Recycling nutrients contained in human excreta to agriculture: Pathways, processes, and products
Harder, Robin ; Wielemaker, Rosanne ; Larsen, Tove A. ; Zeeman, Grietje ; Öberg, Gunilla - \ 2019
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 49 (2019)8. - ISSN 1064-3389 - p. 695 - 743.
blackwater - carbon - feces - fertilizer - nitrogen - organic matter - Phosphorus - potassium - recovery - resource-oriented sanitation - sewage - soil amendment - source-separation - urine - wastewater
The need for better nutrient management has spurred efforts towards more comprehensive recycling of nutrients contained in human excreta to agriculture. Research in this direction has intensified throughout the past years, continuously unfolding new knowledge and technologies. The present review aspires to provide a systematic synthesis of the field by providing an accessible overview of terminology, recovery pathways and treatment options, and products rendered by treatment. Our synthesis suggests that, rather than focusing on a specific recovery pathway or product and on a limited set of nutrients, there is scope for exploring how to maximize nutrient recovery by combining individual pathways and products and including a broader range of nutrients. To this end, finding ways to more effectively share and consolidate knowledge and information on recovery pathways and products would be beneficial. The present review aims to provide a template that aims to facilitate designing human excreta management for maximum nutrient recovery, and that can serve as foundation for organizing and categorizing information for more effective sharing and consolidation.