Plasma and Serum Metabolite Association Networks : Comparability within and between Studies Using NMR and MS Profiling
Suarez-Diez, Maria ; Adam, Jonathan ; Adamski, Jerzy ; Chasapi, Styliani A. ; Luchinat, Claudio ; Peters, Annette ; Prehn, Cornelia ; Santucci, Claudio ; Spyridonidis, Alexandros ; Spyroulias, Georgios A. ; Tenori, Leonardo ; Wang-Sattler, Rui ; Saccenti, Edoardo - \ 2017
Journal of Proteome Research 16 (2017)7. - ISSN 1535-3893 - p. 2547 - 2559.
blood - correlations - differential network analysis - low molecular weight metabolites - mutual information - network inference - network topology - plasma - serum
Blood is one of the most used biofluids in metabolomics studies, and the serum and plasma fractions are routinely used as a proxy for blood itself. Here we investigated the association networks of an array of 29 metabolites identified and quantified via NMR in the plasma and serum samples of two cohorts of ∼1000 healthy blood donors each. A second study of 377 individuals was used to extract plasma and serum samples from the same individual on which a set of 122 metabolites were detected and quantified using FIA-MS/MS. Four different inference algorithms (ARANCE, CLR, CORR, and PCLRC) were used to obtain consensus networks. The plasma and serum networks obtained from different studies showed different topological properties with the serum network being more connected than the plasma network. On a global level, metabolite association networks from plasma and serum fractions obtained from the same blood sample of healthy people show similar topologies, and at a local level, some differences arise like in the case of amino acids.
Plasma concentration of parasite DNA as a measure of disease severity in falciparum malaria
Imwong, M. ; Woodrow, C. ; Hendriksen, I.C.E. ; Veenemans, J. ; Verhoef, J.C.M. - \ 2015
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 211 (2015)7. - ISSN 0022-1899 - p. 1128 - 1133.
real-time pcr - plasmodium-falciparum - pfhrp2 concentration - malawian children - cerebral malaria - blood - assay - retinopathy - clearance - diagnosis
In endemic areas malaria parasitemia is common in apparently healthy children and severe malaria is commonly misdiagnosed in patients with incidental parasitemia. We assessed the performance of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentration measurement in distinguishing uncomplicated from severe malaria in African children and Asian adults. P. falciparum DNA concentrations were measured by real-time PCR in 224 African children (111 uncomplicated, 113 severe) and 211 Asian adults (100 uncomplicated, 111 severe) presenting with acute falciparum malaria. The diagnostic accuracy of plasma PfDNA concentrations in identifying severe malaria was 0.834 in children and 0.788 in adults, similar to that of plasma PfHRP2, and substantially superior to parasite density (p
Effect of reduced food intake on toxicokinetics of halogenated organic contaminants in herring gull (Larus argentatus) chicks
Routti, H. ; Helgason, L.B. ; Arukwe, A. ; Wolkers, J. ; Heimstad, E.S. ; Harju, M. ; Berg, V. ; Gabrielsen, G.W. - \ 2013
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 32 (2013)1. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 156 - 164.
arctic seabirds - polychlorinated-biphenyls - organochlorine contaminants - o-dealkylation - rat-liver - biotransformation - blood - bioaccumulation - metabolites - pcbs
The aim of the present study was to investigate how contaminant exposure and reduced food intake affect tissue distribution and biotransformation of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) in Arctic seabirds using herring gull (Larus argentatus) as a model species. Herring gull chicks were exposed for 44 d to cod liver oil containing a typical mixture of contaminants. Following exposure, food intake was reduced for a one-week period in a subgroup of the chicks. Polyclorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and brominated flame retardants, as well as a wide range of hydroxy, methyl sulfone, and methoxy compounds were measured in liver, brain, and plasma samples. Additionally, phase I biotransformation enzyme activities and phase I and II messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression were investigated in the liver, brain, or both. Both contaminant exposure and reduced food intake had an increasing effect on the concentrations of HOCs and their metabolites. The HOC exposure and reduced food intake also led to increased 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) activity, whereas mRNA expression of the biotransformation enzymes increased only following the reduced food intake. Tissue distribution of HOCs and their metabolites was not affected by either contaminant exposure or reduced food intake. In conclusion, the results indicate that biotransformation capacity and formation of HOC metabolites increase during reduced food intake. This finding supports the hypothesis that reduced food intake increases the susceptibility of Arctic animals to the effects of lipophilic HOCs. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:156164. (c) 2012 SETAC
A novel multistep mechanism for initial lymphangiogenesis in mouse embryos based on ultramicroscopy
Hagerling, R. ; Pollmann, C. ; Andreas, M. ; Schmidt, C. ; Nurmi, H. ; Adams, R.H. ; Alitalo, K. ; Andresen, V. ; Schulte-Merker, S. ; Kiefer, F. - \ 2013
The EMBO Journal 32 (2013)5. - ISSN 0261-4189 - p. 629 - 644.
