Microbiome dynamics of disease suppresive soils
Gómez Expósito, Ruth - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): F.P.M. Govers; J.M. Raaijmakers, co-promotor(en): J. Postma; I. de Bruijn. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431774 - 267
suppressive soils - soil suppressiveness - plant diseases - thanatephorus cucumeris - microbial ecology - soil microbiology - rhizosphere bacteria - soil bacteria - community ecology - soil fungi - transcriptomics - taxonomy - ziektewerende gronden - bodemweerbaarheid - plantenziekten - thanatephorus cucumeris - microbiële ecologie - bodemmicrobiologie - rizosfeerbacteriën - bodembacteriën - gemeenschapsecologie - bodemschimmels - transcriptomica - taxonomie
Disease suppressive soils are soils in which plants do not get diseased from plant pathogens due to the presence (and activities) of the microbes present in the soil. Understanding which microbes contribute to confer suppression and through which mechanisms they can protect plants is crucial for a sustainable control of plant diseases. In the research conducted in this thesis, I first examined the role of Lysobacter species, previously associated with disease suppressive soils, in suppressing damping-off disease caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani on sugar beet. The majority of the Lysobacter strains tested revealed a broad metabolic potential in producing a variety of enzymes and secondary metabolites able to suppress R. solani in vitro. However, any of these strains could consistently suppress damping-off disease when applied in soil bioassays. Their ability to promote plant growth was also tested for sugar beet, cauliflower, onion or Arabidopsis thaliana. Results indicated that any of the Lysobacter strains could consistently promote plant growth, neither via direct contact nor via volatile production. Second, I investigated whether the antagonistic activity of Lysobacter species could be triggered when applied as bacterial consortia, together with Pseudomonas and Streptomyces species. Although several bacterial combinations showed an increased antagonistic effect towards R. solani in vitro, no consistent effects were observed when these bacterial consortia were applied in vivo. Third, I investigated the dynamical changes in the bacterial community composition and functions occurring during the process of disease suppressiveness induction by performing whole community analyses using next-generation sequencing techniques. Results indicated that suppressiveness induction was most associated with changes in certain bacterial traits rather than changes in the bacteria community composition itself. Among the functions found as more active in suppressive soils were several ‘classic’ mechanisms of disease suppression, including competition for nutrients, iron and space and production of extracellular enzymes, indol-acetic-acid and hydrogen cyanide. Among the enzymes found in higher abundance in suppressive soil were these ones involved in the degradation of oxalic acid, a pathogenicity factor produced by pathogenic fungi to help infecting the host plant. Hence, I finally studied the role of bacteria able to produce enzymes able to degrade oxalic acid in suppressing R. solani disease. Enrichment of native oxalotrophic bacteria existing in soil, their isolation and further application into soil revealed that they could effectively suppress Rhizoctonia disease. Characterization of these oxalotrophic bacteria revealed that members within the Caulobacter and Nocardioides species could suppress R. solani disease by their own. Furthermore, the research done in this thesis highlights the importance of combining different techniques to unravel the mechanisms underlying disease suppression and the importance of studying function-over-phylogeny. Additionally, it also highlights the importance of organic amendments (such as oxalic acid) directly into soils in order to “engineer” the bacterial functions towards the control of diseases caused by R. solani.
Mining into interspecific bacterial interactions
Tyc, Olaf - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wietse de Boer, co-promotor(en): Paolina Garbeva. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578340 - 234
soil bacteria - secondary metabolites - microbial interactions - antibiotics - nutrients - bodembacteriën - secundaire metabolieten - microbiële interacties - antibiotica - voedingsstoffen
In terrestrial ecosystems bacteria live in close proximity with many different microbial species and form complex multi-species networks. Within those networks bacteria are constantly interacting with each other and produce a plethora of secondary metabolites like antibiotics, enzymes, volatiles and other compounds from diverse chemical classes. Several independent studies revealed that the production of secondary metabolites by soil bacteria can be influenced by the interaction with other microorganisms in their vicinity.
In this thesis we show how interspecific interactions between soil bacteria influence the production of soluble and volatile secondary metabolites, gene expression and fitness. To elucidate the effect of interspecific interactions on antimicrobial activity in soil bacteria a high-through-put screening method was developed and applied on a collection of 146 rhizobacterial isolates obtained from similar habitats. In addition we examined if the production of volatile organic compounds is influenced by interspecific interactions. Thus, the identity and antimicrobial activity of volatiles produced by bacteria cultivated in monoculture as well in interaction were examined. Furthermore a sand microcosm approach was applied to investigate how Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Pf0-1 responded to the presence of monocultures and mixtures of a Gram-negative (Pedobacter sp. V48) and a Gram-positive (Bacillus sp. V102) bacterial strain under two nutritional conditions.
