heavy metals, the plant pathogens Erwinia pyrifoliae and Erwinia amylovora and the soil pollutant γ-HCH are presented. Chapter 2 describes how the concentration of eighteen heavy metals in honeybees fluctuate throughout the period of July, August and September (temporal) at the study sites: the city of Maastricht, the urban location with an electricity power plant in Buggenum and along the Nieuwe Waterweg at Hoek van Holland (spatial). A number of the metals have not been previously analysed in honeybees. To study whether honeybees can be used for bio-indication of air pollution, the concentrations of cadmium, vanadium and lead were compared to concentrations found in honeybees. The honeybee colonies were placed next to the air samplers. Only significant differences of metal concentrations in the ambient air also show in honeybees. This was the case with vanadium in ambient air and honeybees. The spatial and temporal differences of cadmium and lead were too futile to demonstrate a correspondence (Chapter 3). In a national surveillance study in 2008 the concentration of eighteen metals in honeybees has been analysed. The results showed a distinct regional pattern. Honeybees in the East of the Netherlands have higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to the bees in the West. Besides regional differences local differences were also recorded. An approximate description of the land use around 148 apiaries (> 50% agriculture, > 50% wooded area, > 50% urban area and mixed use) indicated the impact of land use on metal concentrations in honeybees. In areas with > 50% wood significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals were detected (Chapter 4). Subsampling of the honeybee colonies in Chapter 2, 3 and 4 was done sacrificially. In the studies presented in Chapter 5, 6, and 7 the honeybee colonies were subsampled non-sacrificially or simultaneously non-sacrificially and sacrificially. The plant pathogen E. pyrifoliae causes a flower infection in the strawberry cultivation in greenhouses. In greenhouse strawberry cultivation honeybees are applied for pollination. In Chapter 5 the combination pollination / bio-indication by honeybee colonies is studied. This proved to be a match. E. pyrifoliae could be detected on in-hive bees prior to any symptom of the infection in the flowers. In the Beehold tube, the bacterium was detected at the same time as the first tiny symptoms of the infection. In Chapter 5 the principles on which the Beehold tube is based are presented and discussed. The plant pathogen E. amylovora causes fireblight in orchards. The combination pollination / bio-indication has also been applied in this study performed in Austria in 2013. It is known that E. amylovora can be detected on honeybees prior to any symptom in the flower or on the fruit tree. A fireblight outbreak depends on flowering period, humidity and temperature. In 2013 no fireblight infection emerged in the orchards where the study was performed. Therefore, the bacterium could not be detected on the honeybees. γ-HCH (Lindane) is one of the soil pollutants in the Bitterfeld region in Saxony-Anhalt in Germany. It is the result of dumping industrial waste around the production locations. Although γ-HCH is bound to soil particles there is a flux to groundwater and surface water. Consequently, the pollution may end up in the sediments of the streambed and flood plains. The study objective was to investigate the hypothetic route of γ-HCH from polluted soil (source), via soil erosion and atmospheric deposition (route) to the receptor (flowering flowers) by detecting γ-HCH in the Beehold tube. Although on average over 17000 honeybees passed through the Beehold tube daily for a maximal period of 28 days, no γ-HCH has been detected. The pollen pattern in the Beehold tube revealed where the bees collected the food (Chapter 7).

    The application of the honeybee colony has pros and cons. Distinctive pros are many micro samplers, the extensive collection of matter (both food and target matter) and the accumulation in the colony. For successful bio-indication with honeybee colonies, determining factors are: the target matter, location of the target matter, distance between target matter and the honeybee colony, individual or pooled subsampling, the minimal sampling frequency and sample size, and sacrificial or non-sacrificial subsampling applied solely or in combination. Taking bees from a colony impacts upon the colony’s performance and consequently the passive sampling method. Based on a long-years’ experience and inter-collegial discussion it is stated that 3% of the forager bees (hive-entering) and 1.5% of the in-hive bees can be sampled safely without impacting upon the colony. This restriction does not apply when carrying out non-sacrificial subsampling of the honeybee colony (Chapter 8).

    Performing bio-indication with honeybee colonies has more applications than have been exploited so far. Further research can make a change. In particular I mention here the combination of pollination and bio-indication and the application of non-sacrificial subsampling solely or in combination with sacrificial subsampling.

    Everywhere Apiculture is practiced (all over the world except the polar areas) bio-indication with honeybee colonies can be applied in a simple, practical and low cost way.