vascular lumen formation - growth-factor-c - lymphatic vasculature - in-vivo - endothelial-cells - vegf-c - prox1 - separation - vessels - blood
During mammalian development, a subpopulation of endothelial cells in the cardinal vein (CV) expresses lymphatic-specific genes and subsequently develops into the first lymphatic structures, collectively termed as lymph sacs. Budding, sprouting and ballooning of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) have been proposed to underlie the emergence of LECs from the CV, but the exact mechanisms of lymph vessel formation remain poorly understood. Applying selective plane illumination-based ultramicroscopy to entire wholemount-immunostained mouse embryos, we visualized the complete developing vascular system with cellular resolution. Here, we report emergence of the earliest detectable LECs as strings of loosely connected cells between the CV and superficial venous plexus. Subsequent aggregation of LECs resulted in formation of two distinct, previously unidentified lymphatic structures, the dorsal peripheral longitudinal lymphatic vessel (PLLV) and the ventral primordial thoracic duct (pTD), which at later stages formed a direct contact with the CV. Providing new insights into their function, we found vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) and the matrix component CCBE1 indispensable for LEC budding and migration. Altogether, we present a significantly more detailed view and novel model of early lymphatic development. The EMBO Journal (2013) 32, 629-644. doi:10.1038/emboj.2012.340; Published online 8 January 2013
Validation of the Diet Quality Index for Adolescents by comparison with biomarkers, nutrient and food intakes: the HELENA study
Vyncke, K. ; Cruz Fernandez, E. ; Fajo-Pascual, M. ; Cuenca-Garcia, M. ; Keyzer, W. de; Gonzalez-Gross, M. ; Moreno, L.A. ; Beghin, L. ; Geelen, A. - \ 2013
The British journal of nutrition 109 (2013). - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 2067 - 2078.
healthy eating index - fatty-acid-composition - life-style - european adolescents - adipose-tissue - great fat - vitamin-d - nutrition - plasma - blood
Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) aim to address the nutritional requirements at population level in order to prevent diseases and promote a healthy lifestyle. Diet quality indices can be used to assess the compliance with these FBDG. The present study aimed to investigate whether the newly developed Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) is a good surrogate measure for adherence to FBDG, and whether adherence to these FBDG effectively leads to better nutrient intakes and nutritional biomarkers in adolescents. Participants included 1804 European adolescents who were recruited in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study. Dietary intake was assessed by two, non-consecutive 24 h recalls. A DQI-A score, considering the components' dietary quality, diversity and equilibrium, was calculated. Associations between the DQI-A and food and nutrient intakes and blood concentration biomarkers were investigated using multilevel regression analysis corrected for centre, age and sex. DQI-A scores were associated with food intake in the expected direction: positive associations with nutrient-dense food items, such as fruits and vegetables, and inverse associations with energy-dense and low-nutritious foods. On the nutrient level, the DQI-A was positively related to the intake of water, fibre and most minerals and vitamins. No association was found between the DQI-A and total fat intake. Furthermore, a positive association was observed with 25-hydroxyvitamin D, holo-transcobalamin and n-3 fatty acid serum levels. The present study has shown good validity of the DQI-A by confirming the expected associations with food and nutrient intakes and some biomarkers in blood
Skeletal muscle transcriptome profiles related to different training intensities and detraining in Standardbred horses: A search for overtraining biomarkers
Pas, M.F.W. te; Wijnberg, I.D. ; Hoekman, A.J.W. ; Graaf-Roelfsema, E. de; Keizer, H. ; Breda, E. van; Ducro, B.J. ; Kolk, J.H. van der - \ 2013
The Veterinary Journal 197 (2013)3. - ISSN 1090-0233 - p. 717 - 723.
