Eating behaviour explains differences between individuals in dynamic texture perception of sausages
Devezeaux de Lavergne, M.S.M. ; Derks, J.A.M. ; Ketel, E.C. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Stieger, M.A. - \ 2015
Food Quality and Preference 41 (2015). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 189 - 200.
swallowing threshold - food texture - bite size - age - bolus - patterns - young - gels
Texture perception of foods has been demonstrated to be influenced by age, dental health and oral processing behaviour. Eating duration is a significant factor contributing to and determining food oral processing behaviour. The influence of eating duration on dynamic texture perception, oral processing behaviour and properties of the food bolus have not been investigated extensively. The aims of this study are (i) to determine the influence of naturally preferred eating duration on dynamic texture perception of sausages and (ii) to explain differences in dynamic texture perception between short and long duration eaters by chewing behaviour and bolus properties. Two groups of subjects were selected based on their natural eating duration for a controlled portion size of two sausages. The group of “long duration eaters” (n = 11) took on average twice as long to consume a piece of sausage compared to the group of “short duration eaters” (n = 12). Independent of eating duration, short and long eating duration subjects chewed sausages with the same chewing frequency (p = 0.57) and muscle effort rate (p = 0.15) during oral processing. Total muscle effort and total number of chews were significantly higher (p <0.05 for both) for long duration eaters mainly due to the longer eating time compared to short duration eaters. Bolus properties showed that short duration eaters did not break down the boli as much as long duration eaters resulting in fewer (p <0.001) and larger (p <0.05) sausage bolus fragments, firmer (p <0.001) and less adhesive (p <0.001) boli with lower fat content (p <0.05) and less saliva incorporation (p <0.001) at swallow compared to the bolus properties of long duration eaters. These differences in bolus properties influenced dynamic texture perception of the sausages as the bolus of short duration eaters revealed different properties than the bolus of long duration eaters. Temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) showed that short and long duration eaters perceived the same sausage similarly in the early stages of oral processing, but started to perceive the texture of the same sausage differently from the middle of oral processing towards the end. We conclude that short duration eaters did not compensate for their shorter eating duration by chewing more efficiently but were comfortable swallowing a less broken down bolus than long duration eaters. Moreover, we conclude that differences in eating behaviour between subjects can lead to differences in bolus properties of sausages causing differences in dynamic texture perception of the same sausage.
Slow Food: Sustained Impact of Harder Foods on the Reduction in Energy Intake over the Course of the Day
Bolhuis, D.P. ; Forde, C.G. ; Cheng, Y.J. ; Xu, H.H. ; Martin, N. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)4. - ISSN 1932-6203
bite size - young-adults - eating rate - weight - obesity - satiation - appetite - meal - men - viscosity
Background: Previous research has shown that oral processing characteristics like bite size and oral residence duration are related to the satiating efficiency of foods. Oral processing characteristics are influenced by food texture. Very little research has been done on the effect of food texture within solid foods on energy intake. Objectives: The first objective was to investigate the effect of hardness of food on energy intake at lunch, and to link this effect to differences in food oral processing characteristics. The second objective was to investigate whether the reduction in energy intake at lunch will be compensated for in the subsequent dinner. Design: Fifty subjects (11 male, BMI: 21 +/- 2 kg/m(2), age: 24 +/- 2 y) participated in a cross-over study in which they consumed ad libitum from a lunch with soft foods or hard foods on two separate days. Oral processing characteristics at lunch were assessed by coding video records. Later on the same days, subjects consumed dinner ad libitum. Results: Hard foods led to a similar to 13% lower energy intake at lunch compared to soft foods (P <0.001). Hard foods were consumed with smaller bites, longer oral duration per gram food, and more chewing per gram food compared to the soft foods (P <0.05). Energy intake at dinner did not differ after both lunches (P=0.16). Conclusions: Hard foods led to reduced energy intake compared to soft foods, and this reduction in energy intake was sustained over the next meal. We argue that the differences in oral processing characteristics produced by the hardness of the foods explain the effect on intake. The sustained reduction in energy intake suggests that changes in food texture can be a helpful tool in reducing the overall daily energy intake.