The interaction between a gram-negative Burkholderia and a gram-positive Paenibacillus isolate was subjected to detailed metabolome, volatolome and transcriptome analysis. One distinct volatile and one non-volatile compound produced only during interspecific interaction but not in the monoculture were identified. The activity of the interacting bacteria and the compounds produced during interaction were tested against a range of human and plant pathogens.
In summary, this thesis extends the knowledge about the effect of interspecific bacterial interactions on secondary metabolites production (soluble and volatiles), gene expression and fitness in bacteria. The exploitation of such bacterial interspecific interactions can be an important “tool” for the discovery of novel antimicrobial and agro-chemical compounds. The obtained knowledge can help in selecting the right players in synthetic communities that fulfil important ecosystem services like disease suppression in agricultural crop systems.
Plant growth promotion by Pseudomonas fluorescens : mechanisms, genes and regulation
Cheng, X. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Francine Govers; J.M. Raaijmakers, co-promotor(en): M. van der Voort. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578753 - 192
soil bacteria - pseudomonas fluorescens - plants - growth stimulators - soil suppressiveness - plant diseases - induced resistance - biochemistry - biosynthesis - plant-microbe interactions - transcriptomics - bodembacteriën - pseudomonas fluorescens - planten - groeistimulatoren - bodemweerbaarheid - plantenziekten - geïnduceerde resistentie - biochemie - biosynthese - plant-microbe interacties - transcriptomica
Pseudomonas fluorescens is a Gram-negative rod shaped bacterium that has a versatile metabolism and is widely spread in soil and water. P. fluorescens strain SBW25 (Pf.SBW25) is a well-known model strain to study bacterial evolution, plant colonization and biocontrol of plant diseases. It produces the biosurfactant viscosin, a lipopeptide that plays a key role in motility, biofilm formation and activity against zoospores of Phytophthora infestans and other oomycete pathogens. In addition to viscosin, Pf.SBW25 produces other metabolites with activity against plant pathogens. The production of these yet unknown metabolites appeared to be regulated by the GacS/GacA two-component regulatory system (the Gac-system). The second P. fluorescens strain SS101 (Pf.SS101) studied in this thesis is known for its plant growth-promoting activities but the underlying mechanisms and genes are largely unknown. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to identify novel metabolites and biosynthetic genes in Pf.SBW25 and Pf.SS101, and to investigate their role in plant growth promotion and biocontrol. To this end, a multidisciplinary approach involving bioinformatic analysis of the genome sequences of strains Pf.SBW25 and Pf.SS101, microarray-based expression profiling, screening of genomic libraries, bioactivity assays, mass spectrometric image analysis (MALDI-IMS) and GC/MSMS analysis was adopted. In conclusion, we showed that the GacS/GacA two-component system as a global regulator of the expression of genes play important roles in antagonism of Pseudomonas fluorescens toward plant pathogenic microbes as well as in plant growth promotion and ISR. Growth promotion by P. fluorescens is associated with alterations in auxin biosynthesis and transport, steroid biosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and sulfur assimilation. Moreover, advanced chemical profiling allowed us to compare the metabolite profiles of free-living P. fluorescens and P. fluorescens living in association with plant roots. A better understanding of yet unknown mechanisms exploited by the various Pseudomonas fluorescens strains will lead to new opportunities for the discovery and application of natural bioactive compounds for both industrial and agricultural purposes.
Intracellular accommodation of rhizobia in legume host cell: the fine-tuning of the endomembrane system
Gavrin, A.Y. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ton Bisseling, co-promotor(en): E. Federova. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574182 - 160
peulgewassen - rhizobium - bodembacteriën - endosymbiose - wortelknolletjes - membranen - waardplanten - legumes - rhizobium - soil bacteria - endosymbiosis - root nodules - membranes - host plants
The symbiosis of legumes with rhizobia leads to the formation of root nodules. Rhizobia which are hosted inside specialized infected cells are surrounded by hostderived membranes, forming symbiosomes. Although it is known that symbiosome formation involves proliferation of membranes and changing of host cell architecture the mechanisms involved in these processes remain largely uncovered.
In this thesis, I studied in more detail the adaptation of the endomembrane system of infected cells to intracellular rhizobia. I have shown that in the first cell layer of the nitrogen-fixing zone, the vacuole of the infected cells shrinks, creating space for the expanding symbiosomes. Here the expression of homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting complex (HOPS) genes VPS11 and VPS39 are switched off, whereas tonoplast proteins, like the vacuolar aquaporin TIP1g, are targeted to the symbiosome membrane. These observations suggest that tonoplast-targeted traffic in infected cells is altered. This retargeting is essential for the maturation of symbiosomes.