nonspecific immunity - extracellular-matrix - maximal exercise - heart-rate - resistance - adaptation - responses - insulin - blood - variability
Training horses improves athletic capabilities by inducing skeletal muscle-specific and systemic adaptations. However, rest is required to recover from exercise or else overtraining may occur and affect performance and welfare. Biomarkers would be useful to identify early chronic overtraining in animals. The objective of the current study was to investigate skeletal muscle gene expression patterns and underlying biological mechanisms related to training of different intensities and detraining. Untrained 20 month-old Standardbred geldings were exercised at varying intensities (endurance and sprint) followed by detraining (n = 5 per phase). The results indicated that training mainly affected skeletal muscle-specific protein metabolism and increased CO2 export from the tissues. Intensive training increased energy metabolism and affected heart and adipose tissues, while having an adverse effect on stress, apoptosis and immune capacity. The intensity of the training could be related to decreased expression of extra cellular matrix proteins (ECM), cell–cell contacts and intracellular signalling pathways. During detraining, most mechanisms were reversed, but heart tissue-related changes and increased expression of skeletal muscle-specific proteins were still evident. The study suggested that changes to ECM expression and cell–cell contact mechanisms may be long-lasting and related to multifactorial aspects of training and detraining. These biomarkers may be useful to identify horses in the early stages of chronic overloading or early overtraining.
Hedgehog signaling via a calcitonin receptor-like receptor can induce arterial differentiation independently of VEGF signaling in zebrafish
Wilkinson, R.N. ; Koudijs, M.J. ; Patient, R.K. ; Ingham, P.W. ; Schulte-Merker, S. ; Eeden, F.J.M. van - \ 2012
Blood : journal of the American Society of Hematology 120 (2012)2. - ISSN 0006-4971 - p. 477 - 488.
endothelial-growth-factor - embryonic vascular development - hematopoietic stem-cells - aortic endothelium - sonic-hedgehog - pathway - notch - blood - gene - kinase
Multiple signaling pathways control the specification of endothelial cells (ECs) to become arteries or veins during vertebrate embryogenesis. Current models propose that a cascade of Hedgehog (Hh), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and Notch signaling acts instructively on ECs to control the choice between arterial or venous fate. Differences in the pheno-types induced by Hh, VEGF, or Notch inhibition suggest that not all of the effects of Hh on arteriovenous specification are mediated by VEGF. We establish that full derepression of the Hh pathway in ptc1;ptc2 mutants converts the posterior cardinal vein into a second arterial vessel that manifests intact arterial gene expression, intersegmental vessel sprouting, and HSC gene expression. Importantly, although VEGF was thought to be absolutely essential for arterial fates, we find that normal and ectopic arterial differentiation can occur without VEGF signaling in ptc1; ptc2 mutants. Furthermore, Hh is able to bypass VEGF to induce arterial differentiation in ECs via the calcitonin receptor-like receptor, thus revealing a surprising complexity in the interplay between Hh and VEGF signaling during arteriovenous specification. Finally, our experiments establish a dual function of Hh during induction of runx1(+) HSCs. (Blood. 2012;120(2):477-488)
Underrecognized mildly symptomatic viremic dengue virus infections in rural Thai schools and villages
Yoon, I.K. ; Rothman, A.L. ; Tannitisupawong, D. ; Srikiatkhachorn, A. ; Jarman, R.G. ; Aldstadt, J. ; Nisalak, A. ; Mammen Jr., M.P. ; Thammapalo, S. ; Green, S. ; Libraty, D.H. ; Gibbons, R.V. ; Getis, A. ; Endy, T. ; Jones, J.W. ; Koenraadt, C.J.M. ; Morrison, A.C. ; Fansiri, T. ; Pimgate, C. ; Scott, T.W. - \ 2012
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 206 (2012)3. - ISSN 0022-1899 - p. 389 - 398.
