Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Sierteelt in de biobased economy : Screening van siergewasextracten op werking voor de plantgezondheid en de farmacie : Ornamentals in the biobased economy
    Poot, E.H. ; Staaij, M. van der; Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D. ; Vos, C.H. de; Korthout, H. ; Schulte, Annelies - \ 2016
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1387) - 52
    plantensamenstelling - plantextracten - biopesticiden - obesitas - medicinale eigenschappen - screenen - pesticiden bevattende planten - gewasbescherming - biobased economy - siergewassen - sierteelt - plant composition - plant extracts - microbial pesticides - obesity - medicinal properties - screening - pesticidal plants - plant protection - biobased economy - ornamental crops - ornamental horticulture
    The public-private funded project “Ornamentals in the Biobased Economy” was conducted by Royal FloraHolland, Kenniscentrum Plantenstoffen, Wageningen UR, Fytagoras and Prisna. In this project, bioactivity in plant extracts against the most important pests and diseases in greenhouse cultivation were tested. In bioassays, extracts with bioactivity against powdery mildew, botrytis, aphids, spider mite and thrips were found. With LCMS, metabolic profiles of the extracts were generated. Furthermore explorative experiments with plant extracts for crop resilience were conducted, and also plant extracts were tested in a bioassay for fat metabolism in obesitas
    Meer voedsel en minder gif? Het kan!
    Rabbinge, R. - \ 2014
    Tijdschrift Milieu : Vereniging van milieuprofessionals 2014 (2014)3. - p. 6 - 7.
    landbouwsector - agro-ecosystemen - ecologisch evenwicht - biopesticiden - gewasbescherming - biologische bestrijding - agricultural sector - agroecosystems - ecological balance - microbial pesticides - plant protection - biological control
    Grote delen van de wereld kampen met een structureel gebrek aan voedsel. Tegelijkertijd is nog steeds in veel landbouwsystemen sprake van intensief gebruik van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen. Op beide fronten is enorme winst te boeken door radicaal te kiezen voor een ecologische benadering. Onder de noemer Best Ecological Means is deze ontwikkeling de laatste jaren in een stroomversnelling geraakt.
    International Advances in Pesticide Application 122
    Anderson, P.G. ; Balsari, P. ; Carpenter, P.I. ; Cooper, S.E. ; Glass, C.R. ; Magri, B. ; Miller, P.C.H. ; Mountford-Smith, C. ; Robinson, T.H. ; Stock, D. ; Taylor, W.A. ; Zande, J.C. van de - \ 2014
    Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF, UK : Association of Applied Biologists Warwick Enterprise Park - 470
    pesticiden - biopesticiden - toepassing - toedieningswijzen - wereld - pesticides - microbial pesticides - application - application methods - world
    Vooral een probleem in de wintermaanden: Biologische middelen werken preventief tegen Botrytis in cyclamen (interview met Jantineke Hofland-Zijlstra, m.m.w. van Rozemarijn de Vries)
    Arkesteijn, M. ; Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D. ; Vries, R.S.M. de - \ 2012
    Onder Glas 9 (2012)4. - p. 17 - 19.
    cyclamen - gewasbescherming - biologische bestrijding - botrytis - schimmelziekten - biopesticiden - glastuinbouw - potplanten - cyclamen - plant protection - biological control - botrytis - fungal diseases - microbial pesticides - greenhouse horticulture - pot plants
    Botrytis is vooral in de maanden november tot en met januari een probleem in de cyclamenketen. In die tijd zorgt de schimmelziekte voor bladaantasting. De infectie begint al in een vroeg stadium onder invloed van een aantal factoren en kan in de na-oogstfase leiden tot uitval. Daar komt bij dat juist de nieuwe, compacte rassen gevoeliger zijn voor deze ziekte. Niet-chemische gewasbeschermingsmiddelen zijn een aanvulling om de schimmel tegen te gaan, zowel preventief als curatief.
    De strijd tegen vruchtboomkanker zonder Topsin M : Nu captan, straks een nieuw middel?
