Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Including multistress in the risk assessment of plant protection products : current state of knowledge, based on a literature review and an evaluation of tank mixture applications in a spraying schedule for strawberries
    Arts, G.H.P. ; Beltman, W.H.J. ; Holterman, H.J. ; Vliet, P.J.M. van; Wipfler, E.L. ; Zande, J.C. van de - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2793) - 51
    pesticides - environmental impact - risk - exposure - drift - pesticiden - milieueffect - risico - blootstelling - drift
    Fluctuations of input and output prices are major reasons causing volatile gross margins in livestock production. There are large historic differences in the period 2001-2015 between the dairy sector and fattening pig sector in volatility. Relatively large fluctuations in gross margins were observed in the fattening pig sector (median coefficient of variation (CV) value of 32%). In the dairy sector gross margin between years was more smooth (median CV values of 12%), but projections are that after the gradual reduction of EU milk price support and following the abolishment of the EU milk quota system dairy farmers will become more exposed to the world market for dairy products and are becoming more vulnerable to (supply and demand) shocks affecting world dairy markets and prices.
    Cadmium in soil, crops and resultant dietary exposure
    Rietra, R.P.J.J. ; Mol, G. ; Rietjens, I.M.C.M. ; Römkens, P.F.A.M. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2784) - 39
    cadmium - soil - food intake - crops - exposure - fertilizers - food safety - toxicology - cadmium - bodem - voedselopname - gewassen - blootstelling - kunstmeststoffen - voedselveiligheid - toxicologie
    Calculation of exposure concentrations for NL standard scenarios by the TOXSWA model : use of FOCUS_TOXSWA 4.4.3 software for plant protection products and their metabolitesin Dutch risk assessment for aquatic ecosystems
    Beltman, W.H.J. ; Vink, C. ; Poot, A. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOT Natuur & Milieu) (WOt-technical report 77) - 46
    pesticides - models - exposure - exposure assessment - surface water - netherlands - pesticiden - modellen - blootstelling - blootstellingsbepaling - oppervlaktewater - nederland
    TOXSWA calculates exposure concentrations of plant protection products in water and in sediment and is
    used in risk assessment studies of aquatic organisms. Replacement of the TOXSWA 1.2 software by the more
    recent FOCUS_TOXSWA software for use with the NL standard scenarios was investigated. The impact of the
    replacement on the calculated exposure concentrations of parent compounds and of metabolites was
    determined. For parent substances the calculated exposure concentrations of the two TOXSWA versions were
    equivalent. Due to a different way to simulate metabolites, the differences in exposure concentrations
    calculated by the two versions can be large. For the simulation of metabolite substances two approaches are
    given to handle situations where the formation fraction is not known.
    Training Manual Occupational Pesticide Exposure & Health and Safe & Responsible Handling of Pesticides : With courtesy of vegIMPACT a program financed by The Netherlands’ Government
    Maden, E.C.L.J. van der; Koomen, I. - \ 2016
    Centre for Development Innovation (Report CDI-16-029 ) - 40
    pesticides - exposure - occupational health - safety at work - horticulture - farmers - training - handbooks - kenya - pesticiden - blootstelling - gezondheid op het werk - veiligheid op het werk - tuinbouw - boeren - opleiding - handboeken - kenya
    Pesticides are commonly used in the horticulture sector. While emphasis is often on the correct and efficient application of pesticides, the risk associated with application of pesticides receives less attention. Those working with pesticides need to know about occupational pesticide exposure and health risks, both for themselves as well as people living in the vicinity of places where pesticides are used. The Practical Training Centre Horticulture Kenya (PTC Horticulture) offers hands-on trainings to the horticultural sector. This manual is developed for PTC Horticulture and is about the safe and responsible use of pesticides – a guide for trainers who have to deliver trainings on ‘Occupational Pesticide Exposure & Health’ and ‘Safe & Responsible Handling of Pesticides’. This manual guides the trainers through the material, provides background and tips to the content and gives suggestions for practical assignments.