kamphaeng phet - aedes-aegypti - transmission - children - epidemiology - blood - surveillance - inapparent - indonesia - patterns
BACKGROUND: The understanding of dengue virus (DENV) transmission dynamics and the clinical spectrum of infection are critical to informing surveillance and control measures. Geographic cluster studies can elucidate these features in greater detail than cohort studies alone. METHODS: A 4-year longitudinal cohort and geographic cluster study was undertaken in rural Thailand. Cohort children underwent pre-/postseason serology and active school absence-based surveillance to detect inapparent and symptomatic dengue. Cluster investigations were triggered by cohort dengue and non-dengue febrile illnesses (positive and negative clusters, respectively). RESULTS: The annual cohort incidence of symptomatic dengue ranged from 1.3% to 4.4%. DENV-4 predominated in the first 2 years, DENV-1 in the second 2 years. The inapparent-to-symptomatic infection ratio ranged from 1.1:1 to 2.9:1. Positive clusters had a 16.0% infection rate, negative clusters 1.1%. Of 119 infections in positive clusters, 59.7% were febrile, 20.2% were afebrile with other symptoms, and 20.2% were asymptomatic. Of 16 febrile children detected during cluster investigations who continued to attend school, 9 had detectable viremia. CONCLUSIONS: Dengue transmission risk was high near viremic children in both high- and low-incidence years. Inapparent infections in the cohort overestimated the rate of asymptomatic infections. Ambulatory children with mild febrile viremic infections could represent an important component of dengue transmission.
Fine Scale Spatiotemporal Clustering of Dengue Virus Transmission in Children and Aedes aegypti in Rural Thai Villages
Yoon, I.K. ; Getis, A. ; Aldstadt, J. ; Rothman, A.L. ; Tannitisupawong, D. ; Koenraadt, C.J.M. ; Fansiri, T. ; Jones, J.W. ; Morrison, A.C. ; Jarman, R.G. ; Nisalak, A. ; Mammen Jr., M.P. ; Thammapalo, S. ; Srikiatkhachorn, A. ; Green, S. ; Libraty, D.H. ; Gibbons, R.V. ; Endy, T. ; Pimgate, C. ; Scott, T.W. - \ 2012
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 6 (2012)7. - ISSN 1935-2727
polymerase-chain-reaction - primary-school children - kamphaeng phet - puerto-rico - vector - culicidae - diptera - blood - patterns - kinetics
Background Based on spatiotemporal clustering of human dengue virus (DENV) infections, transmission is thought to occur at fine spatiotemporal scales by horizontal transfer of virus between humans and mosquito vectors. To define the dimensions of local transmission and quantify the factors that support it, we examined relationships between infected humans and Aedes aegypti in Thai villages. Methodology/Principal Findings Geographic cluster investigations of 100-meter radius were conducted around DENV-positive and DENV-negative febrile “index” cases (positive and negative clusters, respectively) from a longitudinal cohort study in rural Thailand. Child contacts and Ae. aegypti from cluster houses were assessed for DENV infection. Spatiotemporal, demographic, and entomological parameters were evaluated. In positive clusters, the DENV infection rate among child contacts was 35.3% in index houses, 29.9% in houses within 20 meters, and decreased with distance from the index house to 6.2% in houses 80–100 meters away (p
Development and independent laboratory validation of a simple method for the determination of paraquat and diquat in potato, cereals and pulses
Kolberg, D.I.S. ; Mack, D. ; Anastassiades, M. ; Hetmanski, M.T. ; Fussell, R.J. ; Meijer, T. ; Mol, J.G.J. - \ 2012
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 404 (2012)8. - ISSN 1618-2642 - p. 2465 - 2474.
performance liquid-chromatography - dilution mass-spectrometry - electrospray-ionization - chlormequat residues - ion suppression - blood - water - herbicides - injection - pears
A new sensitive, fast and robust method for the determination of paraquat and diquat residues in potatoes, cereals and pulses is presented. Different extraction conditions (solvent, time and temperature) have been evaluated using barley grain, potatoes and dry lentils containing incurred residues of diquat and paraquat. The finalised procedure involves extraction with a mixture of methanol/water/hydrochloric acid at 80 °C and analysis by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Diquat D4 and Paraquat D6 internal standards were added to the test portions prior to extraction. A small-scale inter-laboratory validation of the developed method for diquat and paraquat using potato and barley samples was conducted by three laboratories. The precision and accuracy of the method were determined from recovery experiments (five replicates) at 0.01 and 0.1 mg¿kg-1. The recoveries obtained (n¿=¿180) were in the range of 92–120 % with associated relative standard deviation (RSD) between 1.4–10 % for all compound/commodity/spiking concentration combinations.