Both a higher number of sips and a longer oral transit time reduce ad libitum intake
Bolhuis, D.P. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Luning, P.A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2014
Food Quality and Preference 32 (2014)Part C. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 234 - 240.
food-intake - energy-intake - young-adults - eating rate - bite size - body-weight - appetite - consumption - satiety - meal
Background - A higher eating rate leads to a higher food intake, possibly through shorter orosensory exposure to food. The transit time in the oral cavity and the number of bites or sips per gram (inversely related to bite or sip size) are main contributors that affect eating rate. The separate role of these two aspects on satiation and on orosensory exposure needs further clarification. Objective - The objective of the first study was to investigate contributions of the number of sips per gram (sips/g) and oral transit time per gram (s/g) on ad libitum intake. The objective of the second study was to investigate both aspects on the total magnitude of orosensory exposure per gram food. Methods - In study 1, 56 healthy male subjects consumed soup where the number of sips and oral transit time differed by a factor three respectively: 6.7 vs. 20 sips/100 g, and 20 vs. 60 s/100 g (2 × 2 cross-over design). Eating rate of 60 g/min was kept constant. In study 2, the effects of number of sips and oral transit time (equal as in study 1) on the total magnitude of orosensory exposure per gram soup were measured by time intensity functions by 22 different healthy subjects. Results - Higher number of sips and longer oral transit time reduced ad libitum intake by respectively ~22% (F(1, 157) = 55.9, P <0.001) and ~8% (F(1, 157) = 7.4, P = 0.007). Higher number of sips led to faster increase in fullness per gram food (F(1, 157) = 24.1, P <0.001) (study 1). Higher number of sips and longer oral transit time both increased the orosensory exposure per gram food (F(1, 63) = 23.8, P <0.001) and (F(1, 63) = 19.0, P <0.001), respectively (study 2). Conclusion - Higher number of sips and longer oral transit time reduced food intake, possibly through the increased the orosensory exposure per gram food. Designing foods that will be consumed with small sips or bites and long oral transit time may be effective in reducing energy intake.
Texture and savoury taste influences on food intake in a realistic hot lunch time meal
Forde, C.G. ; Kuijk, N.L. van; Thaler, T. ; Graaf, C. de; Martin, N. - \ 2013
Appetite 60 (2013). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 180 - 186.
bite size - energy-intake - portion size - questionnaire - satiation - weight - young - consumption - intensity - healthy
Background: Previous studies with model foods have shown that softer textures lead to higher eating rates and higher ad libitum food intake and higher intensity of salt taste has been shown to result in a lower ad libitum food intake. These observations have yet to be replicated in the context of realistic solid hot meal components. Aim: The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of texture and taste on the ad libitum intake of a realistic hot lunchtime meal. Methods: The meals consisted of potatoes, carrots, steak and gravy varied according to a 2 (texture: mashed vs. whole) x 2 (taste: standard taste vs. strong taste) design. The texture dimension referred to mashed potatoes, mashed carrots and pieces of steak vs. whole boiled potatoes, whole boiled carrots and whole steak. The taste was varied by manipulating the taste intensity of the gravy to be either standard or high intensity savoury taste. The current study used a between groups, single course ad libitum design whereby subjects were recruited for a one off meal study, during which their food intake was measured. The four groups consisted of about 40 subjects (mashed, standard, n = 37; mashed, savoury n = 39; whole, standard n = 40; and whole, savoury n = 41) matched for age (average age = 44.8 +/- 5.3), gender (on average 19 males and 20 females), normal BMI (average 22.6 +/- 1.7) and dietary restraint score (DEBQ score = 1.74 +/- 0.6). Results: The results showed that the estimated means of the intake of the two mashed conditions was 563.2 +/- 20.3 g and intake of whole meal was 527.5 +/- 20.0 g (p = 0.23). The texture effect was significant in the higher savoury condition with an average of 91 g less food consumed in the solid-savoury meal than in the mashed savoury meal. This effect was not replicated in the standard gravy condition, with no significant difference between solid and mashed textures. This was reflected in an interaction effect that was approaching significance (p = 0.051). The estimated mean eating rate in the two mashed conditions was 57.0 +/- 2.5 g and was significantly higher than the whole meal condition (47.2 +/- 2.5 g (p <0.05), with no difference in eating rate between the standard and savoury gravy conditions. Discussion: Although interpretation was made difficult by the between groups design and the interaction between taste * texture, the results nonetheless confirm the effect of texture on eating rate and ad libitum intake for solid savoury meal components. The impact of taste on ad libitum intake of a solid meal remains unclear. We conclude that people consumed more of the meal when the food was simultaneously mashed and savoury. Food texture may be used to produce slower eating rates that result in a reduced overall energy intake within a realistic hot lunchtime meal. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Consumption with Large Sip Sizes Increases Food Intake and Leads to Underestimation of the Amount Consumed