Accommodation of intracellular rhizobia requires also the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. I have shown that during symbiosome development the symbiosomes become surrounded by a dense actin network and in this way, the actin configuration in infected cells is changed markedly. The actin nucleating factor ARP3 is operational in the rearrangement of actin around the symbiosome.
It is known that the plasma membrane is inelastic; its capacity to stretch is only around 1-3%. Exocytosis of new membrane material is therefore involved in changes in the size of the membrane surface and in repair of damaged membrane loci. Membrane tension may create a vector for the fusion of membrane vesicles. To test this, the localization of proteins from the group of synaptotamin calcium sensors involved in membrane fusion, was studied. I have shown that the Medicago synaptotamins, MtSyt2 and MtSyt3, are localised on protrusions of the host plasma membrane created by expanding rhizobia (infection threads, cell wall-free unwalled droplets). Hence, at these sites of contact between symbionts membrane tension may create a vector for exocytosis.
It is known that the host cell wall is modified during the development of infected cells. This process is mediated by the exocytotic pathway employing vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) from the VAMP721 family. Previously it was shown in Medicago nodules, that cell-wall free interface membrane formation during bacterial release is dependent on these proteins. I have shown that the pectin modifying enzyme pectate lyase is delivered to the site of bacterial release in soybean nodules by VAMP721-positive vesicles.
My study uncovered new mechanisms involved in the adaptation of host cells to intracellular rhizobia: defunctionalization of the vacuole, actin cytoskeleton rearrangement and the retargeting of host cell proteins to the interface membrane.
Suppression of soil-borne plant pathogens
Agtmaal, M. van - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wietse de Boer; J.A. van Veen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572911 - 151
plantenziekteverwekkers - bodempathogenen - bodembacteriën - desinfecteren - landbouwgronden - modellen - rizosfeer - ziektewerende gronden - plant pathogens - soilborne pathogens - soil bacteria - disinfestation - agricultural soils - models - rhizosphere - suppressive soils
Soil borne plant pathogens considerably reduce crop yields worldwide and are difficult to control due to their ”masked” occurrence in the heterogeneous soil environment. This hampers the efficacy of chemical - and microbiological control agents. Outbreaks of crop diseases are not only dependent on the presence of pathogen propagules in the soil, but are also influenced by soil-related properties like physico-chemical characteristics, microbial activity and community composition. Strong competition for limited available carbon substrates restricts or prevents germination and pre-infective growth of pathogens. This competition can occur directly by rapid exploitation of substrates, so called resource competition, or indirectly via inhibitory secondary metabolites, called interference competition
The overall effect of all competition based mechanisms and the abiotic environment on disease development is known as “general disease suppression” and is the sum of all factors that reduce disease. The aim of this thesis was to study different aspects of general disease suppression, in order to get more insight into the interplay between microbial communities, pathogen dynamics, and substrate availability in different agricultural soils.
The first objective was to study the role of microbial volatile organic compounds in natural disease suppression in agricultural soils. In chapter 2 a series of simultaneous experiments were performed on a agricultural soil that received different management practises. We showed a strong correlation between root infection and -biomass production in a bioassay and the suppressive effects of microbial volatiles on the in vitro growth of the pathogen Pythium intermedium. No or weak volatile suppression coincided with significant lower root biomass and a higher disease index, whereas a strong volatile suppression related to high biomass and a low disease index. Furthermore, the composition of the original soil bacterial community showed a drastic shift due to the legacy effects of management practices, coinciding with the loss of volatile suppression. By comparing the emission profiles and the bacterial community composition of the differently managed soils, candidate inhibitory compounds and volatile producing bacterial groups could be identified. Altogether these results indicate that volatile organic compounds can have an important role in general disease suppression.
To follow up on volatile suppression chapter 3 investigates the influence of soil-related (abiotic and biotic) variables on volatile mediated in vitro growth inhibition of different plant pathogens via an extensive soil survey including 50 Dutch arable agricultural fields. The volatile mediated suppression of three phylogenetic different soil borne pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Pythium intermedium) was linked to a wide range of soil-related variables with univariate and multivariate regression models. The overall suppression of different pathogens was linked to microbial activity and organic substrates. However, different pathogens showed different sensitivity to volatile suppression. Furthermore, the soil-related factors corresponding to volatile mediated suppression were pathogen specific. In total, the results described in this chapter show that part of volatile suppression for a particular pathogen is based on general microbial activity, but our data shows as well that the individual response is pathogen specific.