    Vlas, M.J. de; Jong, P.F. de - \ 2011
    De Fruitteelt 101 (2011)44. - ISSN 0016-2302 - p. 10 - 11.
    boomkwekerijen - plantenziektebestrijding - neonectria - plantenziekten - pesticiden - biopesticiden - gewasbescherming - toelating van bestrijdingsmiddelen - forest nurseries - plant disease control - neonectria - plant diseases - pesticides - microbial pesticides - plant protection - authorisation of pesticides
    Nu de herfst voor de deur staat, is aandacht voor de bestrijding van vruchtboomkanker (Neonectria ditissima) noodzakelijk. Het aantal middelen waaruit een fruitteler kan kiezen is beperkt, temeer doordat Topsin M niet meer toegelaten is. Omdat uitbreiding van het middelenpakket wenselijk is onderzocht PPO in opdracht van het Productschap Tuinbouw de werking van bestaande en nieuwe middelen. Eén nieuw middel blijkt perspectiefvol te zijn.
    Nieuw middel tegen vruchtrot in de maak : onderzoekers mikken op residuarme vruchten
    Jong, P.F. de; Bruine, J.A. de - \ 2011
    De Fruitteelt 101 (2011)40/41. - ISSN 0016-2302 - p. 6 - 7.
    fruitteelt - vruchtrot - plantenziekten - residuen - biopesticiden - productontwikkeling - fruit growing - fruit rots - plant diseases - residues - microbial pesticides - product development
    Gaaf fruit zonder residu lijkt een utopie. Alleen met een goed (chemisch) afspuitschema en niet te veel regen net voor de pluk, is bewaarrot te voorkomen. Toch is het mogelijk gaaf fruit zonder reguliere gewasbescherming te produceren. PPO zoekt samen met DSM, het bedrijf Ceradis, Fruitconsult, NFO en Horizon Consult naar 'natuurlijke' middelen die vruchtrot voorkomen.
    Toevoeging EcoNomic aan Roundup Evolution onderzocht in de praktijk
    Kempenaar, C. ; Michielsen, J.G.P. - \ 2010
    Plant Research International
    stadsomgeving - stedelijke gebieden - onkruidbestrijding - biopesticiden - plantaardige oliën - doseringseffecten - proeven - bestrating - urban environment - urban areas - weed control - microbial pesticides - plant oils - dosage effects - trials - pavements
    Het afgelopen voorjaar (2010) is de combinatie van het middel RoundUp® Evolution en de hulpstof EcoNomic getest op onkruidbestrijding op verhardingen in de gemeente Capelle aan den IJssel. De onkruidgroei werd beoordeeld gedurende een maand. Met een kritisch lage dosering van het middel in combinatie met EcoNomic werd een positief effect behaald. Minder gevoelige onkruidsoorten blijven een aandachtspunt.
    Verbeterde spintbestrijding door inductie van plantweerbaarheid in komkommer
    Messelink, G.J. ; Groot, E.B. de; Holstein, R. van - \ 2010
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten GTB 1045) - 22
    tetranychus urticae - komkommers - cucumis sativus - biologische landbouw - biopesticiden - tetranychus urticae - cucumbers - cucumis sativus - organic farming - microbial pesticides
    Samenvatting en vertaling voor internet De biologische bestrijding van spint in komkommer met de roofmijt Phytoseiulus persimilis gaat beter op planten die vooraf behandeld zijn met middelen die resistentie induceren. Plantmetingen (metabolietenanalyses) geven aan dat deze resistentie sterk gekoppeld is aan de aanmaak van flavonoïde afweerstoffen die spint remmen in hun groeisnelheid. Dit onderzoek werd gefinancierd door het Productschap Tuinbouw in samenwerking met het ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie. Abstract Biological control of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae by the predator Phytoseiulus persimilis is significantly enhanced on cucumber plants where resistance was induced by elicitors. Plant metabolomic analyses showed that resistance was strongly correlated with the production of flavonoids, which slow down the population incresae of spider mites. This study was supported by the Dutch Product Board for Horticulture and the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation.
    Het wortelknobbelaaltje in biologische kasteelten: problematiek en oplossingen
    Wurff, A.W.G. van der; Janse, J. - \ 2010
    Gewasbescherming 41 (2010)6. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 285 - 290.
