Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    On the role of soil organic matter for crop production in European arable farming
    Hijbeek, Renske - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M.K. van Ittersum, co-promotor(en): H.F.M. ten Berge. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436632 - 211
    soil fertility - soil fertility management - soil management - soil conservation - organic matter - soil organic matter - nitrogen - nitrogen fertilizers - green manures - manures - straw - soil carbon sequestration - cover crops - crop yield - yields - meta-analysis - food security - europe - drivers - barriers - bodemvruchtbaarheid - bodemvruchtbaarheidsbeheer - bodembeheer - bodembescherming - organische stof - organisch bodemmateriaal - stikstof - stikstofmeststoffen - groenbemesters - mest - stro - koolstofvastlegging in de bodem - dekgewassen - gewasopbrengst - opbrengsten - meta-analyse - voedselzekerheid - europa - chauffeurs - barrières

    The aim of this thesis was to improve understanding of the role of organic inputs and soil organic matter (SOM) for crop production in contemporary arable farming in Europe. For this purpose, long-term experiments were analysed on the additional yield effect of organic inputs and savings in mineral fertiliser. In addition, a farm survey was conducted to find drivers and barriers for the use of organic inputs and to assess if arable farmers in Europe perceive a deficiency of SOM.

    The findings in this thesis suggest that at least on the shorter term, on average, there seems to be no immediate threat from a deficiency of SOM to crop production in arable farming in Europe. The long-term experiments showed that with sufficient use of only mineral fertilisers, on average, similar yields could be attained over multiple years as with the combined use of organic inputs and mineral fertiliser. This was reflected in the farm survey, in which a large majority of farmers indicated not to perceive a deficiency of SOM. Analysis of long-term experiments also showed that more mineral fertiliser N was saved when using farmyard manure at high N rates (with mineral fertiliser application) than at low N rates (without mineral fertiliser application), based on comparisons at equal yield.

    Specific crops and environments did benefit from organic inputs and more SOM in terms of crop production. Long-term experiments showed that organic inputs give benefit to crop production in wet climates and on sandy soils. In addition, farmers perceived a higher deficiency of SOM on steep slopes, sandy soils, wet and very dry climates. The additional yield effect of organic inputs was significant for potatoes. More in general, farmers who cultivated larger shares of their land with specialized crops (including potatoes, sugar beets, onions and other vegetables) than cereals perceived a higher deficiency of SOM. It seems that while the functions of SOM can be replaced with technical means to a large extent (e.g. tillage, use of mineral fertilisers), there are limits to this technical potential when environmental conditions are more extreme and crops are more demanding.

    The farm survey revealed that farmers perceive a trade-off between improved soil quality on the one hand and increased pressures from weeds, pests and diseases and financial consequences on the other hand when using organic inputs. If policies aim to stimulate the maintenance or increase of SOM, more insight is needed into the conditions that regulate the pressures of weeds, pests and diseases in response to organic inputs. Financial consequences (at least on the short term) should also be accounted for. More importantly however, benefits from SOM for crop production cannot be taken for granted. Only in specific situations such benefits will exist. If European policies on SOM aim to include benefits for crop production, focus should be on areas with more extreme environmental conditions (very dry or wet climates, steep slopes, sandy soils), or cropping systems with more specialized or horticultural crops rather than cereals.

    Sustaining reservoir use through sediment trapping in NW Ethiopia
    Getahun, Mulatie Mekonnen - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Saskia Keesstra; Jantiene Baartman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579101 - 132
    sediment - soil conservation - reservoirs - dams - models - ethiopia - sediment - bodembescherming - reservoirs - dammen - modellen - ethiopië

    To increase crop production and improve food self-sufficiency, rain-fed agriculture need to be supplemented with irrigated agriculture. To this end, a large number of reservoirs had been constructed in Ethiopia. However, reservoirs are suffering from sedimentation. This study was conducted in Minizr catchment, NW Ethiopia to (1) quantify the sediment entering Koga reservoir, (2) to assess the functioning and effectiveness of the existing man-made sediment trapping (ST) measures and natural sediment sinks, and (3) to design a possible solution to tackle the problem. Results of three years (2013-2015) field data show that 38% of the transported sediment was trapped within the Minizr catchment. Although considerable efforts were made to trap the sediment within the catchment through implementing various ST measures, lack of an integrated ST approach causes the remaining 62% of the sediment load still entering Koga reservoir.