    Probabilistic dietary exposure models : relevant for acute and chronic exposure assessment of adverse chemicals via food
    Boon, Polly E. ; Voet, H. van der - \ 2015
    Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM letter report 2015-0191) - 41
    exposure assessment - exposure - models - chemicals - toxic substances - intake - food consumption - food safety - probabilistic models - blootstellingsbepaling - blootstelling - modellen - chemicaliën - toxische stoffen - opname (intake) - voedselconsumptie - voedselveiligheid - waarschijnlijkheidsmodellen
    Exposure models are used to calculate the amount of potential harmful chemicals ingested by a human population. Examples of harmful chemicals are residues of pesticides, chemicals entering food from the environment (such as dioxins, cadmium, lead, mercury), and chemicals that are generated via heating (such as acrylamide and furans). In this report we describe the characteristics of two types of models: the first for calculating the short term-intake, and the second for calculating long-term intake. These models currently result in the most realistic estimation of chemical intake via food.
    Training Manual Occupational Pesticide Exposure & Health
    Maden, E.C.L.J. van der; Gordijn, F. ; Wulansari, M. ; Koomen, I. - \ 2015
    Wageningen UR (vegIMPACT report 11) - 61
    pesticiden - toepassing - blootstelling - gezondheid op het werk - opleiding - handleidingen - pesticides - application - exposure - occupational health - training - guide books
    The VegIMPACT project, short for ‘vegetable production and marketing with impact’, aims to improve vegetable production and marketing of small farmers in Indonesia. VegIMPACT contributes to increased food security and private sector development in Indonesia and is financed by the Netherlands Government. The program (2013-2016) is carried out by Wageningen University and Research Centre, together with local partners and national and international companies involved in the vegetable production and marketing chain. One of the work packages of the vegIMPACT project is Occupational Health. This work package intends to reduce pesticide related occupational health hazards, with specific attention to women. At the moment there is limited awareness about the chronic negative health effects of exposure to pesticides such as e.g. cancer, infertility and miscarriages. Especially women receive no or limited information on pesticides. In order to reduce pesticide related occupational health risks in Indonesian agriculture major steps must be taken with regard to the reduction of pesticide exposure and improvement of handling and application practices. This training manual is developed as a supplement to the vegIMPACT ‘Occupational Pesticide Exposure & Health’ PowerPoint presentation and is designed for trainers facilitating the vegIMPACT ‘Occupational Pesticide Exposure & Health’ training.
    Waves of change: immunomodulation of the innate immune response by low frequency electromagnetic field exposure
    Golbach, L.A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Huub Savelkoul, co-promotor(en): Lidy van Kemenade. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574090 - 172
    immuniteitsreactie - elektromagnetisch veld - cellen - celbiologie - blootstelling - immune response - electromagnetic field - cells - cellular biology - exposure

    In this thesis we investigated possible modulatory roles of low frequency electromagnetic fields (LF EMFs) exposure on the innate immune system. Recent decades have seen a huge increase in the use of electronic devices that nowadays enable us to communicate with distant family, enjoy music everywhere or order food without leaving the house. However besides the benefits, this evolution has also resulted in increased public concern about the potential adverse health effects of non-ionizing radiation. Every power line or electronic device emits a wide range of electromagnetic waves, which can pass through our bodies or damage our skin, depending on the characteristics of the waves. The symptoms attributed to continuous EMF exposure range from non-specific physical symptoms, such as fatigue 1, headaches 2, and redness of the skin to increased prevalence of childhood leukaemia 3. Although many theories regarding a potential mechanism of induction are put forward, to date no clear mechanism of action has been elucidated. Experimental evidence that could support an association between exposure and health status appears to be insufficient and inconsistent 4,5. We investigated the potential effect of LF EMF exposure on neutrophils, one of the key players of the innate immune response. We tried to elucidate a possible mechanism of interaction between intracellular signalling pathways and LF EMF exposure. We aimed to investigate calcium signalling, actin reorganization, cell migration and antimicrobial activity during exposure with different in vitro approaches.