    biologische landbouw - meloidogyne - glasgroenten - bloementeelt - glastuinbouw - gewasbescherming - biopesticiden - biologische bestrijding - biologische grondontsmetting - ziektebestrijdende teeltmaatregelen - organic farming - meloidogyne - greenhouse vegetables - floriculture - greenhouse horticulture - plant protection - microbial pesticides - biological control - biological soil sterilization - cultural control
    De afgelopen jaren is er gezocht naar duurzame oplossingen voor gewasschade veroorzaakt door het wortelknobbelaaltje (Meloidogyne spp.) in de biologische teelt van bloemen en groenten onder glas. Op dit moment wordt grondstomen nog steeds gezien als het belangrijkste wapen tegen wortelknobbelaatjes. Grondstomen is effectief maar kost veel energie en doodt ook nuttig bodemleven en past daarom eigenlijk niet goed in een biologische teelt. Het onderzoek was daarom gericht op het ontwikkelen van alternatieve beheerssystemen voor wortelknobbelaaltjes waardoor stomen overbodig wordt. Er is gezocht naar zowel middelen als systemen, variërend van onderstammen, biologische middelen en grondontsmetting tot teeltsysteem- oplossingen. Het onderzoek werd gefinancierd door het ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwalteit (LNV) en het eindrapport is verkrijgbaar in het Nederlands en Engels (Wurff et al 2010).
    Natural products for malaria vector control: flora, fish and fungi
    Howard, A.F.V. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Willem Takken; Marcel Dicke, co-promotor(en): J.J. Githure. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085857204 - 267
    malaria - ziekten overgebracht door muskieten - vectorbestrijding - natuurlijke producten - biologische bestrijding - plantaardige pesticiden - biopesticiden - vis - malaria - mosquito-borne diseases - vector control - natural products - biological control - botanical pesticides - microbial pesticides - fish
    Introduction
    Despite international organisations providing much focus over the past 10 years, malaria is still killing vast numbers of Africans, especially children. It is agreed that malaria can only be successfully controlled by using different control tools simultaneously in the spirit of integrated vector management (IVM), and that African communities will need to become more directly involved in mosquito control (Chapter 2). Using mosquito control tools in a way that requires almost no technical equipment or knowledge will open them up to the rural communities that are best placed to deploy them. In addition, widespread insecticide resistance is reducing the ability of insecticide-based tools to control mosquitoes. For these reasons, biological control and other natural mosquito control methods are being researched by many institutions. Several potential natural control tools are readily available in sub-Saharan Africa. If these tools prove effective and become operational, then it is possible that they will be sustainable because communities can intentionally produce the biological agents themselves, bringing a source of money to rural communities. This would be especially important in areas where infrastructure is poorly developed, and repeat applications of chemical control tools are not easily made. This thesis was designed to test the feasibility and effectiveness of a variety of natural products against both larval and adult malaria vector mosquitoes using low-tech methods in laboratory and field trials.

    Part I: Flora
    Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae) (the neem tree) was chosen due to the already proved mosquitocidal properties, and its ready availability in Africa. We wanted to use neem in a way that could easily be deployed in resource-poor rural areas. Laboratory studies were conducted to examine the larvicidal and pupicidal properties of a crude aqueous extract of neem wood against the principle African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) (Chapter 3) [1]. The results indicate that even a relatively low dose of 0.15 grams of dried neem wood in 1 litre of water was able to inhibit the emergence of 90% of mosquito adults when larvae were exposed during their first three larval instars. Even for the fourth (last) larval instar, just 0.6 g/l was required to prevent 90% emergence. Furthermore, neem-exposed larvae exhibited significantly increased development times when compared to the controls. Pupae were also killed by the aqueous neem extracts, and were subject to neem-induced emergence abnormalities, but the concentrations required to kill pupae were much higher than for larvae and not likely to be used operationally. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis identified several polar constituents in the aqueous neem extracts including nimbin and salannin. However, azadirachtin was not present in significant amounts. The effect of this extract on the oviposition behaviour of adult female An. gambiae s.s. mosquitoes was then monitored (Chapter 4) [2]. The oviposition results show that when using 0.1 g/l of the crude aqueous neem extract, significantly more mosquitoes laid their eggs when compared to mosquitoes exposed to the control treatment. For the doses 10x and 100x higher, the same proportion of mosquitoes laid their eggs as in the control, indicating that even at much higher doses than required for successful larval control, female oviposition will not be detrimentally affected.