Bolhuis, D.P. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Luning, P.A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)1. - ISSN 1932-6203
increased meal intake - energy-intake - portion size - bite size - cognitive-factors - healthy women - satiety - fat - satiation - appetite
Background A number of studies have shown that bite and sip sizes influence the amount of food intake. Consuming with small sips instead of large sips means relatively more sips for the same amount of food to be consumed; people may believe that intake is higher which leads to faster satiation. This effect may be disturbed when people are distracted. Objective The objective of the study is to assess the effects of sip size in a focused state and a distracted state on ad libitum intake and on the estimated amount consumed. Design In this 3×2 cross-over design, 53 healthy subjects consumed ad libitum soup with small sips (5 g, 60 g/min), large sips (15 g, 60 g/min), and free sips (where sip size was determined by subjects themselves), in both a distracted and focused state. Sips were administered via a pump. There were no visual cues toward consumption. Subjects then estimated how much they had consumed by filling soup in soup bowls. Results Intake in the small-sip condition was ~30% lower than in both the large-sip and free-sip conditions (P
Oral processing characteristics of solid meal components and relationship with foord composition, sensory attributes and expected satiation.
Forde, R.M. ; Kuijk, N. van; Thaler, T. ; Graaf, C. de; Martin, N.A. - \ 2013
Appetite 60 (2013). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 208 - 219.
sugar-sweetened beverages - energy-intake - bite size - portion size - eating rate - dietary fiber - body-weight - satiety - women - humans
Background: The modern food supply is often dominated by a large variety of energy dense, softly textured foods that can be eaten quickly. Previous studies suggest that particular oral processing characteristics such as large bite size and lack of chewing activity contribute to the low satiating efficiency of these foods. To better design meals that promote greater feelings of satiation, we need an accurate picture of the oral processing characteristics of a range of solid food items that could be used to replace softer textures during a normal hot meal. Aim: The primary aim of this study was to establish an accurate picture of the oral processing characteristics of a set of solid savoury meal components. The secondary aim was to determine the associations between oral processing characteristics, food composition, sensory properties, and expected satiation. Methods: In a within subjects design, 15 subjects consumed 50 g of 35 different savoury food items over 5 sessions. The 35 foods represented various staples, vegetables and protein rich foods such a meat and fish. Subjects were video-recorded during consumption and measures included observed number of bites, number of chews, number of swallows and derived measures such as chewing rate, eating rate, bite size, and oral exposure time. Subjects rated expected satiation for a standard 200 g portion of each food using a 100 mm and the sensory differences between foods were quantified using descriptive analysis with a trained sensory panel. Statistical analysis focussed on the oral processing characteristics and associations between nutritional, sensory and expected satiation parameters of each food. Results: Average number of chews for 50 g of food varied from 27 for mashed potatoes to 488 for tortilla chips. Oral exposure time was highly correlated with the total number of chews, and varied from 27 s for canned tomatoes to 350 s for tortilla chips. Chewing rate was relatively constant with an overall average chewing rate of approximately 1 chew/s. Differences in oral processing were not correlated with any macronutrients specifically. Expected satiation was positively related to protein and the sensory attributes chewiness and saltiness. Foods that consumed in smaller bites, were chewed more and for longer and expected to impart a higher satiation. Discussion: This study shows a large and reliable variation in oral exposure time, number of required chews before swallowing and expected satiation across a wide variety of foods. We conclude that bite size and oral-sensory exposure time could contribute to higher satiation within a meal for equal calories.