    PMR Monitoring natuurcompensatie Voordelta : ontwikkeling vis in de Voordelta na instelling bodembeschermingsgebied ter compensatie van de aanleg Tweede Maasvlakte
    Tulp, Ingrid ; Tien, Nicola ; Damme, Cindy van - \ 2016
    IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research rapport C089/16) - 148
    vissen - monitoring - natuurcompensatie - natuurbeheer - marien milieu - bodembescherming - fishes - nature compensation - nature management - marine environment - soil conservation
    In deze rapportage worden de bevindingen gepresenteerd van de bemonsteringen vanaf de T0 (2005-2007) tot na de instelling van het Bodembeschermingsgebied (2009-nu), voor zover mogelijk tot en met de resultaten van voorjaar 2013.
    Regenerating degraded soils and increasing water use efficiency on vegetable farms in Uruguay through ecological intensification
    Alliaume, F. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pablo Tittonell, co-promotor(en): Walter Rossing; Santiago Dogliotti. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578487 - 163
    tillage - minimum tillage - mulches - vegetable growing - water use efficiency - degraded land - soil conservation - modeling - soil management - grondbewerking - minimale grondbewerking - mulches - groenteteelt - watergebruiksrendement - gedegradeerd land - bodembescherming - modelleren - bodembeheer

    This thesis investigated alternative soil management strategies for vegetable crop systems and their hypothesized effects on increasing systems resilience by sequestering soil carbon, increasing the efficiency of water use, and reducing erosion. The goal was to contribute knowledge on and tools for the integrated assessment of soil management strategies for the ecological intensification and small-scale production systems sustainability in South Uruguay.

    We performed a baseline assessment of key soil properties on cropped fields, and evaluated the impact of implementing different soil management strategies after re-design of systems in a co-innovation project. We showed evidence that even under smallholder conditions, it was possible to reverse the soil degradation. However, it was not possible to reduce erosion in cases that a pasture could not be included in the rotation. We evaluated reduced tillage and cover crop management in an experiment. In-situ grown mulching increased water capture by 9.5% and reduced runoff by 37% on average, leading to less erosion risk and greater plant available water. We also collected enough data to develop a simple, generally applicable, locally parameterizable mathematical model that accounts for the effect of soil cover on soil water dynamics. Exploration with 10 years of weather data showed that reduced tillage and mulching (RTmulch) would decrease water requirements for irrigation by 37% on average.

    Finally, we scaled up the results to study the impact of RTmulch on two small horticultural family farms with different resource availabilities. By combining process-based simulation models with empirical data and expert knowledge, we quantified inputs and outputs of production activities. Adoption of RTmulch was associated with improvements of the economic and/or environmental performances. It was possible to design production activities with erosion rates below the tolerable level without sacrificing the family income too much. Average water savings of 775 m3 ha-1 yr-1 (fully irrigated rotations) to 452 (irrigating only the most profitable vegetable crops) were obtained under RTmulch compared with conventional tillage.

    Reduced tillage and mulching have potential for increasing water infiltration, reducing runoff and erosion, and achieving greater efficiency of water use for vegetable crops grown in raised bed systems. These aspects are especially relevant under conditions of high rainfall variability, limited access to irrigation and high soil erosion risk. For future research, we suggest combining long-term experiments with on- farm research to capture the benefits of improving soil quality on soil productivity, while adjusting the technology to solve limitations that arise in the process. This study provides ground for testing the proposed changes on pilot farms, using a co-innovation approach combining scientific insights with farmers’ knowledge of their farms.