Sulphur levels in saliva as an estimation of sulphur status in cattle: a validation study
Dermauw, V. ; Froidmont, E. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Boever, J.L. de; Vyverman, W. ; Debeer, A.E. ; Janssens, G.P.J. - \ 2012
Archives of Animal Nutrition 66 (2012)6. - ISSN 1745-039X - p. 507 - 513.
rumen fluid - sheep - metabolism - sulfate - plasma - roughage - blood - feed - urea - cows
Effective assessment of sulphur (S) status in cattle is important for optimal health, yet remains difficult. Rumen fluid S concentrations are preferred, but difficult to sample under practical conditions. This study aimed to evaluate salivary S concentration as estimator of S status in cattle. Saliva and rumen fluid samples were collected from dairy cows (n = 16) as well as samples of different feedstuffs offered to the animals. The N and S concentrations were determined using the Dumas technique. The average dietary N and S content were calculated as well as N:S ratio of saliva, rumen fluid and diet. Salivary S concentrations could not predict rumen fluid or dietary S concentrations (p > 0.05). The log transformed salivary N:S ratio (x) could predict the rumen fluid N:S ratio (y) with a linear equation of y = 9.83 (±4.59) x + 0.39 (±4.56) (r = 0.497, p = 0.05), but left too much residual variation to serve as reliable predictor. Further research should investigate this relationship in the search for an S status estimator.
Selenium balance in the adult cat in relation to intake of dietary sodium selenite and organically bound selenium
Todd, S.E. ; Thomas, D.G. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2012
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 96 (2012)1. - ISSN 0931-2439 - p. 148 - 158.
glutathione-peroxidase activity - brush-border membrane - se-75 labeled rats - new-zealand - pet foods - metabolism - blood - se - selenomethionine - selenate
The response of cats to dietary sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) and organically bound selenium was studied in two separate studies with four cats per treatment and three levels of selenium supplementation (targets 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 µg/g DM) for each Se source. Whole blood and plasma selenium concentrations and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were determined at 7-time points across the 32-day study. Faeces were quantitatively collected during the last 8 days and urine was collected daily during both studies. The basal diet used had a low apparent faecal selenium absorption of 25.3 ± 3.0%. Daily faecal and urinary selenium excretion increased linearly with increasing selenium intake for both Se sources. Urinary selenium concentration of the cats fed the supplemented diets increased rapidly (~2 days) and remained constant throughout the remainder of the study. Apparent faecal selenium absorption was high for both selenium sources (73.2% and 80.0%). Plasma, and to a lesser extent, whole blood selenium concentrations increased in a dose-dependent manner with supplementation. Whole blood and plasma GPx activity were highly variable and showed a variable response to dietary selenium intake. Cats closely regulate selenium homeostasis through increasing urinary excretion whilst faecal absorption remains unaffected
High intravascular tissue factor expression in dogs with idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia
Piek, C.J. ; Brinkhof, B. ; Teske, E. ; Rothuizen, J. ; Dekker, A. ; Penning, L.C. - \ 2011
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 144 (2011)3-4. - ISSN 0165-2427 - p. 346 - 354.