    PRIMET_registration_Ethiopia_1.1, technical description and manual : a decision support system for assessing pesticide risks in the tropics to man, environment and trade, for pesticide registration in Europe
    Wipfler, E.L. ; Adriaanse, P.I. ; Horst, M.M.S. ter; Vlaming, J. ; Brink, P.J. van den; Peeters, F.M. ; Deneer, J.W. ; Boesten, J.J.T.I. ; Groenwold, J.G. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra report 2573) - 133
    pesticiden - risicoschatting - ecologische risicoschatting - gezondheid - registratie - blootstelling - ethiopië - pesticides - risk assessment - ecological risk assessment - health - registration - exposure - ethiopia
    Kruiscontaminatie van antibiotica : onderzoek naar de aanwezigheid van antibioticaresiduen in mest van vleesvarkens en vleeskalveren en op pluimveebedrijven
    Zuidema, T. ; Stolker, A.A.M. ; Ginkel, L.A. van - \ 2014
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT rapport 2014.015) - 47
    antibioticumresiduen - plattelandsomgeving - mest - drinkwater - blootstelling - besmetting - varkens - vleeskuikens - vleeskalveren - pluimvee - rundvee - antibiotic residues - rural environment - manures - drinking water - exposure - contamination - pigs - broilers - veal calves - poultry - cattle
    Dit onderzoek heeft tot doel een eerste indicatie te krijgen over het voorkomen van antibioticaresiduen in dieren en hun directe omgeving. Het gaat daarbij met name om de onbedoelde blootstelling als gevolg van kruiscontaminatie. Hiertoe is een onderzoek gedaan naar de aanwezigheid van antibioticaresiduen in mestmonsters van vleesvarkens, vleeskalveren en vleeskuikens. Bij vleeskuikens is ook onderzoek gedaan in omgevingsmonsters (blootstelling vanuit de omgeving) en in watermonsters (blootstelling van dieren via water).
    Chinese scenarios for groundwater leaching and aquatice exposure : development of scenarios for environmental risk assessment procedures of pesticides in China
    Horst, M.M.S. ter; Wipfler, E.L. ; Adriaanse, P.I. ; Boesten, J.J.T.I. ; Fait, G. ; Li, W. ; Tao, C. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2559) - 164
    grondwater - pesticiden - uitspoelen - risicoschatting - modellen - oppervlaktewater - blootstelling - rijstvelden - rijst - china - groundwater - pesticides - leaching - risk assessment - models - surface water - exposure - rice fields - rice - china
    Within the frame work of the Sino-Dutch Pesticide Environment Risk Assessment Project (PERAP) and as part of the Chinese environmental ris assessment procedures models and scenarions were developed to estimate concentrations of Plant Protection Product (PPP) leaching to the groundwater and to estimate PPP concentrations in Chinese small surface waters. Protection goals considering groundwater and surface water were defined in detail. Realistic worst-case groundwater scenario's and surface water scenarios were defined to be used in respectively a Tier 1 leaching assessment of PPP a Tier 1 assesment of the risks of PPP to aquatic ecosystems in China. Data on soil, weather, crops, irrigation and Agricultural practices were gathered for both scenario definitions. Existing models PEARL and TOXSWA were modified and parameterised for the scenarions defined.
    Report of the Workshop on International Harmonisation of Approaches to Define Underwater Noise Exposure Criteria (Budapest, Hungary 17th August 2013)
    Lucke, K. ; Winter, H.V. ; Lam, F.P. ; Scowcroft, G. ; Hawkins, A. ; Popper, A.N. - \ 2013
    Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C197/13) - 40
    geluid - blootstelling - zeedieren - geluidshinder - onderwaterakoestiek - regelingen - normen - noise - exposure - marine animals - noise pollution - underwater acoustics - regulations - standards
    The potential negative effects of high levels of underwater noise on marine life have been identified and acknowledged, and this issue has been incorporated into various international agreements over the past decade. Several countries have already issued regulations to limit the incidence and level of anthropogenic noise in the oceans. The development of regulations on noise exposure in marine environments has to date focused on two groups, marine mammals and, to a lesser extent, fishes. Nevertheless, our understanding of the complexity of acoustic and behavioural effects is improving, and it might be possible to develop existing noise-exposure criteria with scientific knowledge evolving. More importantly, new regulations, or at least the approaches taken toward regulations, could be internationally harmonised to provide better protection for marine fauna.
