Nutritional analysis and intervention in the captive woolly monkey (Lagothric lagotricha)
Ange-van Heugten, K.D. - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Verstegen, co-promotor(en): P. Ferket. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049012 - 191
apen - diervoeding - diergezondheid - dierziekten - diëten - voedingsstoffen - levensverwachting - bloedserum - bloedchemie - diabetes mellitus - hydrocortison - voedselsupplementen - dierentuinen - dieren in gevangenschap - voeding en gezondheid - monkeys - animal nutrition - animal health - animal diseases - diets - nutrients - life expectancy - blood serum - blood chemistry - diabetes mellitus - hydrocortisone - food supplements - zoological gardens - captive animals - nutrition and health
Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix ssp.) are a threatened species in the wild and are extremely difficult to breed and successfully maintain in captivity. The majority of health complications in woolly monkeys (WM) may be of nutritional origin. The objectives of this thesis were to: 1) determine the current status of the captive WM, 2) isolate potential nutritional causes for primary disorders in captive WM, and 3) investigate the effects that diet nutrients have on WM serum chemistry and cortisol concentrations. Our studies showed that the number of captive WM have decreased by 11% in the past 16 years. The number of institutions holding WM decreased and the birth to death ratio is 0.65 compared to 1.26 for their close relative the spider monkey (SM) (Ateles spp.). Lack of genetic diversity in captive WM also may negatively influence their success. Serum chemistry from 30 WM housed at two zoos were similar to previously reported concentrations for howler (Aloutta sp.) and SM; however, serum glucose was above the baseline range compared to humans and SM. Fasting concentrations of glucose, insulin, fructosamine, glycated hemoglobin, circulating lipids and urinary glucose were within normal ranges in six WM with known hypertension problems compared to other monkeys and humans. Potential stressors, such as unnatural diet, can contribute to the low success of endangered primates via noted health abnormalities. Fecal and salivary cortisol concentrations in WM and SM, at multiple zoological institutions showed that zoos with the highest dietary total carbohydrates, total sugars, glucose and fruit content had the highest cortisol. Supplementation of WM and SM diets with inulin-type fructans numerically decreased fecal cortisol after 4 weeks of supplementation, primarily in SM. The lifespan and reproductive success of captive primates will improve if stressors and negative effects of nutrition on the health status can be reduced and dietary nutrients can be optimized.
Bloedplasma en bloedcellen in voer voor gespeende biggen
Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Binnendijk, G.P. - \ 1997
Rosmalen : Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij (Proefverslag / Praktijkonderzoek Varkenshouderij P1.168) - 20
diervoedering - experimenten - spenen - bloedplasma - bloedserum - biggen - animal feeding - experiments - weaning - blood plasma - blood serum - piglets
Bloedplasma en bloedcellen in voer voor biggen
Peet-Schwering, C. van der; Binnendijk, G. - \ 1997
Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 11 (1997)1. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 12 - 13.
dierhouderij - bloed - bloedcellen - bloedplasma - bloedserum - samenstelling - ontwikkeling - voer - groei - biggen - productiviteit - rentabiliteit - spenen - animal husbandry - blood - blood cells - blood plasma - blood serum - composition - development - feeds - growth - piglets - productivity - profitability - weaning
Speenvoer met 5% bloedplasma, dat gedurende de eerste acht dagen van de opfokperiode verstrekt wordt, verbetert in die periode de technische resultaten van de biggen.