phase protein concentrations - colony-stimulating factor - prognostic-factors - activated platelets - pulmonary thromboembolism - inflammatory response - bone-marrow - blood - coagulation - time
A high mortality occurs in dogs with idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA) during the first 2 weeks after the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the inflammatory response and coagulation abnormalities in dogs with IMHA in relation to the prognosis and to establish the contribution of whole blood tissue factor (IF) and IL-8 gene expressions. Gene expressions in dogs with IMHA were compared to healthy dogs, dogs with DIC, dogs with sepsis, and in two groups of dogs that underwent intensive care treatment but had no evidence for either DIC or sepsis. The whole blood TF and IL-8 expressions were up regulated in all non-IMHA groups. Similarly, the TF expression in IMHA dogs was high, but the intravascular IL-8 expression was not increased. The dogs with IMHA had a pronounced inflammatory response that included a high WBC, left shift and monocytosis in comparison to the other disease groups. Coagulation factor activities in IMHA dogs were decreased fitting consumptive coagulopathy and the acute phase proteins FVIII and fibrinogen were increased. The platelet parameters suggested platelet activation and high platelet turnover in IMHA dogs. The model that best explained mortality contained monocytosis, increased activated partial thromboplastin time and elevated creatinine. Whole blood TF gene expression is up regulated and may contribute to consumptive coagulopathy in dogs with IMHA. Increased TF expression by activated platelets is an alternative explanation and should be investigated.
Effect of diet on plasma tryptophan and serotonin in trained mares and geldings
Alberghina, D. ; Giannetto, C. ; Visser, E.K. ; Ellis, A.D. - \ 2010
Veterinary Record 166 (2010)5. - ISSN 0042-4900 - p. 133 - 136.
serum tryptophan - sex-differences - horses - exercise - behavior - brain - blood - availability - depletion - glucose
Concentrations of tryptophan (TRP) and serotonin (5-HT) in plasma were measured in 36 moderately trained Dutch warmblood horses after eight weeks on a high fibre (n=18) or high starch (n=18) diet. Samples were taken three hours after feeding, when the horse was at rest, either at 11.00 or 14.00 hours. Plasma 5-HT and pH were significantly higher in horses fed a high fibre diet than those fed a high starch diet (P
Subunit and whole molecule specificity of the anti-bovine casein immune response in recent onset psychosis and schizophrenia
Severance, E.G. ; Dickerson, F.B. ; Halling, M. ; Krivogorsky, B. ; Haile, L. ; Yang, S. ; Stallings, C.R. ; Origoni, A.E. ; Bossis, I. ; Xiao, J. ; Dupont, D. ; Haasnoot, W. ; Yolken, R.H. - \ 2010
Schizophrenia Research 118 (2010)1-3. - ISSN 0920-9964 - p. 240 - 247.
cows milk - occupational-status - antibodies - food - association - hypothesis - proteins - humans - blood
Previous studies show increased antibody levels to bovine casein in some individuals with schizophrenia. The immunogenicity of specific domains of bovine casein varies among people with milk sensitivities and thus could vary among different neuropsychiatric disorders. Using ELISAs and immunoblotting, we characterized IgG class antibody specificity to whole bovine casein and to the as, ß, and ¿ subunits in individuals with recent onset psychosis (n = 95), long-term schizophrenia (n = 103), and non-psychiatric controls (n = 65). In both patient groups, we found elevated IgG to casein proteins, particularly to whole casein and the as subunit (p = 0.0001). Odds ratios of casein seroprevalence for recent onset psychosis (age-, gender-, race-, smoking-adjusted) were significant for whole casein (8.13, p = 0.0001), and the as (7.89, p = 0.0001), ß (5.23, p = 0.001) and ¿ (5.70, p = 0.0001) subunits. Odds ratios for long-term schizophrenia were significant for whole casein (7.85, p = 0.0001), and the as (4.78, p = 0.003) and ¿ (4.92, p = 0.004) subunits. Within the recent onset group, odds ratios were particularly significant for a subgroup of people with psychotic disorders that included major depressive disorders (8.22–16.48, p = 0.0001). In a different recent onset subgroup (schizophrenia-spectrum disorders), PANSS scores for negative symptoms were correlated with casein antibody levels for the as and ¿ subunits (p = 0.001–0.01). Immunoblotting patterns also exhibited group specificity, with ¿ predominant in recent onset and as in schizophrenia (Fisher's Exact Test, p = 0.001). The elevated IgG and unique patterns of antibody specificity to bovine casein among diagnostic groups provide a rationale for clinical trials to evaluate efficacies of dietary modifications in individuals with neuropsychiatric diseases.