Chapter 4 explores the reservoir of potential plant pathogens harboring agricultural soils before the start of the growth season, together with the environmental drivers of this pool of pathogens. By investigating the pathogenic seedbank in relation to its environment we assessed which soil-related variables could explain differences among site pathogen community composition. Pathogens differing in phylogeny or mode of infection were related to different soil variables. For example the among-site differences in the presence of oomycetes could not be related to their environmental context. On the other hand the variation in root and shoot fungal pathogen community composition was linked to soil physico-chemical properties and non-pathogen microbial community composition, with potentially a significant role of litter saprophytes therein.
As the presence of pathogen propagules in soil is not necessarily related to disease incidence, chapter 5 investigates the dynamics of root pathogens in the presence of a root in a model rhizosphere. We developed a qPCR based assay to test the growth response of a pathogen (Pythium intermedium) to the presence of root exudates over time. This exposure to root exudates showed soil specific pathogen dynamics. This finding may indicate that in situ (microbial) processes can successfully prevent pathogen development in some of the soils but not in others. Thus this method has the potential to provide an alternative way to assess the susceptibility of a soil to certain soil-borne diseases.
The results of this thesis gave new insights into different aspects of disease suppression in agricultural soils which could serve as a fundament to develop environmentally-friendly control methods based on natural occurring ecological processes. Ideas for the implementation of this study and future research are discussed in chapter 6.
Bodembacterie helpt plant tegen rupsenvraat
Sikkema, A. ; Pangesti, N.P.D. - \ 2015
Wageningen : St. voor Duurzame Ontwikkeling
arabidopsis - bodembacteriën - rizosfeerbacteriën - pseudomonas - gewasbescherming - rupsen - plaagresistentie - biologische bestrijding - landbouwkundig onderzoek - arabidopsis - soil bacteria - rhizosphere bacteria - pseudomonas - plant protection - caterpillars - pest resistance - biological control - agricultural research
Bodembacteriën die in het wortelmilieu van planten leven, verminderen de vatbaarheid van planten voor rupsenvraat. Dat blijkt uit onderzoek van Wageningse entomologen. In de modelplant Arabidopsis konden ze aantonen dat rhizobacteriën de plant in verhoogde staat van paraatheid brengen.
Mycophagous soil bacteria
Rudnick, M.B. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wietse de Boer, co-promotor(en): H. van Veen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572539 - 160
bodembacteriën - bodemflora - bodembiologie - collimonas - bodemschimmels - bodemecologie - soil bacteria - soil flora - soil biology - collimonas - soil fungi - soil ecology
Soil microorganisms evolved several strategies to compete for limited nutrients in soil. Bacteria of the genus Collimonas developed a way to exploit fungi as a source of organic nutrients. This strategy has been termed “mycophagy”. In this thesis, research is presented with a focus on two aspects of bacterial mycophagy: 1) Investigation of strategies and traits that are important for Collimonas bacteria to enable a mycophagous lifestyle, 2) Investigation of occurrence of mycophagy among other soil bacteria.
Focusing on Collimonas bacteria, we find that several traits related to the mycophagous interaction with the fungal hosts, such as production of fungal inhibitors, are phylogenetically conserved. This implies that differentiation in lifestyles of Collimonas strains, is corresponding with phylogenetic distance. Furthermore, we show that collimonads are very motile in a soil-like matrix, especially when being confronted with low nutrient concentrations. This high motility can be used in order to effectively move towards oxalic acid (a metabolite exuded by a range of fungi for different purposes) in a concentration depended manner. Our results suggest that directed motility is an important trait, characterizing the mycophagous lifestyle of collimonads.
In order to screen for other mycophagous bacteria besides collimonads, two baiting approaches (long- and short-term) were developed. With both approaches, we find fungal hyphae to be commonly colonized by specific communities of rhizosphere mycophagous bacteria. Furthermore, mycophagous colonizers show clear feeding preferences for fungal hosts. Interestingly, a surprisingly high amount of mycophagous bacteria belong to genera well known to harbor plant pathogenic strains. Considering the importance of mycophagous bacteria in the rhizosphere, we finally propose the “Sapro-Rhizosphere” concept. This concept states that a substantial amount of plant derived carbon that is channeled through rhizosphere fungi (primary consumers) might be finally consumed by mycophagous bacteria (secondary consumers).
Taken together, by using molecular biological as well as microbiological methods, this thesis further extends our knowledge on the ecology of mycophagous Collimonas bacteria and highlights the importance of mycophagous bacteria in the rhizosphere.