Ileal recovery of endogenous amino acids in pigs
Caine, W. - \ 1997
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): M.W.A. Verstegen; W.C. Sauer; S. Tamminga. - S.l. : Caine - ISBN 9789054857983 - 169
varkens - voer - eiwitten - darmabsorptie - metabolisme - voeding - bloedserum - pigs - feeds - proteins - intestinal absorption - metabolism - nutrition - blood serum
Ileal recovery of endogenous amino acids is important for determining balanced homeostasis of protein metabolism in pigs and the true digestibility of dietary protein. In this context, the ileal recoveries of endogenous amino acids were determined in growing pigs fed guanidinated Nutrisoy protein test meals with low and high concentration of soybean trypsin inhibitors (SBTI) using the homoarginine ratio method. Although, there were some differences in the amino acid composition between guanidinated and unguanidinated Nutrisoy the homoarginine ratio method was an effective approach to determine qualitative increases in endogenous recoveries of amino acids when the protein test meals had a higher concentration of SBTI. The in vitro incubation of soybean meal with a commercial protease increased protein solubility and decreased the content of SBTI. However, neither apparent or true ilea[ amino acid digestibilities were improved in newly weaned piglets fed protease-treated soybean meal. Recoveries of endogenous branched-chain and aromatic amino acids were higher on d 6 to 7 than d 15 to 16 after weaning, suggesting dietary change- and/or age-dependent adaptive increases in the secretions of pepsin and pancreatic proteases. In contrast, bacterial contributions to total and endogenous recoveries of nitrogen and amino acids in Ileal digesta of the piglets increased with time after weaning. In this respect, the enterobacteriaceae act as a nitrogen-sink by assimilating available dietary and endogenous amino acids, thereby, making them unavailable for absorption by the piglets. Total exchange of amino acids across the portal vein-drained tissue of pigs fed a cornstarch-based wheat gluten diet was 55.8 and 130.2 mmol/h for the plasma free amino acid and plasma peptide pools, respectively. The corresponding numerical estimate of 77.6 mmol/h for red blood cells was statistically not significant ( P >0.1) because of large standard errors from accumulated analytical variation. Similar amino acid profiles of wheat gluten and the plasma peptide pool indicate that a substantial proportion of dietary amino acids were exchanged into and transported by the portal vein blood in the form of plasma peptides. The high content of serine and threonine (intestinal mucus) and glutamate, aspartate and the branched-chain amino acids (pancreatic secretions) suggests that some plasma peptides were of endogenous origin. The exchange of amino acid across the portal vein-drained tissue of pigs is a dynamic process that involves the plasma free amino acid and plasma peptide pools and probably red blood cells.
Het effect van bloedplasma in speenvoer op de opfokresultaten van biggen
Peet-Schwering, C. van der; Binnendijk, G. - \ 1995
Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 9 (1995)5. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 18 - 21.
diergeneeskunde - biggen - spenen - toevoegingen - voedersupplementen - voeding - bloedserum - groei - ontwikkeling - veterinary science - piglets - weaning - additives - feed supplements - nutrition - blood serum - growth - development
Toevoeging van 5% bloedplasma aan speenvoer gedurende de eerste veertien dagen van de opfokperiode leidt in die periode tot een duidelijke verbetering van de technische resultaten en de gezondheid van de biggen.
Koper, magnesium en selenium bij jongvee op veenweidebedrijven
Smolders, E.A.A. ; Boxem, Tj. ; Kalis, C. ; Jorna, Tj. ; Houwelingen, K. van; Zonderland, J. - \ 1993
Praktijkonderzoek / Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden (PR), Waiboerhoeve 6 (1993)2. - ISSN 0921-8874 - p. 19 - 22.
bloedserum - kalveren - ontwikkeling - voer - begrazing - groei - mineralen - voeding - voedingsfysiologie - veengronden - diergeneeskunde - blood serum - calves - development - feeds - grazing - growth - minerals - nutrition - nutrition physiology - peat soils - veterinary science
Het management op het bedrijf (voeding, beweidingsysteem) heeft in het algemeen een grotere invloed op de groei en ontwikkeling van het jongvee dan de mineralenvoorziening.