    Unravelling hazards of nanoparticles to earthworms, from gene to population
    Ploeg, M. van der - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ivonne Rietjens, co-promotor(en): Nico van den Brink. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734440 - 192
    aardwormen - lumbricus rubellus - nanotechnologie - blootstelling - ecotoxicologie - earthworms - lumbricus rubellus - nanotechnology - exposure - ecotoxicology

    Nanotechnology is an expeditiously growing field, where engineered nanoparticles are being incorporated in many different applications, from food to waste water treatment (Dekkers et al. 2011; Gottschalk and Nowack 2011; Savage and Diallo 2005). Due to this large scale production and use of nanoparticles, their release into the environment seems inevitable (Crane et al. 2008; Handy et al. 2008a; Oberdörster et al. 2005). Actual exposure levels of nanoparticles under field conditions and the hazards of nanoparticle exposure to the environment are poorly understood, especially for the soil environment (Kahru and Dubourguier 2010; Navarro et al. 2008; Shoults-Wilson et al. 2011a).

    Given the need for better characterization of hazards of engineered nanoparticles to the environment and soil organisms in particular, the aim of the present thesis was to investigate effects of nanoparticle exposure on the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, as a model organism for soil ecotoxicology, and to contribute to the development of effect markers for engineered nanoparticle exposure in this model.

    The present thesis was divided in different chapters. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the topic and discusses the importance of research on the hazards of exposure to engineered nanoparticles. Furthermore, the aim and outline of the thesis are presented, with background information on the model organism, effect markers and nanoparticles.

    In chapter 2 effects of exposure to the fullerene C60 (nominal concentrations 0, 15.4 and 154 mg C60/kg soil) on survival and growth during the different life stages of L. rubellus (cocoon, juvenile, subadult and adult), as well as reproduction were quantified. These important individual endpoints for population dynamics were incorporated in a continuous-time life-history model (Baveco and De Roos 1996; De Roos 2008). In this way, effects of C60 exposure on the individual endpoints could be extrapolated to implications for population growth rate and life stage distribution, i.e. the development of the population in terms of number of individuals in the different life stages. These implications at the population level may be more relevant for the ecological impact of C60 than effects on endpoints at the individual level (Klok et al. 2006; Widarto et al. 2004). At the individual level C60 exposure caused significant adverse effects on cocoon production, juvenile growth rate and survival. When these endpoints were used to model effects on the population level, reduced population growth rates with increasing C60 concentrations were observed. Furthermore, a shift in life stage structure was shown for C60 exposed populations, towards a larger proportion of juveniles. This result implies that the lower juvenile growth rate induced by C60 exposure resulted in a larger proportion of juveniles, despite increased mortality among juveniles. Overall, this study implied serious consequences of C60 exposure for L. rubellus earthworm populations, even at the lowest level of exposure tested. Furthermore, it showed that juveniles were more sensitive to C60 exposure than adults.