    Part II: Fish
    Larvivorous fish have previously been shown to effectively control mosquito numbers. Therefore, a census was carried out to examine the current status of fish farming in western Kenya (Chapter 5) [3]. Working with the Kenyan Fisheries Department we found that while fish farming is a favoured activity, 30% of the 261 ponds found did not contain fish. These “abandoned” ponds had significantly more An. gambiae s.l., Anopheles funestus Giles and culicine mosquitoes when compared to the ponds that still contained fish. Furthermore, An. gambiae s.l. was proportionally more abundant in the abandoned ponds when compared to the other mosquito types. Surprisingly, vegetation did not significantly affect mosquito distribution. Following our study, demand for fish to restock abandoned ponds increased by 67% when compared to the previous year. The overwhelming majority of fish being farmed in our census area were fish of the tilapiine subfamily. Given this finding, we set up a small-scale field experiment to study the larvivorous potential of the tilapiine fish Oreochromis niloticus L. (Perciformes: Cichlidae) (Chapter 6) [4]. Taking daily measurements of mosquito numbers, we found that immediately after fish introduction, the density of mosquitoes in the treated ponds dropped in comparison to the increase in the control pond. After 15 weeks, anopheline numbers had decreased by >94% in the ponds containing the fish, and we found that fish were able to sustainably control mosquitoes for at least 6 months, when our study finished. It is concluded that this type of fish could be an effective and sustainable way to control mosquito numbers in rural western Kenya. Furthermore, this fish provides a source of much needed income and protein to rural African communities.

    Part III: Fungi
    For the control of mosquito adults using natural products, entomopathogenic fungi hold the most promise. In this thesis the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were separately suspended in mineral oil and applied to polyester netting. A laboratory experiment was then conducted to investigate the fungal susceptibility of insecticide-susceptible and insecticide-resistant strains of An. gambiae s.s.. In addition, fungal conidial viability was tested at various time points after application onto polyester netting (Chapter 7) [5]. Whilst both mosquito strains were susceptible to both species of fungal infection, the pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.s. VKPER strain was significantly more susceptible than the insecticide-susceptible SKK strain, dying more quickly. Conidial viability was significantly lower for both species after application onto the polyester netting when compared to the viability in suspension. However, the ability of the treated netting to infect and kill mosquitoes was not significantly diminished over the one week trial period. Given the finding that fungal-treated polyester netting could infect and kill mosquitoes, an experimental hut field trial was conducted in Benin, West Africa, to investigate the effect of fungal treatment on blood feeding behaviour and survival of wild insecticide-resistant mosquitoes. Benin was chosen due to the presence of multi-insecticide-resistant mosquito populations that are threatening the effectiveness of current vector control. We used fungal-treated netting to infect mosquitoes entering the hut windows, and either an untreated or insecticide-treated bednet was placed into each hut to examine how the entomopathogenic fungi would work with current control tools (Chapter 8) [6]. Only enough Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes were collected from the huts for accurate analysis. Our study was the first to monitor the effect of entomopathogenic fungi on blood feeding of wild mosquitoes. We found that the B. bassiana treatments caused significant and instantaneous reductions in blood feeding. No significant effect of the fungi on mosquito mortality was found. Conidial viability of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae was found to decrease rapidly under field conditions [7].

    Conclusions
    This thesis used several different experimental techniques to examine the potential of three natural products to control mosquitoes. For the flora, it was found that even a small amount of neem wood in water would control mosquitoes (Chapter 3), and at this and higher doses, the oviposition behaviour was not adversely affected (Chapter 4). Neem trees are readily available in many areas of Africa, and promising field trials indicate that the use of this tree species should be incorporated into malaria control trials.
    This thesis reports that edible native African fish can be effective at controlling mosquitoes (Chapter 6), but if fish farming is abandoned and the ponds not filled in, then they can allow large numbers of the most effective malaria vectors to breed (Chapter 5). Fish have been successfully used for malaria vector control in many countries and this could be rolled out across appropriate areas of Africa, as long as it is accompanied with adequate education about the dangers of abandoned ponds.
    We found that insecticide-resistant mosquitoes were more susceptible to fungal infection than the insecticide-susceptible strain. Under field conditions fungi were able to prevent blood feeding but did not cause significant mortality in the wild-caught mosquitoes. Although entomopathogenic fungi produce high levels of mortality in laboratory settings, (Chapter 7), their use under field conditions still has a long way to go and is not yet at the operational stage. Although the results found in this thesis are encouraging for the use of fungi in African situations (Chapter 8), further work should be carried out to maximise fungal persistence under field conditions.
    The current emphasis is on IVM for malaria control (Chapter 2), and focus is turning to biological control tools that can help manage insecticide-resistant populations. With this in mind, the natural products investigated in this thesis have produced encouraging results that show they have the potential to be integrated into malaria control strategies. Furthermore, flora and fish are readily available in the areas where they are most required, and could be used almost immediately to help reduce mosquito numbers and correspondingly, malaria disease transmission.