Characterisation of fish leucocytes : an immunocytochemical and functional study in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
Koumans - van Diepen, J.C.E. - \ 1993
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): W.B. van Muiswinkel, co-promotor(en): J.H.W.M. Rombout. - S.l. : Koumans-van Diepen - ISBN 9789054851110 - 167
cyprinidae - karper - bloedserum - fibrine - bloedplaatjes - bloed - erytrocyten - leukocyten - bloedplasma - reticulo-endotheliaal systeem - antilichamen - immunoglobulinen - immunocytochemie - cyprinidae - carp - blood serum - fibrin - platelets - blood - erythrocytes - leukocytes - blood plasma - reticuloendothelial system - antibodies - immunoglobulins - immunocytochemistry
A panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against carp serum immunoglobulin (Ig), WCIs or carp thymocytes (T), WCTs were used for the characterisation of carp leucocytes. Unfortunately, all WCTs and some WCIs react with common carbohydrate determinants present on all leucocytes and Ig. Most WCIs react specific with protein determinants at the heavy chain of Ig. Consequently, B lymphocyte (sub) populations, plasma cells and Ig-binding cells could be studied. Ig molecules are found in clusters at the cell membrane of B cells and plasma cells, and in contrast to mammalian plasma cells, most carp plasma cells still have Ig at their surface membrane. Mainly the dull surface Ig-positive (sIg +) cells were stimulated by the mammalian B cell mitogen LPS and not by PHA (T cell mitogen) in vitro , whereas the sIg-negative (sIg -) cells were stimulated by PHA and not by LPS. The percentages of B cells and plasma cells showed an increase during ontogeny and reached a plateau at about 3 months and 8 months of age respectively. It is suggested that full development of the carp (humoral) immune system needs at least 8 months (at 21-22 °C). Three different subpopulations of B cells and plasma cells and at least two Ig isotypes can be distinguished based upon their reactivity with WCI 4 arid WCI 12. The distribution of the three B cell subpopulations appeared to be organ and age dependent which indicates functional differences between the Ig isotypes. Fc-like receptors were mainly demonstrated on gut macrophages while pronephros macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes did not show Ig binding. Consequently, other forms of antigen opsonisation (e.g. complement) may play a role in phagocytosis by these non Ig-binding cells. Several procedures were tested for obtaining MAbs specific for Ig -lymphoid cells. It is concluded that the presence of immunodominant carbohydrate determinants is the major problem for obtaining specific MAbs. Tolerisation of mice against these determinants or the use of isolated membrane lysates from (sIg -) PBL appeared promising but till now only specific thrombocyte markers have been obtained. The use of more purified antigen is recommended in further attempts. The data presented in this thesis can be used for fundamental studies on cell interactions in the immune response, but also for more applied investigations on fish health control.
Influence of wet vs. dry by-product ingredients and addition of branched-chain volatile fatty acids and valerate to dairy diets. 3. Kinetics of rumen ingesta turnover, whole tract digestibility, and some plasma hormone concentrations.
Robinson, P.H. ; Tamminga, S. ; Vuuren, A.M. van - \ 1987
Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 35 (1987)4. - ISSN 0028-2928 - p. 459 - 471.
blood - blood plasma - blood serum - carboxylic acids - dairy cattle - dairy farming - endocrinology - erythrocytes - fatty acids - fibrin - hormones - leukocytes - platelets - rumen - rumen digestion - rumination
Bepaling van chlooramphenicol in urine, gal, lever etc.
Beek, W.M.J. ; Buizer, F.G. - \ 1982
Wageningen : RIKILT (Verslag / RIKILT 82.81) - 3
chlooramfenicol - bloedplasma - bloedserum - hplc - analytische methoden - vloeistofchromatografie - organen - urine - chloramphenicol - blood plasma - blood serum - hplc - analytical methods - liquid chromatography - organs - urine
Het bepalen van chlooramphenicol in monsters urine, gal, nier etc , welke afkomstig zijn van de Vleeskeuringsdient Nijmegen, met behulp van Interne Analysemethoden. De monsters werden onderzocht volgens intern analysevoorschrift nr. Dgm 26: Bepaling van chlooramphenicol in bloed, plasma, serum etc. door middel van HPLC. Met enige wijzigingen konden ook hiermede vlees, lever etc. onderzocht worden.