    Final report on impact of catchment scale processes and climate change on cause-effect and recovery-chains
    Verdonschot, P.F.M. ; Keizer-Vlek, H.E. ; Spears, B. ; Brucet, S. ; Johnson, R. ; Feld, C. ; Kernan, M. - \ 2012
    Brussel : European Commission - 116
    ecologisch herstel - beheer van waterbekkens - rivieren - meren - estuaria - kustwateren - degradatie - biologische indicatoren - verzuring - eutrofiëring - morfologie - ecologische beoordeling - ecological restoration - watershed management - rivers - lakes - estuaries - coastal water - degradation - biological indicators - acidification - eutrophication - morphology - ecological assessment
    Catchment wide integrated basin management requires knowledge on cause-effect and recovery chains within water bodies as well as on the interactions between water bodies and categories. In the WISER WP6.4 recovery processes in rivers, lakes and estuarine and coastal waters were evaluated. The major objectives were: - to analyse and compare (cause-effect and) recovery chains within water categories based on processes and structural and functional features; - to detect commonalities among different chains in different water categories ( to compare recovery chains between water categories); - to link recovery chains to over-arching biological processes and global change; - to develop a method to combine recovery effects in a summarising ‘catchment’ metric. The main stressors studied to reach these objectives were acidification, eutrophication and hydromorphological changes.
    Vanuit de rand gezien : een vegetatieonderzoek van sloten en wallen in het boerenland van de Noordelijke Friese Wouden
    Weeda, E.J. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2127) - 63
    waterkwaliteit - biologische indicatoren - dijken - waterplanten - sloten - slootkanten - monitoring - milieu - vegetatie - friese wouden - water quality - biological indicators - dykes - aquatic plants - ditches - ditch banks - monitoring - environment - vegetation - friese wouden
    In de lintvormige elementen tussen de percelen van het boerenland komen allerlei planten voor die als indicator van de milieukwaliteit te gebruiken zijn. Het best onderzocht zijn water- en moerasplanten, maar ook landplanten geven belangrijke informatie. Tijdens een veldonderzoek in 2005 in de Noordelijke Friese Wouden is nagegaan welke wilde plantensoorten hier voorkomen in perceelscheidingen: in en langs sloten en poelen, in elzensingels en op eikenwallen (‘dykswâlen’). Vijftien gemakkelijk herkenbare soorten water- en moerasplanten zijn uitgekozen als indicatoren van de waterkwaliteit. Verder worden suggesties gedaan voor monitoring van slootkanten en andere perceelscheidingen aan de hand van landplanten. Het rapport bevat verder een beschrijving van de spontane plantengroei in de perceelranden van de 36 onderzochte boerenbedrijven.
    Aggregation of ecological indicators for mapping aquatic nature quality : overview of existing methods and case studies
    Knotters, M. ; Lahr, J. ; Oosten-Siedlecka, A.M. van; Verdonschot, P.F.M. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 209) - 44
    waterorganismen - biologische indicatoren - oppervlaktewater - stroomgebieden - natuurwaarde - ruimtelijke modellen - correlatie - zoetwaterecologie - nederland - aquatic organisms - biological indicators - surface water - watersheds - natural value - spatial models - correlation - freshwater ecology - netherlands
    Indicators for aquatic nature quality are calculated using ecological monitoring data from individual sampling stations. For reporting purposes, these results need to be aggregated and scaled up to higher levels (catchment area, country). This report provides an overview of different existing spatial aggregation methods for this purpose, including an evaluation of their suitability for aquatic ecological indicators. So-called „model-based„ methods, consisting of some sort of „kriging¿ step followed by calculation of the arithmetic mean, appeared to be the most appropriate. Application of these methods to multimetric indicators of aquatic macroinvertebrates in two Dutch subcatchment areas confirmed their suitability. However, the methods that were used were based on aggregation (using kriging) over Euclidian (straight), distances. It is recommended to conduct further research on the suitability of interpolation through stream networks, i.e., through the waterways themselves.