    The development of microbial pest control products for control of arthropods: a critical evaluation and a roadmap to success
    Ravensberg, W.J. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Joop van Lenteren. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856788 - 348
    plagen veroorzaakt door geleedpotigen - biopesticiden - ontwikkeling - potentie - screenen - biologische productie - formuleringen - experimenteel veldonderzoek - kwaliteitscontroles - vercommercialisering - planning - toelating van bestrijdingsmiddelen - arthropod pests - microbial pesticides - development - potency - screening - biological production - formulations - field experimentation - quality controls - commercialization - planning - authorisation of pesticides
    Microbial pesticides have been developed for a hundred years, but many of these biological crop protection products have not been successful in the market. This is illustrated in chapter 1 by the history of microbial pest control products and the biopesticide companies producing those. In this thesis I recognize the need for a model that would facilitate the development and commercialization of biopesticides based on entomopathogenic bacteria, fungi, viruses, and nematodes. The aim of this thesis was to develop a rational and structured approach that will increase the chances of achieving success with microbial pest control products for control of arthropods.
    The initial step is finding a microbial pest control agent which has the potential to control the pest (chapter 2). The search for a novel agent is directed by an elaborate description of the pest problem. The first level of selection is the type of entomopathogen: bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, and entomopathogenic nematodes. The second level is at the species and strain level. This study identified three decisive selection criteria for a commercial microbial insecticide: mortality, production efficiency, and safety to humans and the environment. The consecutive steps in the screening process have been identified as the collection of isolates, laboratory screening on efficacy in well-standardized bio-assays, and on production efficiency, assessment of mode of action and toxicological properties, and efficacy in small glasshouse trials. This selection process should deliver determinative information on which one or at the most three to four strains are chosen for further development.
    The next phase is the investigation of the feasibility of economic mass production of the selected strain(s) and the development of a stable product (chapter 3). Two phases are distinguished, the development of the production process, including medium development and downstream processing, and the development of the product, including formulation, packaging and field testing. Mass production is preferably an in vitro process because that offers more control than an in vivo process. Bacteria, fungi and entomopathogenic nematodes are generally produced in vitro, whereas baculoviruses must be produced in vivo. The critical technical and economic factors are identified and evaluated for these four types of pathogens. The goal is to produce the greatest number of infective propagules for the lowest cost.
    A stable product requires a formulation. The four main objectives in formulating the infective propagules are: to stabilize the propagules for reasons of packaging, shelf-life and shipping; to create a user-friendly product that can be effectively delivered to the target; to protect the propagule, once applied, to improve its persistence at the target site; and to minimize risks of exposure to the applicator. Formulation considerations and recommendations are presented per formulation function as well as per type of pathogen.
    Field testing links all steps in the developmental process. It provides information on the efficacy of the selected strain, on the quality of the produced propagules, on the formulation, and on the optimal application strategy. Results from field tests provide a continuous circle of feedback that allows improvement of each of the steps of the entire developmental process.
    The price of a product is an essential element and a cost price model for biopesticides is presented. The model provides a perspective on the makeup of the end-user’s price. Economy of scale, full use of the production capacity, and capacity planning are pivotal factors to keep the costs low. Key elements to successful biopesticides are both production efficiency and product efficacy.
    Quality control (chapter 4) provides feedback on the production and formulation processes, and on the final product. The continuous process of improvements will ultimately decrease costs and improve performance of the production system and the product. Products must meet product specifications. Parameters checked per batch are the number of effective propagules, microbial purity, presence of toxins, technical properties and efficacy. Standardization and comparison with a reference product are prerequisites for proper quality control. Quality control is also required for registration, but standard methods and criteria are lacking. Therefore, guidance documents need to be developed. Biocontrol companies should ensure that product quality is maintained through the whole distribution chain and that end-users receive high quality products. I showed that in that way, both the biocontrol industry and its customers benefit from proper quality control.
    In chapter 5 regulations for microorganisms are reviewed. Microorganisms, except nematodes, need to be registered as plant protection products for crop protection. Registration is perceived as the main hurdle to the development of a biopesticide. The procedures in the EU are presented and difficulties discussed. The issues relate to inappropriate data requirements, lack of guidance for applicants and regulators, testing methods for microbials, lack of experience in regulators, national registration procedures, and the inexperienced small biopesticide companies. Registration is expensive and takes many years. I presented registration cost estimates for each type of entomopathogenic product. Initiatives for improvements from the EU-REBECA project, from the OECD BioPesticides Steering Group, and some national projects are presented. I also provided recommendations for improvements for data requirements and regulatory procedures. New regulations may offer improved procedures in the near future. Various import and export regulations affect the use of microorganisms, and the need for harmonization is emphasized. The Convention of Biodiversity may, through Access and Benefit Sharing, create a further impediment for biocontrol.