    To complement the observations made on survival, growth and reproduction described in chapter 2, subsequent investigations on cellular and molecular responses of the earthworms to C60 exposure were performed (chapter 3). A set of established effect markers was used, which reflect different levels of biological organisation in the earthworm and may inform on the toxic mechanisms of adverse effects induced by C60 exposure (Handy et al. 2002; Heckmann et al. 2008). At the molecular level, four specific effect markers were selected, including markers for generic stress (heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) (van Straalen and Roelofs 2006), for oxidative stress (catalase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (Kohen and Nyska 2002) and for an immune response (coelomic cytolytic factor-1 (CCF-1) (Olivares Fontt et al. 2002). At the tissue level, histological analyses were used to identify damage to cells and tissues, and indications of inflammation in the tissues. In these investigations, exposure to C60 (0, 15 or 154 mg C60/kg soil) affected gene expression of HSP70 significantly. Gene expression of CCF-1 did not alter in adult earthworms exposed for four weeks, but was significantly down-regulated after lifelong exposure (from cocoon stage to adulthood) of earthworms, already to the lowest C60 exposure level. No significant trends were noted for catalase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) gene expression or enzyme activity. Tissue samples of the C60 exposed earthworms from both experiments and exposure levels, showed a damaged cuticle with underlying pathologies of epidermis and muscles. Additionally, the gut barrier was not fully intact. However, tissue repair was also observed in these earthworms. In conclusion, this study demonstrated effects of sub-lethal C60 exposure on L. rubellus earthworms, at the level of gene expression and tissue integrity.

    Although tissue injury is generally associated with an inflammatory response, as part of tissue repair (Cikutovic et al. 1999; Goven et al. 1994), the tissue damage observed for the in vivo C60 exposed earthworms in chapter 3 appeareded to occur without accompanying induced immune responses. The CCF-1 gene expression level was reduced in the C60 exposed earthworms, and histological observations did not show infiltration of damaged tissues by immune cells. In order to obtain further insight in mechanisms of effects observed at the molecular and tissue level on immune related parameters, the sensitivity of immune cells (coelomocytes) of L. rubellus earthworms towards exposure to selected nanoparticles was investigated in vitro (chapter 4). To this end, coelomocytes were isolated from unexposed adult L. rubellus earthworms and exposed to C60 in vitro. After exposure, these coelomocytes were tested for cellular viability, phagocytic activity and CCF-1 gene expression levels. The gene expression of CCF-1 was most affected, demonstrating a strong reduction, which indicated immunosuppression. Experiments with NR8383 rat macrophage cells and tri-block copolymer nanoparticles were used to compare sensitivity of the cell types and showed the usefulness of coelomocytes as a test system for nano-immunotoxicity in general. Overall, this study indicated that the absence of an immune response, in case of tissue injuries observed after in vivo C60 exposure, is likely caused by immunosuppression rather than coelomocyte mortality.

    In subsequent investigations, the experiments performed for C60 were also carried out with silver nanoparticles (AgNP), both in vivo and in vitro (chapter 5). Effects of AgNP were assessed in vivo at nominal concentrations of 0, 1.5 (low), 15.4 (medium) and 154 (high) mg Ag/kg soil and compared to effects of silver ions, added as AgNO3 (nominal concentration 15.4 mg Ag/kg soil). In a four week reproduction assay, the high AgNP and AgNO3 treatments had a significant effect on cocoon production and high AgNP exposure also caused a reduction in weight gain of the adult earthworms. No juveniles survived the high AgNP treatment, therefore only F1 earthworms from the other exposure treatments were monitored for survival and growth, until adulthood. These individual endpoints were used to model effects on the population level. The low and medium AgNP as well as the AgNO3 treatments significantly reduced the population growth rate. The high AgNP treatment caused complete failure of the population growth. Furthermore, histological examination of the earthworms from all AgNP exposure treatments demonstrated tissue damage, with injuries mainly at the external barriers, e.g. the cuticle and the gut epithelium. In addition, effects of AgNP exposure were assessed in vitro and a reduction of coelomocyte viability was observed in a concentration-dependent manner, although the EC50 was fourteen times higher compared with that for Ag ions, added as AgNO3. Furthermore, characterisation of the in vivo exposure media implied that AgNP remained present in the soil in single and aggregated state, releasing Ag to the soil pore water up to at least eleven months. The ionic fraction of Ag in soils has been suggested to be bioavailable to organisms and (largely) responsible for the observed AgNP toxicity (Coutris et al. 2012; Koo, et al. 2011; Shoults-Wilson et al. 2011b). In comparison, the AgNO3 seemed to dissolve rapidly, as is also known for this metal salt, and fixation of Ag ions by the soil presumably led to a quick reduction of Ag bioavailability (Atkins and Jones 2000; Coutris et al. 2012; Ratte 1999). This is in line with the observation that effects were more prolonged in the AgNP treatments in comparison with the AgNO3 exposed animals. In conclusion, this study indicated that AgNP exposure may seriously affect earthworm populations, with the ability to cause immunotoxicity, injury to the external barriers of the earthworm body and a reduction in growth, reproduction and juvenile survival.