    Abiotische randvoorwaarden en natuurdoelen in kunstmatige wateren dl. 3 Matige grote, ondiepe laagveenplassen
    Keizer-Vlek, H.E. ; Lange, H.J. de; Verdonschot, P.F.M. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2089) - 88
    laagveengebieden - plassen - fauna - vissen - waterplanten - oppervlaktewater - biologische indicatoren - zoetwaterecologie - habitats - chemische eigenschappen - waterkwaliteit - nederland - kwaliteit - macrofauna - kaderrichtlijn water - natura 2000 - abiotiek - fens - ponds - fauna - fishes - aquatic plants - surface water - biological indicators - freshwater ecology - habitats - chemical properties - water quality - netherlands - quality - macrofauna - water framework directive - natura 2000 - abiotic conditions
    Het doel van deze studie is het gekwantificeerd invullen van de abiotische randvoorwaarden behorende bij de (Zeer) Goede Ecologische Toestand ((Z)GET) van het KRW type M27 ‘Matig grote, ondiepe laagveenplassen’. Meetgegevens van de twaalf ‘best beschikbare’ plassen in Nederland zijn voor dit doel geanalyseerd. De resultaten geven aan dat de biologische kwaliteitselementen in geen van de twaalf plassen voldoen aan de GET. De relatief slechte ecologische toestand van de plassen wordt onder andere veroorzaakt door hoge concentraties totaal-stikstof en totaal-fosfor, beperkt doorzicht en een hoge pH. Deze abiotische variabelen voldoen in bijna alle gevallen niet aan de GET-norm. De resultaten van het onderzoek impliceren dat de GET-norm/KRW referentie¬waarde(n) voor de abiotische variabelen EGV, chloride, ammonium en sulfaat naar beneden moeten worden bijgesteld om de GET van matig grote, ondiepe laagveenplassen te kunnen garanderen. Voor deze abiotische variabelen moet echter eerst nog worden bepaald of hogere concentraties dan vastgesteld in dit onderzoek leiden tot een verminderde ecologische toestand. Verder zal meer inzicht moeten komen in de voor de macrofauna- en waterplantengemeenschap sturende factoren door middel van experimenteel onderzoek. Hiervoor is naast informatie over fysisch-chemische milieuvariabelen ook informatie nodig over hydro¬morfologische milieuvariabelen. Tot slot is niet mogelijk gebleken om op basis van deze studie een eenduidige relatie te leggen tussen de abiotische randvoorwaarden noodzakelijk voor de realisatie van de GET in matig grote, ondiepe laagveenplassen (KRW) en de abiotische randvoorwaarden noodzakelijk voor de realisatie van aquatische habitattypen (VHR). Wel is vastgesteld dat habitattype 3140 niet voorkomt in de onderzochte plassen, terwijl zes van de twaalf onderzochte plassen liggen in een Natura 2000-gebied met een doelstelling voor habitattype 3140.
    Daily changes of infections by Pythium ultimum after a nutrient impulse in organic versus conventional soils
    He, M. ; Ma, W. ; Tian, G. ; Blok, W.J. ; Khodzaeva, A. ; Zelenev, V.V. ; Semenov, A.M. ; Bruggen, A.H.C. van - \ 2010
    Phytopathology 100 (2010)6. - ISSN 0031-949X - p. 593 - 600.
    damping-off - bacterial-populations - root-rot - pseudomonas-fluorescens - biological indicators - microbial communities - disease suppression - plant-pathogens - wheat roots - compost
    Bacterial populations (CFU) have been shown to oscillate in wavelike patterns after nutrient impulses in previous studies. The amplitudes and periods of oscillations could possibly be used as indicators of soil health analogous to the stability and resilience of biological populations widely accepted as indicators for ecosystem health. Limited plant and animal disease outbreaks can also be viewed as a manifestation of a healthy soil ecosystem. Two pot experiments were carried out to verify whether damping-off of beet seedlings by Pythium ultimum, measured as area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC), fluctuated over time after incorporation of organic materials into organic versus conventional soils, and to investigate whether daily dynamics of AUDPCs were linked to the dynamics of microbial populations and chemical parameters. AUDPCs oscillated significantly over time when Pythium bioassays were initiated daily after addition of ground grass and clover shoots (GC) into unplanted soils. Similar oscillations with significant harmonics of AUDPC were also observed in composted manure (CM)-amended soils but with smaller amplitudes than in GC-amended soils. The AUDPC harmonics in amended