Oligotrophic bacteria and root disease suppression in organically managed soils
Senechkin, I.V. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ariena van Bruggen, co-promotor(en): Leo van Overbeek. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738035 - 141
bodempathogenen - plantenziekteverwekkers - thanatephorus cucumeris - fusarium oxysporum - bodembacteriën - bodembeheer - biologische landbouw - linum usitatissimum - vlas - modellen - bodemweerbaarheid - soilborne pathogens - plant pathogens - thanatephorus cucumeris - fusarium oxysporum - soil bacteria - soil management - organic farming - linum usitatissimum - flax - models - soil suppressiveness
The objective of this thesis was to obtain a better understanding of soil health in terms of microbial and chemical characteristics as well as suppression of soil borne plant pathogens. Organic soils were chosen as an appropriate model for studying soil health. Four different organic amendments were applied on two experimental fields with different crop history, providing a diverse range of soil quality levels. Many soil microbial variables were measured, including copiotrophic and oligotrophic bacterial populations, the abundance and diversity of Eubacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Pseudomonas and fungal communities, as well as several microbial genes involved in nitrogen cycling. Plant disease suppressiveness was used as a quantitative integrative parameter reflecting the health status of soils. Rhizoctonia solani on beet and Fusarium oxysporum on flax were selected as pathosystems; areas under disease progress curves were measured in bioassays with differentially amended field soils and were related to soil parameters. Combined rather than single amendments enhanced Fusarium suppression, but Rhizoctonia suppression was more related to crop history than organic amendments. No universal correlations were found between disease suppression and microbial and chemical parameters, although pH and organic matter affected microbial communities and Fusarium wilt. A significant relation between ammonia oxidizing bacteria and disease suppression was observed for both pathogens; this relation was likely indirect via nitrogen availability and pH. No direct relationship was found between quantities of N cycling genes and disease suppression. A specific emphasis was put on the potential role of oligotrophic bacteria in soil health and disease suppression. Bacteria isolated on low carbon medium (10 mg C/L) were repeatedly transferred onto this medium to select true oligotrophic bacteria. Most isolates could grow on both low carbon and higher carbon (1000 mg C/L) media and belonged to Streptomyces, Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium and Mesorhizobium. A new oligotrophic isolate was identified as Collimonas sp. IS343 and its interaction with R. solani was studied. This strain was better adapted to oligotrophic conditions than a copiotrophic Collimonas reference strain and was more effective in controlling R. solani. This thesis provided a better understanding of some aspects of soil health and emphasized the role of oligotrophic bacteria, a poorly understood but very important group of soil inhabitants.
Weerbaarheid, ook tegen plantenvirussen
Kock, M.J.D. de; Stijger, I. - \ 2013
Vakblad voor de Bloemisterij 68 (2013)10. - ISSN 0042-2223 - p. 30 - 31.
plantenvirussen - plantenziekten - teeltsystemen - diagnostische technieken - bodembacteriën - bodemschimmels - plantengenetica - landbouwkundig onderzoek - vermeerderingsmateriaal - plant viruses - plant diseases - cropping systems - diagnostic techniques - soil bacteria - soil fungi - plant genetics - agricultural research - propagation materials
Virus afbreken, symptomen onderdrukken en infectie voorkomen. Dit zijn de drie strategieën die de weerbaarheid van de plant en het teeltsysteem tegen virussen kunnen verhogen. Soms is het al direct toepasbaar.
Searching for branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether membrane lipid producing bacteria in soil
Aydin, R. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Fons Stams; Hauke Smidt. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733795 - 166
bodembacteriën - bodemmicrobiologie - vertakte vetzuren - acidobacteria - soil bacteria - soil microbiology - branched chain fatty acids - acidobacteria
KEYWORDS:Branched GDGTs, proxy, pH, temperature, Acidobacteria, methylotrophy, high-throughput techniques
Bacteria present in soil and peat bog environments were previously found to produce branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether membrane lipids (GDGTs) that are used as a paleoenvironmental proxy to estimate historic soil temperature and pH. Based on the composition and abundance of branched GDGTs, two indices were previously defined, of which the degree of Cyclisation of Branched Tetraethers (CBT) is related to soil pH and the degree of Methylation of Branched Tetraethers (MBT) is related to both soil pH and mean annual air temperature (MAT) . It was hypothesized that bacteria produce branched GDGTs as a response to changes in pH and temperature. Members of the phylum Acidobacteria were proposed to produce branched GDGTs based on their abundance in peat environments, rich in GDGTs. Recently, it was shown that two representatives from subdivision 1 and 3, Edaphobacter aggregans Wbg-1T and Acidobacteriaceae strain A2-4c, are able to produce these membrane lipids. However, environmental distribution of branched GDGTs is diverse indicating that members of additional subdivisions of Acidobacteria or yet other phyla might also be able to produce branched GDGTs.
TheAcidobacteria constitute a diverse and ubiquitous phylum and its members play an important role especially in terrestrial environments. Information about the Acidobacteria was collected, including their phylogeny and taxonomy, their role in nature, genomic traits and methods applied for their isolation.