    Finally, chapter 6 presents a discussion on the findings of the present thesis and provides suggestions for future research.

    Integrated Problabilistic Risk Assessment (IPRA) for carcinogens : A first exploration
    Slob, W. ; Bokkers, B.G.H. ; Heijden, G.W.A.M. van der; Voet, H. van der - \ 2011
    RIVM (RIVM Report 320121002/2011) - 57
    risicoschatting - carcinogenen - blootstelling - extrapolatie - voeding - aflatoxinen - risk assessment - carcinogens - exposure - extrapolation - nutrition - aflatoxins
    Het RIVM en de Wageningen Universiteit hebben in 2007 de IPRA-methode (Integrated Probabilistic Risk Assessment) ontwikkeld om te kunnen inschatten welk deel van de bevolking effect ondervindt van niet-kankerverwekkende stoffen in voeding. Uit onderzoek van het RIVM, in opdracht van de nieuwe Voedsel en Waren Autoriteit (nVWA) blijkt dat de IPRA-methode ook voor kankerverwekkende stoffen kan worden gebruikt. Met de IPRA-methode kan de mate van onzekerheid in de beschikbare gegevens vertaald worden in onzekerheidsmarges in de uitkomst. Hiermee wordt een realistischer beeld gegeven van het potentiële effect op de gezondheid. In het rapport staat beschreven hoe de gegevens waarmee de IPRA-methode rekent moeten worden geïnterpreteerd, evenals de daaruit afgeleide uitkomsten.
    Lood in bodem en gewas in volkstuincomplexen in Leiden : locatie-specifiek onderzoek naar risico's van bodemverontreiniging
    Römkens, P.F.A.M. ; Rietra, R.P.J.J. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2255) - 52
    bodemverontreiniging - lood - groenteteelt - risicoschatting - volkstuinen - blootstelling - zuid-holland - soil pollution - lead - vegetable growing - risk assessment - allotment gardens - exposure - zuid-holland
    In Leiden komen verhoogde gehalten lood in de bodem van moestuincomplexen voor. Aan de hand van de meting van het bodemgehalte per tuin en de gehalten aan lood in gewasmonsters is vastgesteld dat er geen risico’s zijn voor het gebruik van de tuinen als moestuin. Er zijn daarom geen aanvullende maatregelen nodig voor beheer of sanering.
    Grenzen voor luchtkwaliteit: Effecten van discontinue blootstelling aan etheen en stikstofoxiden op paprika
    Dijk, C.J. van; Meinen, E. ; Dueck, T.A. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten GTB 1107) - 38
    rookgassen - kasgewassen - glastuinbouw - glasgroenten - concentratie - blootstelling - capsicum - componenten - schade - gassen - gewasproductie - flue gases - greenhouse crops - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse vegetables - concentration - exposure - capsicum - components - damage - gases - crop production
    Het doseren van rookgassen met CO2 in de glastuinbouw kan grote gevolgen hebben voor het rendement van de bedrijven. Concentraties van toxische componenten kunnen sterk fluctueren in de tijd en komen zelden tot nooit alleen voor. Om het effect van deze typen blootstellingen in te kunnen schatten zijn paprikaplanten blootgesteld aan de twee belangrijkste rookgassen, NOx en etheen. De resultaten van dit onderzoek tonen aan dat blootstelling aan zowel continue als discontinue etheen concentraties van 40 ppb of hoger al na enkele dagen tot zichtbare effecten leiden. Etheen had ook een sterk negatief effect op de knoppen die tijdens de blootstellingsperiode werden gevormd; deze vielen grotendeels af waardoor ook geen bloemen en vruchten tot ontwikkeling kwamen. Dit onderzoek toont aan dat paprikaplanten minder sterk reageren op discontinue blootstellingen van etheen dan op continue, mogelijk als gevolg van het optreden van herstelmechanismen. Dit betekent dat tuinders mogelijk meer CO2 kunnen doseren dan op basis van de bestaande effectgrenswaarden voor mogelijk werd gehouden. De positieve effecten van CO2 op de gewasontwikkeling leiden nauwelijks tot vermindering van de etheengevoeligheid. Vertaald naar de praktijk betekent dit dat tuinders die CO2 doseren met rookgassen geen vermindering van de etheeneffecten hoeven te verwachten mochten de etheenconcentraties te hoog oplopen.