|De invloed van nuchterheid op de concentratie van NEFA in het bloedplasma van varkens
Wal, P.G. van der; Boxtel, H.L. ; Vos, E.M. - \ 1970
Zeist : I.V.O. (Rapport / Instituut voor Veeteeltkundig Onderzoek "Schoonoord" no. C 141) - 7
bloedplasma - bloedserum - varkens - diergeneeskunde - zoölogie - blood plasma - blood serum - pigs - veterinary science - zoology
|Enkele variabelen bij de bepaling van Lact. Dehydrogenase (LDH) in varkensplasma
Zuidam, L. ; Heykoop, L. - \ 1969
Zeist : I.V.O. (Rapport / Instituut voor veeteeltkundig onderzoek "Schoonoord" no. C 139) - 6
bloedplasma - bloedserum - varkens - diergeneeskunde - zoölogie - blood plasma - blood serum - pigs - veterinary science - zoology
Genetical and some environmental influences affecting the level of leucocyte counts in the milk of cows
Afifi, Y.A. - \ 1967
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): T. Stegenga. - Wageningen : Veenman - 81
rundvee - rauwe melk - diergeneeskunde - melkklieren - melksecretie - lactatie - dierlijke producten - vervalsing - besmetting - verouderen - gebreken - achteruitgang (deterioration) - bloedserum - fibrine - bloedplaatjes - bloed - erytrocyten - leukocyten - bloedplasma - mastitis - cattle - raw milk - veterinary science - mammary glands - milk secretion - lactation - animal products - adulteration - contamination - aging - defects - deterioration - blood serum - fibrin - platelets - blood - erythrocytes - leukocytes - blood plasma - mastitis
The progeny groups of different sires varied widely in white-cell count in milk, even after exclusion of all cows which had suffered from mastitis. The sire had a demonstrable effect on white-cell count in milk, especially during the second half of lactation. Heritability estimates of white-cell count in milk showed that values for the fourth lactation were higher than those for heifers. But at the end of lactation heritability values for 4th lactation cows and heifers were nearly equal (about 0.40). The daughter groups with high average white-cell counts mostly showed frequent mastitis. There was a high phenotypic and genetic correlation between clinical mastitis and white-cell count. Within seasons for cows which, so far known, had never mastitis, very high and very low producers had higher white-cell counts than other cows. White-cell counts increased remarkably with advancing lactation. A relation between white-cell count and ease of milking could not be demonstrated.Increasing milking vacuum over 40 cm mercury pressure, especially at the end of lactation, or increasing pulsation to over 50 per min. tended to increase white-cells. Milking routine (man/machine ratio) affected white-cell count in the end of lactation. More cows per milker increased the number of white-cells.
Verspreiding van bloedgroepen in het Nederlandse zwartbonte rundvee : een onderzoek naar de frequenties van bloedgroepen en naar enige factoren, die de frequenties beinvloeden
Kraaij, G.J. - \ 1967
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): T. Stegenga. - Wageningen : Veenman - 127
bloedserum - fibrine - bloedplaatjes - bloed - erytrocyten - leukocyten - bloedplasma - rundvee - melkveerassen - nederland - genetica - heritability - genetische variatie - blood serum - fibrin - platelets - blood - erythrocytes - leukocytes - blood plasma - cattle - dairy breeds - netherlands - genetics - heritability - genetic variation
Blood groups are genetically determined components of the red blood cells. In cattle there were 13 loci known to determine blood groups and some of these loci had large series of alleles. There were also 14 other loci known to determine proteins and enzymes in blood and milk of cattle.
The author examined how the distribution of blood groups in the Dutch Friesian population had been influenced by the restrictions of breeders. He found that parent cattle were paired independently of blood group. In offspring there was no selection for a certain phenotype until the end of the first year.
There were clear differences in the frequency of some genes between adult bulls and cows. The gene for blood group A was less frequent in bulls and that for blood group F was less frequent in cows. This occurred in some foreign breeds of cattle.
The distribution of blood groups over the population was not even. There were differences in gene frequency between breeding areas and in the breeding areas there were large differences between artificial insemination stations. Differences within farms and within breeding pedigrees were even greater. These differences could be ascribed largely to the use of one or only a few sires.
Het kopergehalte van lever en bloedserum bij het Fries-Hollandse rund
Grift, J. van der - \ 1955
's-Gravenhage : Staatsdrukkerij (Verslagen van landbouwkundige onderzoekingen 61.10) - 61
melkveerassen - rundvee - bloedserum - fibrine - bloedplaatjes - bloed - erytrocyten - leukocyten - bloedplasma - dairy breeds - cattle - blood serum - fibrin - platelets - blood - erythrocytes - leukocytes - blood plasma