soils had periods similar to those of CFU of copiotrophic bacteria. Cross-correlation analysis demonstrated that periodic fluctuations of P. ultimum infections (AUDPCs) did not coincide with those of copiotrophic CFU but were shifted in phase. It appears that competition or antagonism from some fast-growing bacteria influenced pathogen infections, because these bacterial populations were growing and dying. Soil chemical variables, including pH, dissolved organic carbon, and NO(3)(-)-N, and NH(4)(+)-N contents, changed significantly in the initial 7 days after a nutrient impulse into soils. These changes were cross-correlated with copiotrophic CFU with time lags of approximately 1 to 2 days but were seldom associated with daily changes in AUDPCs. Organically managed soils always had lower AUDPC ratios of amended to nonamended treatments, indicating that organic materials showed stronger suppressive abilities to P. ultimum in organic than in conventional soils. The oscillations in AUDPCs and copiotrophic CFU in amended organic soil also had smaller amplitudes than in amended conventional soil. These results suggested that organically managed soils had a greater resistance and resilience to the disturbance of the amendments and, therefore, could be considered healthier than conventionally managed soils
    Bodemindicatoren voor het meten van bodemgezondheid, Thema: Innovaties duurzame gewasbescherming BO-12.03-003.02-017
    Bonants, P.J.M. ; Gent-Pelzer, M.P.E. van; Hoof, R.A. van; Mendes, O. ; Vos, O.J. de; Overbeek, L.S. van; Schoen, C.D. - \ 2009
    bodemkwaliteit - biologische indicatoren - bodemfauna - meting - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - gezondheid - bodem - soil quality - biological indicators - soil fauna - measurement - sustainability - health - soil
    Presentatie getiteld "Bodemindicatoren voor het meten van bodemgezondheid", thema "Innovaties duurzame gewasbescherming".
    Assessment of effects of chemical contaminants in dredged material on marine ecosystems and human health
    Schipper, C.A. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tinka Murk; Ivonne Rietjens. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085855415 - 153
    baggeren - sediment - mariene gebieden - toxicologie - biologische indicatoren - risicoschatting - delta's - mariene ecologie - noordzee - ecotoxicologie - dredging - sediment - marine areas - toxicology - biological indicators - risk assessment - deltas - marine ecology - north sea - ecotoxicology
    Om te voorkomen dat scheepvaartroutes dichtslibben moeten waterwegen en havens in deltagebieden regelmatig worden gebaggerd. Wereldwijd worden op jaarbasis honderden miljoenen tonnen baggerspecie en sediment verwijderd. Nederland verspreidt jaarlijks meer dan 25 miljoen kubieke meter gebaggerd sediment in de Noordzee. Hierbij is het van belang te kunnen bepalen wat de risico's zijn voor het ecosysteem. Het in sediment identificeren van chemische stoffen die een potentieel risico vormen voor het ecosysteem of voor de menselijke gezondheid is dan ook het onderwerp van veel studies. Dit proefschrift onderzoekt de toepasbaarheid van in vitro, in vivo bioassays en bio-indicatoren als mogelijke beoordelingsinstrument voor het vaststellen van de schadelijke effecten op zeeorganismen van complexe chemische verbindingen in sediment
    Abiotische randvoorwaarden en natuurdoelen in kunstmatige wateren dl. 2 Ondiepe laagveenplassen
    Keizer-Vlek, H.E. ; Didderen, K. ; Verdonschot, P.F.M. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1884) - 114
    laagveengebieden - plassen - fauna - benthos - aquatische gemeenschappen - vissen - oppervlaktewater - biologische indicatoren - zoetwaterecologie - macrofauna - kaderrichtlijn water - aquatische ecologie - fens - ponds - fauna - benthos - aquatic communities - fishes - surface water - biological indicators - freshwater ecology - macrofauna - water framework directive - aquatic ecology