    Locatiespecifiek onderzoek naar de risico's van lood in moestuinen : gehalten aan lood in de bodem en moestuingewassen in het volkstuincomplex 'Aan het Meer' te Heerenveen
    Römkens, P.F.A.M. ; Rietra, R.P.J.J. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2107) - 52
    bodemverontreiniging - blootstelling - lood - volkstuinen - tuinen bij het huis - gezinstuinen - friesland - groenten - soil pollution - exposure - lead - allotment gardens - domestic gardens - home gardens - friesland - vegetables
    Locatiespecifiek onderzoek naar de invloed van verhoogde gehalten aan lood in de bodem in het Volkstuincomplex ‘aan het Meer’ te Heerenveen toont aan dat de gehalten in de gewassen niet leiden tot onacceptabele blootstelling. De gemeten gehalten in belangrijke groenten in moestuinen (aardappel, sla, andijvie, bonen) zijn normaal en liggen een factor 3 tot 10 lager dan de berekende waarden met C-Soil. Dit betekent dat de risico-index op basis van gemeten gehalten varieert van 0.03 tot 0.21 voor levenslange blootstelling en maximaal 0.55 voor kinderen terwijl de standaardbeoordeling leidt tot risico-indexen hoger dan 1. Op grond van de metingen blijkt dat het gebruik als moestuin daarmee geen enkel risico oplevert. Geadviseerd wordt de groenten wel goed te wassen en de pH van de bodem op een niveau rond 5.5 tot 6 te houden of te brengen door (extra) bekalking.
    Long-term dietary exposure to lead in young children living in different European countries. Scientific report submitted to EFSA
    Boon, P.E. ; Sioen, I. ; Voet, H. van der; Huybrechts, I. ; Neve, M. De; Amiano, P. ; Azpiri, M. ; Busk, L. ; Christensen, T. ; Hilbig, A. ; Hirvonen, T. ; Koulouridaki, S. ; Lafay, L. ; Liukkonen, K.H. ; Moschandreas, J. ; Papoutsou, S. ; Ribas-Barba, L. ; Ruprich, J. ; Serra-Majem, L. ; Tornaritis, M. ; Turrini, A. ; Urtizberea, M. ; Verger, E. ; Westerlund, A. ; Kersting, M. ; Henauw, S. de; Klaveren, J.D. van - \ 2010
    Expochi - 82
    voedselconsumptie - lood - eetpatronen - kinderen - europa - voeding en gezondheid - blootstelling - food consumption - lead - eating patterns - children - europe - nutrition and health - exposure
    Long-term dietary exposure to lead in children aged 1 up to 14 years living in 12 different European countries was estimated using daily food consumption patterns and mean lead concentrations in various food commodities. Food consumption data were all categorised according to a harmonised system to allow for linkage with lead concentration data in a standardised way. Two different models were used for the calculations: the beta-binomial-normal (BBN) model and the observed individual means (OIM) model. For both models the lower bound exposure ranged from 0.4 to 1.7 µg/kg bw per day for median consumers. For 99th percentile consumers however the exposure differed between the two models with a lower bound exposure ranging from 0.7 to 4.1 µg/kg bw per day with the BBN model and 0.9 to 7.9 µg/kg bw per day with the OIM model. Upper bound exposures were on average a factor 1.8 higher for both models. Exposures on a body weight basis were higher in younger compared to older children. To assess the long-term exposure to lead in European children, a model, such as the BBN model, that corrects for the within-person variation is the preferred method to be used. The OIM method results in an overestimation of the percentage of the population exceeding a provisional tolerable weekly intake which is of relevance for risk management decisions.