Effect of salt intensity in soup on ad libitum intake and on subsequent food choice
Bolhuis, D.P. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Luning, P.A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2012
Appetite 58 (2012)1. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 48 - 55.
sensory-specific satiety - free-living humans - energy density - bite size - palatability - meal - satiation - consumption - viscosity - appetite
The effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup was investigated when soup was served as a first course and as a second course. Also the effect of salt intensity in soup on subsequent sweet vs. savory choice of sandwich fillings was investigated. Forty-three healthy subjects consumed ad libitum a low-salt (LS), ideal-salt (IS) and high-salt (HS) tomato soup in both meal settings. The salt concentrations were selected on an individual basis, in a way that IS was most pleasant and LS and HS were similar in pleasantness. The ad libitum intake of IS soup was higher than that of LS and HS soup, and the ad libitum intake of LS soup was higher than that of HS soup. The meal setting, soup as a first or as a second course, did not affect ad libitum intake. Salt intensity in soup did not predict sweet vs. savory choice of fillings in grams or energy, although most sodium from fillings was consumed after intake of HS soup. In conclusion, a higher salt intensity lead to lower ad libitum intake of soup similar in palatability (LS vs. HS). In addition, salt intensity in soup does not predict sweet vs. savory food choice.
Eating behaviour and retro-nasal aroma release in normal-weight and overweight adults: a pilot study
Zijlstra, N. ; Bukman, A.J. ; Mars, M. ; Stafleu, A. ; Ruijschop, R.M.A.J. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2011
The British journal of nutrition 106 (2011)2. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 297 - 306.
food-intake curve - bite size - flavor release - energy-intake - appetite control - obesity - women - meals - satiation - humans
Eating rate and bite size are important factors affecting food intake, and we hypothesise the underlying role of oral sensory exposure in this. However, the latter currently lacks objective measuring parameters, but an interesting measure could be the extent of in vivo retronasal aroma release. Second, the literature is ambiguous about overweight subjects differing from normal-weight subjects in eating behaviour. Consequently, we investigated: (1) whether eating behaviour (food intake, eating rate, bite size, number of bites and meal duration) relates to weight status and (2) whether the extent of retro-nasal aroma release relates to eating behaviour and weight status. A matched group (sex, age and dietary restraint) of twenty-seven normal-weight (BMI 21.8 (SD 1.6) kg/m(2)) and twenty-seven overweight/obese subjects (BMI 30.5 (SD 5.8) kg/m(2)) consumed a spiced rice meal and apple pie yogurt on separate test days. The extent of retro-nasal aroma release was measured on a third test day. Mean bite size for spiced rice was significantly (P=0.03) larger in overweight/obese (10.3 (SD 3.2) g) v. normal-weight subjects (8.7 (SD 2.1) g). There were no other significant differences in eating behaviour or retro-nasal aroma release between the groups. Eating behaviours were not correlated with BMI or retro-nasal aroma release. Subjects showed consistent eating behaviour for both test products. Eating behaviour might be a characteristic of an individual but not by definition a characteristic for a group of people based on their weight. Given the large sample sizes, necessary according to a posteriori sample size calculations, one needs to consider the relevance of finding a statistically significant difference in eating behaviour between the weight groups in a laboratory setting.