    The patentability of an entomopathogen is discussed as well as the criteria for granting a patent: novelty, inventive step, and industrial applicability. I also discussed costs and other considerations whether to apply for a patent for a biopesticide.
    The implementation strategy of the product in an IPM programme is a basic element of the use of any microbial pest control product (chapter 6). Three phases are distinguished: the optimal application strategy of the product, the incorporation of the microbial pest control product in an IPM system, and a carefully designed adoption strategy. Determinative parameters for each phase, and for each type of product are identified. For instance, for a successful use, the compatibility with chemical pesticides and with natural enemies and pollinators needs to be investigated. Furthermore, knowledge transfer and training are pivotal elements. All stakeholders need to participate in this process.
    These phases require a considerable amount of research which should be conducted before market launch. Recommendations are provided for a tiered approach which results in reliable information for commercial conditions. Many companies underestimated or even neglected this part of product development. In my opinion, these phases are paramount for good market introduction. I reported the most relevant requirements for successful use of a microbial pest control product. Successful implementation of a microbial pest control product depends on how well relevant interactions are studied and translated into practical recommendations for the grower. This phase continues after market introduction. It requires a continuous effort from producer, distributor and customer to ensure that product adoption will increase and satisfied customers will remain using the new product in their IPM system.
    In chapter 7, I noted that commercialization is the final and most difficult step in the development and the market introduction of a microbial pest control product. The factors that determine success or failure are identified for a company as well as for a product, and recommendations are provided that will facilitate success.
    Figures on the global biopesticide market are reviewed. The European market is estimated to be €57 million at end-user level, and the market in the Netherlands at €5-6 million. The European biopesticide market comprises less than 1% of the total European crop protection market. Biopesticides are predominantly used in protected crops and in orchards.
    Companies which contemplate the development and commercialization of a biopesticide need realistic data on five key aspects to make their decision: market demand, market size, profit margin, time to market, and time to volume. The biggest mistake companies still make today is a misjudgement of the potential market size and the expected market adoption rate. I proposed the use of a stage-gate process with objective, quantifiable, and transparent tools in decision-making. Examples of scorecards are presented to quantify decisions. The business model that performs best at present seems to be a small company which follows an incremental and manageable growth of the organization. Total developmental costs and time to market are significant factors of a company’s success. Costs amount to € 10-15 million for a company that still needs to be built; while in an existing company, costs may reach € 5-10 million for a biopesticide project. Time to market including registration is five to seven years. I have identified five determinants for successful commercialization: 1) acceptable expenses and time to market; 2) a high quality product; 3) a sufficiently large market; 4) a profit margin that allows expansion in new markets and products; and 5) the appropriate business approach.
    A new product development project is extensive and it is difficult to oversee. In chapter 8 I have made an analysis of the various phases and I highlighted the most important topics in the development and commercialization of a microbial pest control product. This study demonstrated that the development of a microbial pest control product requires a structured project plan. The building blocks of the entire process are defined and essential factors emphasized. From this, I have divided the process in phases and steps, and designed the roadmap to a successful product. Three diagrams illustrate the stepwise approach of the entire process, the selection phase, the product development phase, and the implementation phase. Registration and commercialization are processes that relate to these phases during the entire developmental process.
    A future perspective on the biopesticide market is presented with limiting and promotional factors and trends. The significant drivers for success are food safety concern, changes in the regulatory climate, biodiversity and environmental issues, new research and technology, and the occurrence of new invasive pests. The biopesticide industry has reached a sufficient level of maturity and critical mass to form a base for further expansion. This will allow the biopesticide market to steadily grow. The roadmap proposed in this study will assist developers of biopesticides in accomplishing their goals in a cost- and time-effective way, which will result in successful and sustainable products and expanding biocontrol companies.


    Bestrijding Botrytis in bollen; alternatieven of een verlaagde dosering effectief en verantwoord?