    Linking Aquatic Exposure and Effects: Risk Assessment of Pesticides
    Brock, T.C.M. ; Alix, A. ; Brown, C.D. ; Capri, E. ; Gottesburen, E. - \ 2010
    Boca Raton, London, New York : SETAC Press & CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group - ISBN 9781439813478 - 440
    pesticiden - risicoschatting - blootstelling - aquatisch milieu - toxicologie - ecotoxicologie - pesticides - risk assessment - exposure - aquatic environment - toxicology - ecotoxicology
    Time-variable exposure profiles of pesticides are more often the rule than exception in the surface waters of agricultural landscapes. There is, therefore, a need to adequately address the uncertainties arising from time-variable exposure profiles in the aquatic risk assessment procedure for pesticides. This book provides guidance and recommendations for linking aquatic exposure and ecotoxicological effects in the environmental assessment of agricultural pesticides. International scientists share their expertise in aquatic exposure assessment, aquatic ecotoxicology, and the risk assessment and management of plant protection products. The book incorporates the tools and approaches currently available for assessing the environmental risks of time-variable exposure profiles of pesticides. It also discusses the science behind these techniques.
    Hepatitis E virus infections in pigs : transmission dynamics and human exposure
    Bouwknegt, M. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Mart de Jong; Wim van der Poel, co-promotor(en): A.M. de Roda Husman. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085855194 - 150
    varkens - hepatitis e-virus - ziekteoverdracht - zoönosen - ziekteprevalentie - blootstelling - ziekten overgebracht door voedsel - volksgezondheid - pigs - hepatitis e virus - disease transmission - zoonoses - disease prevalence - exposure - foodborne diseases - public health
    In dit promotieonderzoek is de transmissie dynamiek van Hepatitis E virus (HEV) bij varkens onderzocht, alsmede de potentiële blootstelling van de Nederlandse bevolking aan HEV uit varkens. Om te onderzoeken of HEV spreidt onder varkens is een experiment opgezet bestaande uit 10 infectieketens. Elke keten bestond uit één intraveneus geïnfecteerd varken ( iv‐varkens) en drie HEV‐gevoelige varkens (contactvarkens). Aan elk van de 10 iv‐varkens is een HEV‐naïef varken blootgesteld (één‐op‐één blootstelling). Indien dit naïeve varken werd geïnfecteerd, werd een volgend HEV‐naïef varken uit de keten aan het zojuist geïnfecteerde varken blootgesteld.
    The practicability of the integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) approach for substances in food
    Bokkers, B.G.H. ; Bakker, M.I. ; Boon, P.E. ; Bos, P. ; Bosgra, S. ; Heijden, G.W.A.M. van der; Janer, G. ; Slob, W. ; Voet, H. van der - \ 2009
    Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM report 320121001/2009) - 79
    risicoschatting - blootstelling - toxische stoffen - toxinen - gezondheidsbescherming - voedselveiligheid - voedselvergiftiging - extrapolatie - voeding en gezondheid - risk assessment - exposure - toxic substances - toxins - health protection - food safety - food poisoning - extrapolation - nutrition and health
    In the Netherlands, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) has successfully applied the IPRA approach to assess the human health risks of five substances in food. This method has been developed so that health risks can be described in more detail when a classical risk assessment has shown either that there is a risk or a risk cannot be excluded. In the present study, the risks of two mycotoxins (DON and T-2/HT-2), one heavy metal (cadmium), one group of pesticides (OPs), and one compound (acrylamide) which is formed during the heating of food containing high levels of starch are described
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