Both Longer Oral Sensory Exposure to and Higher Intensity of Saltiness Decrease Ad Libitum Food Intake in Healthy Normal-Weight Men
Bolhuis, D.P. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Luning, P.A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2011
The Journal of Nutrition 141 (2011)12. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 2242 - 2248.
bite size - blood-pressure - preferred level - meal-size - palatability - satiety - consumption - appetite - salt - carbohydrate
Orosensory exposure to sweetness has been shown to be important in satiation, whereas the effect of exposure to a salty taste on satiation is not known. The primary objective was to investigate the effect of orosensory exposure time to and intensity of saltiness in soup on ad libitum intake. The secondary objective was to investigate the effect of intensity on bite size. Fifty-five healthy men consumed ad libitum from both a low-salt (LS) and a high-salt (HS) creamy tomato soup in 2 exposure time conditions (“long” and “short”) and a free condition (“free”). Bites were administered and controlled via a pump. In the long condition, bites of 5 g were administered in 2 s at intervals of 5 s (exposure time: 24 s/min). In the short condition, bites of 15 g were administered in 3 s at intervals of 15 s (exposure time: 12 s/min). The eating rate was equal in the long and short conditions (60 g/min). In the free condition, participants adjusted their bite sizes at intervals of 15 s. The short condition resulted in ~34% higher ad libitum intake compared to the long condition (P <0.001); there was no interaction with intensity. Ad libitum intake of HS soup was ~9% lower than LS soup (P <0.001). The free condition showed that HS soup was consumed with smaller bite sizes during the first half of the intake period (P <0.05). Longer orosensory exposure and higher saltiness intensity both decreased food intake, although orosensory exposure had more impact than intensity. Prolonging the orosensory exposure per food unit may be helpful to reduce food intake
Eating rate of commonly consumed foods promotes food and energy intake
Viskaal-van Dongen, M. ; Kok, F.J. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2011
Appetite 56 (2011)1. - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 25 - 31.
weight control - dietary fiber - bite size - density - satiety - women - palatability - obesity - humans - patterns
We investigated the eating rate of commonly consumed foods and the associations with food intake and macronutrient composition. Ingestion time (s) of 50 g of 45 foods was measured to assess eating rate (g/min), after which ad libitum food intake (g) was measured. Thirteen men and 24 women (aged 23.3 (SD 3.4) y, BMI 21.7 (SD 1.7) kg/m2) participated, each testing 7 foods in separate sessions. We observed large differences in eating rate between foods, ranging from 4.2 (SD 3.7) to 631 (SD 507) g/min. Eating rate was positively associated with food intake (ß = 0.55) and energy intake (ß = 0.001). Eating rate was inversely associated with energy density (ß = -0.00047) and positively with water content (ß = 0.011). Carbohydrate (ß = -0.012), protein (ß = -0.021) and fiber content (ß = -0.087) were inversely associated with eating rate, whereas fat was not. This study showed that when foods can be ingested rapidly, food and energy intake is high. People may therefore be at risk of overconsumption, when consuming foods with a high eating rate. Considering the current food supply, where many foods have a high eating rate, long-term effects of eating rate on energy balance should be investigated
Consumption of caloric and non-caloric versions of a soft drink differentially affects brain activation during tasting
Smeets, P.A.M. ; Weijzen, P.L.G. ; Graaf, C. de; Viergever, M.A. - \ 2011
NeuroImage 54 (2011)2. - ISSN 1053-8119 - p. 1367 - 1374.
sensory-specific satiety - food-intake - orbitofrontal cortex - dorsal striatum - energy-balance - human amygdala - sweet taste - liquid food - bite size - reward
Sensory-specific satiety, which is defined as a relative decrease in pleasantness, is increased by greater oro-sensory stimulation. Both sensory-specific satiety and pleasantness affect taste activation in the orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, metabolic satiety, which results from energy intake, is expected to modulate taste activation in reward areas. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the amount of oro-sensory stimulation and energy content on consumption-induced changes in taste activation. Ten men participated in a 2 × 2 randomized crossover study. Subjects were scanned twice using functional magnetic resonance imaging: after fasting for at least 2 h and after treatment, on four occasions. Treatment consisted of the ingestion of 450 mL of orangeade (sweetened with 10% sucrose or non-caloric sweeteners) at 150 mL/min, with either small (5 mL) or large (20 mL) sips. During scanning, subjects alternately tasted orangeade, milk and tomato juice and rated its pleasantness. Before and after the scans, subjects rated pleasantness, prospective consumption, desire to eat and sweetness for all tastants. Main findings were that, before treatment, the amygdala was activated more by non-caloric than by caloric orangeade. Caloric orangeade activated part of the striatum before, but not after treatment. We observed no main effects of sip size on taste activation and no interaction between sip size and caloric content. In conclusion, the brain responds differentially to caloric and non-caloric versions of a sweet drink and consumption of calories can modulate taste activation in the striatum. Further research is needed to confirm that the observed differences are due to caloric content and not to (subliminal) differences in the sensory profile. In addition, implications for the effectiveness of non-caloric sweeteners in decreasing energy intake need to be established
Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake
Graaf, C. de; Kok, F.J. - \ 2010
Nature Reviews Endocrinology 6 (2010)5. - ISSN 1759-5029 - p. 290 - 293.