Soil is a very dynamic and complex ecosystem and soil organisms are major components of the soil. They are crucial for both soil structure and soil processes. The biological activity in the soil mainly occurs in the topsoil, which contains soil organisms and plant roots. Soil microorganisms including bacteria, archaea and fungi are responsible for nutrient cycling and decomposition of organic residues. Microbial activities are strongly influenced by a range of abiotic and biotic factors and by the interaction between different microorganisms. To get insight into the influence of environmental parameters on the bacterial diversity in relation to production of branched GDGTs, soil samples containing variable amounts of these lipids were taken from different locations, namely from two different hot springs (Surprise Valley, California, USA) and along the watershed of the Têt river (France). Bacterial community composition was characterized by using high-throughput cultivation independent techniques as well as selective cultivation. It was shown that both pH and temperature strongly affected microbial community composition. Data presented in this thesis furthermore suggest that besides Acidobacteria, members of additional phyla might also responsible for the observed production of branched GDGTs. Notably, occurrence and relative abundance of members of the Alpha- and Deltaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were related to the abundance of branched GDGTs. Furthermore, enrichment studies at different pH, temperature and with different substrates suggested that methanol might be a good carbon source to enrich for producers of branched GDGTs. Unfortunately, attempts towards the isolation of branched GDGTs producing bacteria were unsuccessful. However, a novel methylotrophic Azospirillum species, Azospirillum methanolicus, was isolated.In addition to that, novel methylotrophic candidate genera including Acidobacteria subdivision 1 and Pedobacter were identified from initial enrichment studies.
In conclusion, data presented in this thesis showed that temperature and pH have a strong effect on the microbial community composition in all soil studied here. Although branched GDGTs producing bacteria were not isolated, the data described in this thesis may help to design new strategies to isolate and identify target bacteria in the future.
De rol van Collimonas sp. 343 in de onderdrukking van Rhizotonia solani AG2 onder nutriëntenlimitering in de bodem
Overbeek, L.S. van; Senechkin, I.V. ; Er, H.L. ; Vos, O.J. de; Bruggen, A.H.C. van - \ 2012
Gewasbescherming 43 (2012)4. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 128 - 128.
bodempathogenen - thanatephorus cucumeris - bodemweerbaarheid - bodembiologie - bodembacteriën - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - gewasbescherming - soilborne pathogens - thanatephorus cucumeris - soil suppressiveness - soil biology - soil bacteria - scientific research - plant protection
Onder bepaalde omstandigheden, zoals behandelingen met verschillende soorten organische stof, zijn bodems weerbaarder tegen Rhizoctonia solani. De vraag is wat het mechanisme achter deze verhoogde weerbaarheid is en de hypothese van de onderzoekers is dat de levende fractie van de bodem hier voor verantwoordelijk is.
Climate change induced range-expanding plants : aboveground and belowground interactions
Morriën, W.E. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wim van der Putten. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859376 - 144
planten - geïntroduceerde soorten - klimaatverandering - bodemfauna - vrijlevende nematoden - bodembacteriën - rizosfeer - plaagresistentie - ziekteresistentie - herbivoren - interacties - plants - introduced species - climatic change - soil fauna - free living nematodes - soil bacteria - rhizosphere - pest resistance - disease resistance - herbivores - interactions
Burning of fossil fuels has raised the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide, which contributes to global climate warming. As a result the mean earth surface temperature has increased faster in the past decades than in the previous thousands of years before. This rapid climate warming together with habitat fragmentation and other land use changes puts a major pressure on many plants and animals. They should either adapt to the warmer climate conditions or disperse in order to keep up with their optimal climatic conditions. Range expansion brings new interactions within the ecosystem in the new range. This can lead to potential benefits, for example range shifting species that do not encounter natural enemies in the new range might become invasive. Although invasive species are a well-studied phenomenon, there is relatively little known about the general mechanisms of biological invasions under climate change. In this thesis I focus on plant species that expand range due to current climate warming. I examined how these range-expanding plants interact with aboveground herbivorous insects and - mostly - how they establish belowground interactions with components of the soil food web. I examined how these interactions in the new range may play a role in the successful establishment of climate change induced range-expanding plants in plant communities of the new range. The focus of my study was on riverine (riparian) areas along the great rivers in the Netherlands, which are well connected with southern Europe by the Rhine and Rhine-Danube canal.