Effects of vitamin D3 supplementation and UVb exposure on the growth and plasma concentration of vitamin D3 metabolites in juvenile bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps)
Oonincx, D.G.A.B. ; Stevens, Y. ; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Leeuwen, J.P.T.M. van; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2010
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. B, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 156 (2010). - ISSN 1096-4959 - p. 122 - 128.
serum concentrations - 25-hydroxyvitamin d - furcifer-pardalis - iguanian lizards - self-selection - d deficiency - calcium - blood - diets - wild
The effectiveness of dietary vitamin D3 and UVb exposure on plasma vitamin D metabolites in growing bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) was studied. A total of 84 (40 males and 44 females) newly hatched bearded dragons were allocated to six levels of oral vitamin D3 supplementation (0 to 400%) or six UVb exposure times (2 to 12 h). At 3 and 6 months of age, blood samples were obtained from each animal and analysed for 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3. At 3 months of age, plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D3 did not increase with increasing vitamin D3 supplementation unlike the 1,25(OH)2D3. At 6 months of age, plasma concentrations of both 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)2D3 increased with increasing vitamin D(3) supplementation. Plasma concentrations in UVb-exposed animals were 18 times higher for 25(OH)D3 (178.4+/-9.0 vs. 9.9+/-1.3 nmol/L) and 5.3 times higher for 1,25(OH)2D3 (1.205+/-0.100 vs. 0.229+/-0.025 nmol/L) than in vitamin D(3) supplemented animals at 6 months of age. This study shows that 2h of UVb exposure enables adequate physiological concentrations of plasma vitamin D metabolites to be maintained in growing bearded dragons. Oral supplementation of vitamin D(3) is ineffective in raising plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 to concentrations observed in UVb-exposed animals
Afebrile Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia decreases absorption of fortification iron but does not affect systemic iron utilization: a double stable-isotope study in young Beninese women
Cercamondi, C.I. ; Egli, I. ; Ahouandjinou, E. ; Dossa, R.A.M. ; Zeder, C. ; Salami, I. ; Tjalsma, H. ; Wiegerinck, E. ; Tanno, T. ; Hurrell, R.F. ; Hounhouigan, J.D. ; Zimmermann, M.B. - \ 2010
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 92 (2010)6. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1385 - 1392.
intermittent preventive treatment - randomized controlled-trial - malaria-endemic area - serum hepcidin - children - anemia - infection - blood - interleukin-6 - prevalence
Background: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) affects many young women in sub-Saharan Africa. Its etiology is multifactorial, but the major cause is low dietary iron bioavailability exacerbated by parasitic infections such as malaria. Objective: We investigated whether asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in Beninese women would impair absorption of dietary iron or utilization of circulating iron. Design: Iron absorption and utilization from an iron-fortified sorghum-based meal were estimated by using oral and intravenous isotope labels in 23 afebrile women with a positive malaria smear (asexual P. falciparum parasitemia; >500 parasites/µL blood). The women were studied while infected, treated, and then restudied 10 d after treatment. Iron status, hepcidin, and inflammation indexes were measured before and after treatment. Results: Treatment reduced low-grade inflammation, as reflected by decreases in serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and interleukin-10 (P <0.05); this was accompanied by a reduction in median serum hepcidin of 50%, from 2.7 to 1.4 nmol/L (P <0.005). Treatment decreased serum erythropoietin and growth differentiation factor 15 (P <0.05). Clearance of parasitemia increased geometric mean dietary iron absorption (from 10.2% to 17.6%; P = 0.008) but did not affect systemic iron utilization (85.0% compared with 83.1%; NS). Conclusions: Dietary iron absorption is reduced by 40% in asymptomatic P. falciparum parasitemia, likely because of low-grade inflammation and its modulation of circulating hepcidin. Because asymptomatic parasitemia has a protracted course and is very common in malarial areas, this effect may contribute to IDA and blunt the efficacy of iron supplementation and fortification programs. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01108939
Rope test may indicate efficacy of tail-biting treatments in growing pigs
Bracke, M.B.M. - \ 2009
Animal Welfare 18 (2009)3. - ISSN 0962-7286 - p. 263 - 266.