    Het doel van deze studie is het gekwantificeerd invullen van de abiotische randvoorwaarden behorende bij het Goed Ecologisch Potentieel (GEP) van het KRW type M25 ‘Ondiepe laagveenplassen’. Meetgegevens van de 10 'best beschikbare' locaties van KRW type M25 zijn voor dit doel geanalyseerd. De resultaten geven aan dat de biologische kwaliteitselementen op alle 10 locaties voldoen aan het GEP. Ondanks onomkeerbare hydromorfologische veranderingen tonen de resultaten duidelijk aan, dat de meetwaarden voor het merendeel van de fysisch-chemische variabelen van de in Nederland 10 ‘best beschikbare’ ondiepe laagveenplassen voldoen aan de GET-norm en/of KRW referentiewaarde beschreven voor M14/M27. Om deze reden is ervoor gekozen de GET voor de watertypen M14/M27 te hanteren als GEP voor M25, met hier en daar enige aanpassingen. Gebleken is dat een overschrijding van de KRW referentiewaarde voor één abiotische variabele niet direct hoeft te leiden tot een lager ecologische potentieel van de aquatische levensgemeenschap. Een overschrijding van de GET-norm voor totaal-stikstof (1.3 mg N/l) tot 1.7 mg N/l kan worden toegestaan, mits de nitraat-, ammonium-, totaal-fosfor- en orthofosfaatconcentraties voldoen aan de GET-norm/KRW referentiewaarde. Het EGV, de chloride-, sulfaat-, ammonium- en orthofosfaatconcentraties liggen op alle locaties aanzienlijk lager dan de KRW referentiewaarden.. Voor deze abiotische variabelen moet nog worden bepaald of hogere concentraties dan vastgesteld in dit onderzoek leiden tot een verminderd ecologisch potentieel. Alleen dan kan worden vastgesteld of de huidige KRW referentiewaarden voor ondiepe laagveenplassen afdoende zijn om het GEP van deze plassen te kunnen garanderen. Verder zijn aanpassingen noodzakelijk om de KRW maatlatten voor M14/M27 geschikt te maken voor de beoordeling van ondiepe laagveenplassen (M25) Er worden aanbevelingen gedaan om de maatlatten te verbeteren. In het geval van de vissen en het fytobenthos is daarnaast methodisch onderzoek noodzakelijk om de monitoring en beoordeling te kunnen optimaliseren. Tot slot werpen de resultaten de vraag op in hoeverre er een verband bestaat tussen de goede mate van doelrealisatie (‘Handboek Natuurdoeltypen’) en het GEP (KRW)
    Graadmeterstelsel biodiversiteit zoute wateren : I. beleidskaders en indicatoren
    Meesters, H.W.G. ; Brinkman, A.G. ; Duin, W.E. van; Lindeboom, H.J. ; Breukelen, S. van - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-rapport 92) - 30
    biodiversiteit - monitoring - biologische indicatoren - mariene gebieden - noordzee - milieubeleid - nederland - waddenzee - biodiversity - monitoring - biological indicators - marine areas - north sea - environmental policy - netherlands - wadden sea
    Dit rapport is deel van het project “Graadmeterstelsel Biodiversiteit zoute wateren”. Het project is uitgevoerd door Wageningen IMARES en had een looptijd van drie jaar (2003-2006). Het rapport vormt de basis van een programma dat als doel heeft om een adequaat en samenhangend instrumentarium van biodiversiteitgraadmeters, -meetnetten en -modellen voor de zoute wateren op te zetten om de kerntaken van het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) te ondersteunen. Het rapport bevat een aantal overzichten, waaronder: (1) een samenvatting van eerder voorgestelde en soms toegepaste graadmetersystemen, (2) een overzicht van internationale verdragen en bijbehorende (voorgestelde) graadmeters, (3) inpassing van graadmeters in nationale wetten en beleidskaders, (4) een samenvatting van evaluatiekaders voor water- en natuurbeleid, (5) een overzicht van lopende meetnetten, (6) een overzicht van bestaande modellen, en (7) een opsomming van gebruiksfuncties en drukfactoren. Verder is een lijst met graadmeters uitgewerkt waarmee met zo min mogelijk inspanning en kosten, met behulp van bestaande meetnetten, zoveel mogelijk beleidskaders kunnen worden bediend. De set van graadmeters als geheel geeft tevens een representatief beeld van de toestand van de biodiversiteit van de Waddenzee, Noordzee en Delta. Voor de presentatie en een (eenvoudige) analyse van de gegevens is EMIGMA (EffectModellering Indicatoren Gebruik en Management) ontwikkeld. Een applicatie waarmee geaggregeerde gegevens snel beschikbaar zijn en eenvoudig geactualiseerd kunnen worden. Trefwoorden: Graadmeters, indicatoren, biodiversiteit, EMIGMA, mariene milieu, Delta, Waddenzee, Noordzee
    Indicator system for biodiversity in Dutch marine waters : II. Ecoprofiles of indicator species for Wadden Sea, North Sea and Delta Area
    Meesters, H.W.G. ; Hofstede, R. ter; Deerenberg, C.M. ; Craeymeersch, J.A.M. ; Mesel, I.G. de; Brasseur, S.M.J.M. ; Reijnders, P.J.H. ; Witbaard, R. - \ 2008
    Wageningen,Den Burg : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu, IMARES (WOt-rapport 82) - 30