In the first experiment we examined exotic plant exposure to aboveground and belowground enemies. We used plants that originated from Eurasia (intra-continental range expanders) and plants that originated from other continents (inter-continental range expanders). We compared these exotic plants with phylogenetically related natives. We grew the plants with and without non-coevolved polyphagous (generalist) herbivores, a locust Schistocerca gregaria and an aphid Myzus persicae. We also exposed all plants to a general soil community from the invaded range and compared their plant-soil feedback responses. Then I tested how individual plants responded to aboveground and belowground plant enemies and I compared this to their combined effects. I also tested whether the strength of aboveground control by generalist shoot-feeding insects was indicative of the strength of belowground control by plant-soil feedback.
In the next study I examined how the soil nematode community from the new range responds to exotic plant species compared to related native plants species. As a follow up, I determined the rhizosphere community composition of bacteria, fungi, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and fusaria. All groups of microbes were analyzed qualitatively and the non-mycorrhizal fungal biomass and fusaria were also analyzed quantitatively. I tested the hypothesis that range-expanding plant species have a different rhizosphere microbial community composition than natives.
Finally, I compared the early establishment of range-expanding exotics and phylogenetically related plant species that are native in the invaded habitats. In a greenhouse I grew five range-expanding plant species and five related natives in sterilized and non-sterile inoculated soils from the new range, both alone and with a background community of plant species present in the invaded habitat. In the field, I grew the same plants species in artificially created sparse and dense plant communities. I tested whether range-expanding exotic plant species establish better under competition with native vegetation than phylogenetically related natives, because exotics may benefit from less negative interactions with the soil community compared to natives.
Stimulering van ziektewerend vermogen van de bodem, Thema: Functionele biodiversiteit BO-12.03-004-002
Postma, J. ; Schilder, M.T. ; Scholten, O.E. ; Burger-Meijer, K. - \ 2011
gewasbescherming - plantenziektebestrijding - antagonisten - bodembacteriën - bodemkwaliteit - ziektebestrijdende teeltmaatregelen - rhizoctonia - fusarium oxysporum - bodemweerbaarheid - ziektewerende gronden - plant protection - plant disease control - antagonists - soil bacteria - soil quality - cultural control - rhizoctonia - fusarium oxysporum - soil suppressiveness - suppressive soils
In eerder onderzoek is aangetoond dat de aanwezigheid van antagonistische Lysobacter-soorten correleert met ziektewering tegen Rhizoctonia solani. Daarnaast zijn er aanwijzingen dat mycorrhiza-schimmels de aantasting door Fusarium oxysporum in ui kunnen onderdrukken. Onderzoek naar welke teeltmaatregelen deze ziektewerende micro-organismen zodanig kunnen stimuleren dat een hogere bodemweerbaarheid ontstaat tegen deze plantenziektes.
Organisch stof en bodemweerbaarheid
Os, G.J. van; Bent, J. van der - \ 2010
bodemfauna - bodembacteriën - bodemschimmels - organische stof - gewasbescherming - bodemweerbaarheid - soil fauna - soil bacteria - soil fungi - organic matter - plant protection - soil suppressiveness
Bacteriën en schimmels in de grond kunnen ziekten en plagen onderdrukken, zgn. bodemweerbaarheid of ziektewering. Organische stof is voedsel voor dit bodemleven. Vraag van het samengevatte onderzoek was of een hoger organische stof gehalte leidt tot een beter bodemleven en betere bodemweerbaarheid.
Resistentie in de bodem. Deelrapport project Antibiotica in de bodem
Schmitt, H. ; Lahr, J. ; Bhumibhamon, G. - \ 2009
Gouda : Stiching Kennisontwikkeling en kennisoverdracht Bodem (SKB) (Projectnr: PP8348 ) - 20
dierlijke meststoffen - bodemverontreiniging - antibiotica - bodembacteriën - antibioticaresistentie - monitoring - animal manures - soil pollution - antibiotics - soil bacteria - antibiotic resistance - monitoring
Terwijl antibioticum-resistentie in ziekenhuizen en landbouwhuisdieren relatief goed onderzocht is, is veel minder bekend over het optreden van resistentie in het milieu. Een mogelijk belangrijke bron van resistentie in het milieu is het uitrijden van mest van intensief gehouden landbouwhuisdieren op landbouwgronden. In deze studie werd een pilot-onderzoek verricht naar de rol van bemesting met varkensdrijfmest voor resistentie in zandige landbouwgronden. Er werd gekozen voor een veld-benadering, waarbij drie bedrijven tijdens de periode van bemesting regelmatig werden bemonstert (vlak voor, en een dag, een week en vier weken na de bemesting). Op elk bedrijf werd in de nabijheid van de veldlocatie ook een referentielocatie gekozen, om de lange termijn effecten van bemesting te kunnen vergelijken met een soortgelijke, maar niet bemestte grond.