    Boer, M. de; Breeuwsma, S.J. ; Lans, A.M. van der; Bent, J. van der; Buitenwerf, H.A. - \ 2010
    Gewasbescherming 41 (2010)3. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 139 - 140.
    botrytis - bloembollen - tulpen - lelies - dosering - pesticiden - biopesticiden - botrytis - ornamental bulbs - tulips - lilies - dosage - pesticides - microbial pesticides
    Op dit moment spuiten de meeste telers op wekelijkse basis tegen Botrytus. PPO Bloembollen heeft onderzoek gedaan naar stadium-afhankelijke dosering en naar het gebruik van een alternatief gewasbeschermingsmiddel van natuurlijke oorsprong (GNO). De resultaten zijn positief, maar telers hebben moeite met de acceptatie van de nieuw-ontwikkelde maatregelen.
    Geïntegreerde bestrijding houdt rozentelers flink bezig (presentatie Juliëtte Pijnakker)
    Neefjes, H. ; Pijnakker, J. - \ 2009
    Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij 2009 (2009)37. - ISSN 0042-2223 - p. 56 - 57.
    tuinbouw - kassen - snijbloemen - rozen - roofmijten - pseudococcus maritimus - biologische bestrijding - biopesticiden - geïntegreerde bestrijding - glastuinbouw - horticulture - greenhouses - cut flowers - roses - predatory mites - pseudococcus maritimus - biological control - microbial pesticides - integrated control - greenhouse horticulture
    Onderzoekers, adviseurs en rozentelers wisselden tijdens een LTO-bijeenkomst ervaringen uit over geïntegreerde bestrijding. Trips is nog steeds een lastpak, maar ook insecten als wol- en schildluis vragen de aandacht. Goed scouten, snel en adequaat ingrijpen, al dan niet met biologische middelen, is het devies
    Beerling : 'GNO vergt een langduriger toepassing voor een goed effect' : interview
    Arkesteijn, M. ; Beerling, E.A.M. - \ 2009
    Onder Glas 6 (2009)3. - p. 27 - 29.
    kassen - pesticiden - resistentie tegen pesticiden - biopesticiden - metarhizium anisopliae - schimmelinsecticiden - gewasbescherming - bloementeelt - chrysanten - glastuinbouw - snijbloemen - greenhouses - pesticides - pesticide resistance - microbial pesticides - metarhizium anisopliae - fungal insecticides - plant protection - floriculture - chrysanthemums - greenhouse horticulture - cut flowers
    Het gebruik van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen van natuurlijke oorsprong (GNO's) wint terrein door het optreden van resistentie tegen chemische middelen en doordat de markt erom vraagt. Er zijn diverse goed werkende GNO's op de markt, maar een teler moet er anders mee omgaan dan met chemische middelen. Bovendien is nog onvoldoende bekend hoe je deze middelen optimaal moet toepassen. Lees daarom het etiket goed, volg de adviezen op en zit er met de neus bovenop door goed te scouten
    Is co-existentie van de biologische en gangbare landbouw met genetisch gemodificeerde gewassen mogelijk?
    Lammerts Van Bueren, E. - \ 2008
    Gewasbescherming 39 (2008)2. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 75 - 75.
    biologische landbouw - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - veredelingsprogramma's - plagenbestrijding - rassen (planten) - biopesticiden - genetische modificatie - gewassen - gewasbescherming - akkerbouw - organic farming - sustainability - breeding programmes - pest control - varieties - microbial pesticides - genetic engineering - crops - plant protection - arable farming
    Edith Lammerts van Bueren (Louis Bolk Instituut) gaf na een uiteenzetting van de uitgangspunten van de biologische landbouw een inleiding over de co-existentie van de biologische sector met GG-gewassen. De Commisie Co-existentie buigt zich hierover in de gewassen maïs, aardappel en suikerbiet. Men wil in een convenant duidelijke afspraken maken, maar het proces is nog (lang) niet afgerond
    Meer kennis over ziekten en plagen in kool helpt aanpak
    Voorrips, R.E. ; Wolf, J.M. van der - \ 2008
    BioKennis bericht Akkerbouw & vollegrondsgroenten 11 (2008).
    akkerbouw - biologische landbouw - gewasbescherming - biologische bestrijding - koolsoorten - peronospora farinosa - biopesticiden - xanthomonas - vollegrondsteelt - arable farming - organic farming - plant protection - biological control - cabbages - peronospora farinosa - microbial pesticides - xanthomonas - outdoor cropping
    Trips, zwartnervigheid, bladvlekkenziekte en valse meeldauw: het zijn een paar van de ziekten en plagen die de teelt van kwalitatief goede kool en goed zaaizaad belemmeren. Kennis over de plaag of de schimmel levert aanwijzingen voor bestrijding.