    biodiversiteit - biologische indicatoren - mariene ecologie - mariene gebieden - vogels - vissen - ongewervelde dieren - zeezoogdieren - natuurbescherming - monitoring - nederland - noordzee - milieueffect - waddenzee - biodiversity - biological indicators - marine ecology - marine areas - birds - fishes - invertebrates - marine mammals - nature conservation - monitoring - netherlands - north sea - environmental impact - wadden sea
    In het rapport wordt een groot aantal korte ecologische beschrijvingen, zogenaamde ecoprofielen, gepresenteerd voor belangrijke indicatorsoorten voor de Nederlandse mariene wateren. Het gaat hierbij om vogels, vissen, zeezoogdieren en invertebraten. Elk ecoprofiel biedt informatie over belangrijke kenmerken van de soort, zoals morfometrische gegevens en informatie over leefwijze, voedingsgewoonten en verspreidingsmechanismen. Voorts bevat het profiel informatie over de gevoeligheid van de soort voor milieudruk en over bestaande monitoringsprogramma’s en beschikbare gegevensverzamelingen. Voor elke indicatorsoort worden (voor zover beschikbaar) de gemiddelde aantallen gegeven voor de Waddenzee, Noordzee en het Deltagebied, over de periode 2001-2004 en 1999-2002. In de meeste ecoprofielen zijn ook natuurlijke referentiewaarden opgenomen, die worden gebruikt om de natuurkwaliteit te berekenen. Uit de resultaten blijkt dat de natuurkwaliteit sterk kan verschillen tussen de diverse indicatorsoorten, perioden en locaties. Gepleit wordt voor een zorgvuldige evaluatie van de keuze van indicatorsoorten voor de bepaling van de mariene biodiversiteit.Trefwoorden: mariene indicatorsoorten, Noordzee, Waddenzee, Deltagebied, biodiversiteit, ecoprofielen, natuurkwaliteit, Natural Capital Index
    Fulmar Litter EcoQO Monitoring in the North Sea - results to 2006
    Franeker, J.A. van; SNS Fulmar Study Group, - \ 2008
    Texel : IMARES (IMARES report C033/08) - 53
    waterverontreiniging - afval - kunststoffen - schepen - fulmarus - inname - biologische indicatoren - monitoring - aquatische ecologie - noordzee - water pollution - wastes - plastics - ships - fulmarus - ingestion - biological indicators - monitoring - aquatic ecology - north sea
    Het door schepen overboord zetten van operationeel en aan lading gerelateerd afval is één van de belangrijke bronnen van zwerfvuil in de zuidelijke Noordzee. Zulk afval heeft ernstige economische en ecologische gevolgen. Tekortkomingen in afgifteprocedures in havens worden gezien als een belangrijk achtergrond voor het illegaal overboord zetten van scheepsafval. In Nederland worden trends in zwerfafval op zee reeds onderzocht in een monitoring programma dat is gebaseerd op de hoeveelheid afval in magen van dood aangespoelde zeevogels: de Noordse Stormvogel. Dit graadmeter instrument wordt ook internationaal verder ontwikkeld als een ‘Ecological Quality Objective (EcoQO)’ door OSPAR (OSPAR-MASH 2007). De Noordse Stormvogel fourageert uitsluitend op zee, eet geregeld afval, en hoopt slecht verteerbaar materiaal op in de maag. Daardoor geeft de maaginhoud een geintegreerd beeld van de hoeveelheden afval op zee.
    Gezondheidsindicatoren voor het Schelde estuarium : een inventarisatie en evaluatie van biologische graadmeters voorgesteld in nationale en internationale kaders, toegepast op het Nederlandse deel van het Schelde-estuarium
    Craeymeersch, J.A.M. ; Mesel, I.G. de; Goudswaard, P.C. ; Heessen, H.J.L. ; Henkens, R.J.H.G. ; Jongbloed, R.H. ; Kaag, N.H.B.M. - \ 2008
    Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / Wageningen IMARES C020/08) - 65
    estuaria - waterkwaliteit - biologische indicatoren - monitoring - eu regelingen - kaderrichtlijn water - natura 2000 - natuurgebieden - westerschelde - estuaries - water quality - biological indicators - monitoring - eu regulations - water framework directive - natura 2000 - natural areas - western scheldt
    In dit rapport is een inventarisatie gemaakt van de parameters die worden benut in het kader van een aantal Europese richtlijnen (water, natura 2000) en nationaal beleid (ecologische hoofdstructuur) aangevuld met parameters voorgesteld door het Milieu en Natuurplanbureau. Deze zijn vervolgens beorrdeeld op de bruikbaarheid als graadmeters vor deze gezondheidstoestand. Conclusie is dat de meeste graadmeters die zijn opgesteld, ook voor het Schelde estuarium bruikbaar zijn.