Moleculaire en biochemische analyse van antagonistische bacteriën betrokken bij bodemgebonden ziektewering tegen Rhizoctonia solani
Kruijt, M. ; Pangesti, N. ; Wagemakers, L. ; Raaijmakers, J. - \ 2008
Gewasbescherming 39 (2008)supplement. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 35S - 36S.
gewasbescherming - thanatephorus cucumeris - plantenziektebestrijding - ziektebestrijdende teeltmaatregelen - bodembacteriën - schimmelantagonisten - biopesticiden - bodemkwaliteit - plant protection - thanatephorus cucumeris - plant disease control - cultural control - soil bacteria - fungal antagonists - microbial pesticides - soil quality
Streptomyceten-diversiteit in grond met behulp van DGGE
Schilder, M.T. ; Postma, J. - \ 2008
Gewasbescherming 39 (2008)1. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 28 - 28.
streptomyces - diversiteit - thanatephorus cucumeris - grondanalyse - onderzoek - bodembacteriën - afbraak (plantenziektekundig) - organische stof - bodempathogenen - bodemweerbaarheid - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - streptomyces - diversity - thanatephorus cucumeris - soil analysis - research - soil bacteria - breakdown - organic matter - soilborne pathogens - soil suppressiveness - scientific research
Streptomyceten vormen een belangrijke groep bacteriën in de bodem. Ze spelen een grote rol bij de afbraak van organische stof. Bovendien is aangetoond dat ze correleren met ziektewering van verschillende bodempathogenen
Gebruik de competentie van de bodem voor ziekte- en plaagonderdrukking
Cuijpers, W.J.M. ; Postma, J. ; Bezemer, T.M. ; Bloem, J. ; Paternotte, S.J. ; Messelink, G.J. ; Wurff, A.W.G. van der - \ 2008
Gewasbescherming 39 (2008)Suppl.. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 35 - 35.
bodembacteriën - geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - fusarium - biopesticiden - schimmelantagonisten - bodembeheer - bodemkwaliteit - soil bacteria - integrated pest management - fusarium - microbial pesticides - fungal antagonists - soil management - soil quality
Kings without crowns: Analysis of abundance bacilli in different soil ecosystems
Tzeneva, V.A. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Willem de Vos, co-promotor(en): Hauke Smidt; A.D.L. Akkermans. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789090209890 - 187
ecosystemen - bacillus - bodembacteriën - biodiversiteit - old fields - terrestrische ecosystemen - genexpressieanalyse - ecosystems - bacillus - soil bacteria - biodiversity - old fields - terrestrial ecosystems - genomics
This study describes culture-dependent as well as culture-independent strategies to monitor diversity and abundance of Bacillus benzoevorans-related soil bacteria. These bacteria are wide spread around the world, inhabiting a variety of terrestrial environments. A distinguishing feature of the family Bacillaceae is their ability to form endospores. This capacity makes the genus Bacillus amenable to retrospective and biogeographical studies, as their endospores provide the means for survival under environmental conditions of stress, allowing their detection later on. For the rapid detection of B. benzoevorans-re\aiea populations in soil samples selective cultivation media and group-specific primers and probes were developed. Using these techniques the global distribution of this group was demonstrated and indicated their adaptive capacity to diverse soil ecosystems. A unique soil sample archive provided insight in the microbiological impact of land reclamation and flooding. Using multivariate statistical approaches were used to assess the microbial community dynamics over time and in response to the changing environmental conditions.
Found in a variety of soil ecosystems, microorganisms related to B. benzoevorans seem to be able to populate a broad range of niches, which indicates a high degree of metabolic versatility and strong adaptive capability. Moreover, they account for a significant part of the total bacterial community (up to 30 %). Based on our exploratory study the importance of their role is just indicated, but not acknowledged yet. Therefore, it is proposed to regard B. benzoevorans relatives as 'kings without crowns'; as this group of bacteria deserves more scientific attention in future studies aiming to unravel their eco-physiology and functionality as major players of the soil microbiota.
Verhoging van de intrinsieke plantweerstand met behulp van bodembacteriën
Stevens, L.H. ; Goossen-van de Geijn, H.M. ; Köhl, J. ; Stoopen, G.M. ; Krieken, W.M. van der - \ 2005
bodembacteriën - verdedigingsmechanismen - ziekteresistentie - azospirillum brasilense - bacillus subtilis - plantenontwikkeling - soil bacteria - defence mechanisms - disease resistance - azospirillum brasilense - bacillus subtilis - plant development
Diverse bodembacteriën kunnen de plantenontwikkeling bevorderen en de plant weerbaarder maken tegen suboptimale condities. Onderzocht werden hoe preparaten van azospirillum brasilense en bacillus subtilis gebruikt kunnen worden tegen abiotische en biotische stress