bite size - satiety - satiation - viscosity - origins - weight - cues
This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings of a number of studies show that foods that can be eaten quickly lead to high food intake and low satiating effects-the reason being that these foods only provide brief periods of sensory exposure, which give the human body insufficient cues for satiation. Future research should focus on the underlying physiological, neurological and molecular mechanisms through which our current eating environment affects our control of food intake.
Representation of Sweet and Salty Taste Intensity in the Brain
Spetter, M.S. ; Smeets, P.A.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Viergever, M.A. - \ 2010
Chemical Senses 35 (2010)9. - ISSN 0379-864X - p. 831 - 840.
sensory specific satiety - food-intake - neural representations - mammalian taste - aversive taste - human amygdala - bite size - humans - perception - satiation
The intensity of the taste of a food is affected mostly by the amount of sugars (mono- and disaccharides) or salt it contains. To season savory-tasting foods mainly table salt (NaCl) is used and to sweeten foods, sugars like sucrose are used. Foods with highly intense tastes are consumed in smaller amounts. The optimal taste intensity of a food is the intensity at which it is perceived as most pleasant. When taste intensity decreases or increases from optimal, the pleasantness of a food decreases. Here, we investigated the brain representation of sweet and salty taste intensity using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fifteen subjects visited twice and tasted a range of 4 watery solutions (0–1 M) of either sucrose or NaCl in water. Middle insula activation increased with increasing concentration for both NaCl and sucrose. Despite similar subjective intensity ratings, anterior insula activation by NaCl increased more with concentration than that by sucrose. Amygdala activation increased with increasing NaCl concentration but not sucrose concentration. In conclusion, sweet and salty taste intensity are represented in the middle insula. Amygdala activation is only modulated by saltiness. Further research will need to extrapolate these results from simple solutions to real foods
Effect of Salt Intensity on Ad Libitum Intake of Tomato Soup Similar in Palatability and on Salt Preference after Consumption
Bolhuis, D.P. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Wijk, R.A. de; Luning, P.A. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2010
Chemical Senses 35 (2010)9. - ISSN 0379-864X - p. 789 - 799.
sensory-specific satiety - food-intake - orbitofrontal cortex - dietary-sodium - bite size - ingestive behavior - energy density - liquid food - taste - satiation
Sensory properties of food play an important role in satiation. Studies on the effect of taste intensity on satiation show conflicting results. This may be due to the notion that in these studies taste intensity and palatability were confounded. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of salt intensity of tomato soup on ad libitum intake (satiation), while controlling for palatability on an individual basis. Forty-eight subjects consumed both a low-salt (LS) and high-salt (HS) soup ad libitum from a self-refilling bowl. The results showed no difference between LS and HS soup in ad libitum intake, eating rate, changes in appetite ratings, and changes in hedonic ratings after intake. After intake of HS soup, LS soup was perceived as more bland than before intake of HS soup. After intake of LS soup, HS soup was perceived as more salt intense than before intake of LS soup. In conclusion, this study found no effect of salt intensity on satiation of tomato soups that were similar in palatability. During consumption, subjects adapted quickly to the exposed salt intensity as contrasting salt intensities were rated further from the ideal salt intensity and therefore perceived as less pleasant after consumption