    Soil biodiversity for agricultural sustainability
    Brussaard, L. ; Ruiter, P.C. de; Brown, G.G. - \ 2007
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 121 (2007)3. - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 233 - 244.
    ecosystem function relationship - microbial communities - functional stability - nitrogen mineralization - biological indicators - bacterial community - crusted soil - west-africa - diversity - productivity
    We critically highlight some evidence for the importance of soil biodiversity to sustaining (agro-)ecosystem functioning and explore directions for future research. We first deal with resistance and resilience against abiotic disturbance and stress. There is evidence that soil biodiversity does confer stability to stress and disturbance, but the mechanism is not yet fully understood. It appears to depend on the kind of stress and disturbance and on the combination of stress and disturbance effects. Alternatively, community structure may play a role. Both possible explanations will guide further research. We then discuss biotic stress. There is evidence that soil microbial diversity confers protection against soil-borne disease, but crop and soil type and management also play a role. Their relative importance as well as the role of biodiversity in multitrophic interactions warrant further study. Henceforth, we focus on the effects of plant and soil biodiversity on nutrient and water use efficiencies as important ecological functions in agroecosystems. The available evidence suggests that mycorrhizal diversity positively contributes to nutrient and, possibly, water use efficiency. Soil fauna effects on nutrient and water use efficiencies are also apparent, but diversity effects may be indirect, through effects on soil structure. We present a conceptual diagram relating plant and soil biodiversity with soil structure and water and nutrient use efficiencies as a framework for future studies. We then consider how cropping systems design and management are interrelated and how management options might be interfaced with farmers¿ knowledge in taking management decisions. Finally, we attempt to express some economic benefits of soil biodiversity to society as part of a wider strategy of conserving and using agrobiodiversity.
    Indicators for the 'Convention on biodiversity 2010'. Exploration of the usefulness of the Marine Trophic Index (MTI) as an indicator for sustainability of marine fisheries in the Dutch part of the North Sea
    Fey-Hofstede, F.E. ; Meesters, H.W.G. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 53.8) - 42
    biodiversiteit - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - visserij - noordzee - trofische graden - biologische productie - biologische indicatoren - indicatoren - nederland - zeevisserij - duurzaamheidsindicatoren - biodiversity - sustainability - fisheries - north sea - trophic levels - biological production - biological indicators - indicators - netherlands - marine fisheries - sustainability indicators
    The Marine Trophic Index (MTI) is proposed by the CBD as an indicator for sustainable fisheries and ecosystem integrity. This report explores the usefulness of the Marine Trophic Index (MTI) as an indicator for sustainable fisheries and ecosystem integrity for the Dutch situation
    International review of the Globio model version 3
    Leemans, R. ; Gaston, K.J. ; Jaarsveld, A.S. van; Dixon, J. ; Harrison, J. ; Cheatle, M.E. - \ 2007
    Bilthoven : Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP report 555050002/2007) - 29
    biodiversiteit - biologische indicatoren - armoede - modelleren - biodiversity - biological indicators - poverty - modeling
    In April 2005, a review committee gathered to assess the scientifically validity and policyrelevance of the GLOBIO3 model as part of the International Biodiversity project. Four members of the committee are scientists with a great experience in biological research assessing the GLOBIO3 model from a scientific perspective, while two members are working at UNEP assessing the model from a user¿s perspective. Their judgment and recommendations are presented in this report. The conclusions are important in order to keep the modelling work scientifically sound as well as focussed on the major political key questions in the international arena. The review committee concluded the GLOBIO3 project is well suited to play in important role in providing information on understanding ongoing trends and depicting future trends in regional and global assessments. However, the scientific imbedding and acceptance has to improve, while, simultaneously, the dialogue with policy makers needs to be strengthened. This report serves primarily as guidance for the International Biodiversity project but can also serve as an independent review on the validity of the model for any potential end user.