attraction - blood - enrichment - models
Tail biting is a most serious welfare problem in pigs raised for slaughter. In instances of an outbreak of tail biting, scientists have recommended that farmers take measures such as removal of affected animals, provision of enrichment materials and application of repellents to the pigs' tails. However, no scientific study has ever confirmed the efficacy of any of these suggestions in counteracting an ongoing outbreak. Here, the efficacy of two repellent ointments, Dippel's oil and Stockholm tar, were examined in a tail-chew test. For this, a novel piece of nylon rope was used as a tail model to measure biting behaviour semi-automatically in 24 single-sex groups of growing pigs (total 264 pigs). Repeated measures analysis showed no effect of time, gender or unit (12 pens per unit), but a highly significant effect of treatment, in that both Stockholm tar and Dippel's oil significantly reduced rope manipulation compared to controls. These results suggest that Stockholm tar and Dippel's oil may be effective in reducing tail biting. The approach taken may be valuable in further testing of strategies to reduce tail biting and improving pig welfare
Genetic resistance of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to Trypanoplasma borreli: influence of transferrin polymorphisms
Jurecka, P.M. ; Wiegertjes, G.F. ; Rakus, K.L. ; Pilarczyk, A. ; Irnazarow, I. - \ 2009
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 127 (2009)1-2. - ISSN 0165-2427 - p. 19 - 25.
bacterial kidney-disease - common carp - oncorhynchus-kisutch - positive selection - trypanosoma-brucei - carassius-auratus - immune-response - coho salmon - parasite - blood
In serum most of the iron molecules are bound to transferrin (Tf), which is a highly polymorphic protein in fish. Tf is an essential growth factor for mammalian trypanosomes. We performed a series of experiments with Trypanoplasma borreli to detect putative correlations between different Tf genotypes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and susceptibility to this blood parasite. Five genetically different, commercially exploited carp lines (Israelian `D¿, Polish `R2¿ and `K¿, Ukrainian `Ur¿, Hungarian `R0¿) and a reference laboratory cross (`R3 × R8¿) were challenged with T. borreli and parasitaemia measured to determine susceptibility to the parasite. Among the commercial carp lines, Israelian `D¿ carp were identified as most and Polish `R2¿ carp as least susceptible, and used to produce a next generation and reciprocal crosses. These progenies were challenged with T. borreli and parasitaemia measured. We demonstrated significant effects of genetic background of the carp lines on susceptibility to T. borreli. This genetic effect was preserved in a next generation. We also observed a significant male effect on susceptibility to T. borreli in the reciprocal crosses. Serum samples from a representative number of fish from two infection experiments were used for Tf genotyping by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), identifying DD, DG and DF as most frequent Tf genotypes. We could detect a significant association of the homozygous DD genotype with low parasitaemia in the least susceptible `R2¿ (and `K¿) carp lines and the lack of a such an association in the most susceptible `D¿ carp line. Upon examination of parasite growth in vitro in culture media supplemented with 3% serum taken from fish with different Tf genotypes, we could show a faster decrease in number of parasites in culture media with serum from DD-typed animals.
Method to measure autonomic control of cardiac function using time interval parameters from impedance cardiography
Meijer, J.H. ; Boesveldt, S. ; Elbertse, E. ; Berendse, H.W. - \ 2008
Physiological Measurement 29 (2008)6. - ISSN 0967-3334 - p. S383 - S391.
nervous function - blood
The time difference between the electrocardiogram and impedance cardiogram can be considered as a measure for the time delay between the electrical and mechanical activities of the heart. This time interval, characterized by the pre-ejection period (PEP), is related to the sympathetic autonomous nervous control of cardiac activity. PEP, however, is difficult to measure in practice. Therefore, a novel parameter, the initial systolic time interval (ISTI), is introduced to provide a more practical measure. The use of ISTI instead of PEP was evaluated in three groups: young healthy subjects, patients with Parkinson's disease, and a group of elderly, healthy subjects of comparable age. PEP and ISTI were studied under two conditions: at rest and after an exercise stimulus. Under both conditions, PEP and ISTI behaved largely similarly in the three groups and were significantly correlated. It is concluded that ISTI can be used as a substitute for PEP and, therefore, to evaluate autonomic neuropathy both in clinical and extramural settings. Measurement of ISTI can also be used to non-invasively monitor the electromechanical cardiac time interval, and the associated autonomic activity, under physiological circumstances.