    Implementatie van een BOS in aardbei
    Evenhuis, B. ; Kastelein, P. ; Wilms, J.A.M. ; Köhl, J. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving B.V. - 38
    aardbeien - gewasbescherming - plantenziekten - vruchtrot - botrytis cinerea - bestrijdingsmethoden - fungiciden - antagonisten - biopesticiden - geïntegreerde bestrijding - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - strawberries - plant protection - plant diseases - fruit rots - botrytis cinerea - control methods - fungicides - antagonists - microbial pesticides - integrated control - decision support systems
    In de teelt van aardbeien vormt vruchtrot, veroorzaakt door Botrytis cinerea, een belangrijk probleem. Van jaar tot jaar verschilt de mate van aantasting, en daarmee het opbrengstverlies, zeer sterk. Chemische bestrijding van vruchtrot behoort tot de mogelijkheden. Daarnaast vormen trips en meeldauw ook bedreigingen voor de teelt. Het beleid in Nederland is erop gericht de afhankelijkheid van chemische gewasbescherming te verminderen. Eén van de mogelijkheden is de ontwikkeling van een strategie ter bevordering van de inzet van antagonisten of Gewasbeschermingsmiddelen van Natuurlijke Oorsprong (GNO’s). Daarnaast is het van belang alleen dan een chemische bestrijding uit te voeren als dit noodzakelijk is. Beslissing Ondersteunende Systemen (BOS) kunnen daarbij helpen. Eén van de best practises is het toepassen van fungicidenbestrijding op basis van een waarschuwingsysteem. In de praktijk wordt vruchtrot bestrijding op basis van een BOS nog onvoldoende overgenomen. In de periode 2006 tot en met 2008 werd onderzoek gedaan naar gebruik van BOS-varianten bij de bestrijding van vruchtrot en meeldauw in aardbei. Doel van deze proeven is het verbeteren en testen van BOS-varianten om gebruik hiervan in de praktijk te stimuleren. Naast het gebruik van waarschuwingssystemen werd ook gekeken naar de toepassing van een GNO tegen meeldauw, met mogelijk een nevenwerking op Botrytis en naar een antagonist tegen Botrytis
    Pseudomonas in prei tackelen vereist drastische ingrepen
    Overbeek, L.S. van; Visser, J.H.M. - \ 2008
    Groenten & Fruit 2008 (2008). - ISSN 0925-9708 - p. 34 - 35.
    tuinbouw - groenteteelt - allium porrum - preien - biopesticiden - biologische bestrijding - pseudomonas syringae - pseudomonadaceae - bacterieziekten - vollegrondsgroenten - horticulture - vegetable growing - allium porrum - leeks - microbial pesticides - biological control - pseudomonas syringae - pseudomonadaceae - bacterial diseases - field vegetables
    Pseudomonas in prei is een groot probleem dat niet te tackelen lijkt zonder drastische ingrepen in teeltprocedures. Dat maakt het plausibel om ook minder voor de hand liggende maatregelen te testen op hun effectiviteit tegen de bacterie. Het nieuwe spoor is de inzet van biologische bestrijdingsmiddelen
    Perspectief voor biologische rozenonderstammen
    Brouwer, J. - \ 2008
    De Boomkwekerij 21 (2008)42. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 14 - 15.
    onderstammen - biologische productie - rozen - biopesticiden - boomkwekerijen - rootstocks - biological production - roses - microbial pesticides - forest nurseries
    In samenwerking met DLV Plant is een onderzoek uitgevoerd naar biologische rozenonderstammen. Dankzij raketblad en biologische spuitmiddelen zijn aaltjes en schimmelziekten te onderdrukken
    Moleculaire en biochemische analyse van antagonistische bacteriën betrokken bij bodemgebonden ziektewering tegen Rhizoctonia solani
    Kruijt, M. ; Pangesti, N. ; Wagemakers, L. ; Raaijmakers, J. - \ 2008
    Gewasbescherming 39 (2008)supplement. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 35S - 36S.
    gewasbescherming - thanatephorus cucumeris - plantenziektebestrijding - ziektebestrijdende teeltmaatregelen - bodembacteriën - schimmelantagonisten - biopesticiden - bodemkwaliteit - plant protection - thanatephorus cucumeris - plant disease control - cultural control - soil bacteria - fungal antagonists - microbial pesticides - soil quality
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