    Completeren EMIGMA-NZ : EffectModellering Indicatoren, Gebruik en Management
    Alterra - Centrum Landschap, - \ 2006
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra Rapport ) - 21
    waterorganismen - vissen - zoogdieren - biologische indicatoren - mariene gebieden - noordzee - besluitvorming - overheidsbeleid - aquatic organisms - fishes - mammals - biological indicators - marine areas - north sea - decision making - government policy
    Vanuit wetenschappelijk en beleidsmatig oogpunt is er vraag naar een snel en goed overzicht van trendgegevens in graadmeters (indicatoren), gebruiksfuncties en beleidsmaatregelen van de Noordzee. In 2004 heeft Alterra Centrum Landschap Texel, naar aanleiding van een verzoek van het Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau (MNP), graadmeters ontwikkeld voor de Noordzee, Waddenzee en Delta en zijn belangrijke gebruiksfuncties en beleidsmaatregelen geïdentificeerd. Ter ondersteuning van deze vraag is tijdens dit project (programma 418 Noordzee en Kust) een instrument (EMIGMA) ontwikkeld, dat beleidsondersteunend ingezet kan worden
    Mossen en korstmossen zeggen waar het op staat
    Sparrius, L.B. ; Bijlsma, R.J. ; Bruijn, J. de; Herk, C.M. van - \ 2006
    De Levende Natuur 107 (2006)6. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 233 - 236.
    mossen - bryophyta - korstmossen - inventarisaties - plantengeografie - biologische indicatoren - mosses - bryophyta - lichens - inventories - phytogeography - biological indicators
    Door de directe afhankelijkheid van het substraat waarop ze groeien, zijn mossen en korstmossen goede indicatoren voor luchtkwaliteit en klimaatverandering
    Soil life under stress
    Tobor-Kaplon, M.A. - \ 2006
    Utrecht University. Promotor(en): Peter de Ruiter, co-promotor(en): Jaap Bloem. - - 150
    bodemverontreiniging - biologische indicatoren - bodemecologie - bodemkwaliteit - soil pollution - biological indicators - soil ecology - soil quality
    In this thesis I studied how long-term soil contamination affects microbial populations and processes, ecosystem properties and functional stability. I also investigated which parameters are suitable as indicators of soil quality in long-term contaminated soils. I found that contamination had a negative impact on many examined microbial parameters, e.g. biomasses, respiration and growth rate (Chapter 2). Some parameters like protozoan biomass and metabolic quotient did not show any effect of stress probably due to strong variation. No single parameter indicated effects of both stressors. Thus, a set of indicators is needed to assess the condition of contaminated soils. In chapter 3 I tested information indices as a tool to describe ecological succession in belowground ecosystems. I used data from a primary succession on the island of Schiermonnikoog. I found that the indices that describe both size and organization of ecosystem followed trends predicted by the theory, but at the same time they were strongly correlated with total system biomass. Therefore I could not say whether the observed trends reflect succession or simply the build up of biomass. However, analysis of relative indices that are independent of biomass and describe only the organization of the ecosystem, showed that succession occurred only in soils between 0 and 10 years old. Since other authors clearly have shown that there has been succession in these soils in, I conclude that the relative information indices are not sensitive indicators of succession. In contaminated soils, however, relative information indices were sensitive to stress caused by high concentrations of copper and by low pH (chapter 4). Stress affected the organization of belowground ecosystems as predicted by the theory. Stressed soils were more vulnerable to external perturbations and less efficient in processing energy than unstressed soils. As the relative information indices responded to stress in predictable manner and each of them revealed effects of both stresses I concluded that these indices are useful indicators of environmental stress. In contrary the absolute indices responded in unpredicted manner to stress and therefore are not suitable as indicators of stress. In chapters 5 and 6, I used ¿stress on stress¿ experiments to test the functional stability of soil respiration and bacterial growth rate to additional stress or disturbance in experimentally contaminated soils. The results described in Chapter 5 seemed to confirm the hypothesis that microbial processes in not-stressed soils are more stable to additional stress. The microbial processes showed different responses to disturbances (Chapter 6) than to stress (Chapter 5). In some cases stressed soils appeared to be more stable to additional disturbance than not-stressed soils, in other cases the opposite was found. In chapter 7, I tested the functional stability in a real field situation with zinc and cadmium pollution. In this experiment processes responded differently than in the former experiments. Probably the response of a process depends on whether a co-tolerance towards a given (subsequent) stress was developed during exposure to the first stress.
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