    Het ecologisch belang van het Friese Front
    Lindeboom, H.J. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Witbaard, R. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Kraan, M.L. - \ 2015
    Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C137/15A) - 24
    bodembescherming - mariene gebieden - overheidsbeleid - natuurbescherming - noordzee - nederland - soil conservation - marine areas - government policy - nature conservation - north sea - netherlands
    Bodembescherming bij doorgangsdepots voor baggerspecie : Verwaarloosbaar bodemrisico met een geochemische barrière
    Zoest, R. van; Harmsen, J. ; Groenenberg, B.J. ; Rietra, R.P.J.J. - \ 2015
    Bodem 2015 (2015)4. - ISSN 0925-1650 - p. 15 - 17.
    baggerspeciedepots - bagger - bodembescherming - landgebruik - risicoanalyse - geochemie - polychloorbifenylen - spoil banks - dredgings - soil conservation - land use - risk analysis - geochemistry - polychlorinated biphenyls
    Bij het ontwateren en rijpen van nuttig toepasbare baggerspecie wordt veelvuldig gebruikt gemaakt van doorgangsdepots. Op initiatief van de waterschappen is een alternatief ontwikkeld voor de bodembescherming met behulp van een folie. Met een minerale bodembeschermingslaag kan eveneens een verwaarloosbaar bodemrisico bereikt worden. Een generieke regeling bleek vooralsnog niet haalbaar.
    Flyshoot visserij in relatie met de instelling van bodem beschermende maatregelen voor het Friese Front en de Centrale Oestergronden
    Rijnsdorp, A.D. - \ 2015
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C065/15) - 23
    visserij - bodemecologie - onderwatergronden - vissersschepen - vismethoden - vistuig - waterbodems - mariene gebieden - nadelige gevolgen - noordzee - bodembescherming - milieueffect - fisheries - soil ecology - subaqueous soils - fishing vessels - fishing methods - fishing gear - water bottoms - marine areas - adverse effects - north sea - soil conservation - environmental impact
    Dit rapport geeft een samenvatting van de ‘state of the art’ kennis met betrekking tot de impact van bodemberoerende vistuigen en bespreekt de te verwachte effecten van de flyshoot methode in vergelijking met de andere vismethoden.
    Land management in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia: adoption and impact
    Akalu Teshome Firew, ; Firew, A.T. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Jan de Graaff. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571563 - 148
    grondbeheer - landdegradatie - hooglanden - waterbescherming - bodembescherming - ethiopië - land management - land degradation - highlands - water conservation - soil conservation - ethiopia


    Over the last four decades, the government of Ethiopia and various a consortium of donors have been promoting different land management (LM) practices in the highlands of Ethiopia to halt land degradation. However, the adoption rate of these practices has been low. This is because investments in LM practices are influenced by various institutional, socio-economic and bio-physical factors. The main objective of this research is to investigate the impact of these different factors on investments in LM in the north-western Ethiopian highlands. It focuses on the drivers of the different stages of adoption, on profitability of LM practices, and on land quality, land fragmentation, tenure arrangements and social capital.

    We examined the drivers of the different stages of adoption of soil and water conservation (SWC) practices using an ordered probit model. The results indicate that adoption of soil and water conservation (SWC) passes through four major phases: non-adoption/dis-adoption, initial adoption, actual adoption and final adoption. Some socio-economic and institutional factors have a different effect on the respective SWC adoption phases. Final adoption depends mostly on profitability, land-related factors, social capital and perception of erosion problems.

    We also investigated the effectiveness and profitability of three SWC practices (stone bunds, soil bunds and Fanya juu bunds) using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). The results show that SWC practices are effective in controlling soil erosion, though the profitability of these SWC methods is dependent on the site where they are used. Fanya juu and stone bunds are generally profitable under standard conditions (e.g. medium slope and average soil quality and labour costs). However, the study also shows that different underlying assumptions change the CBA results considerably and consequently also change the conclusions regarding circumstances under which SWC measures are or are not profitable.

    Besides, we assessed farmers’ perceptions about land quality, land fragmentation and tenure systems and their influence on interrelated LM (Bunds, Compost/Manure and Fertilizer) investments using a multivariate probit (MPV) model. The study shows that investments in LM practices are interdependent. For example, compost/manure and fertiliser substitute each other to a certain extent (often not used together, or used interchangeably by farmers) in the farming system of the study areas. Land quality (e.g. slope and soil fertility status), land fragmentation (parcel size and distance of parcel from homestead) and tenure arrangements influence farmers’ investments in LM practices.

    In addition, the relationship between the different dimensions of social capital and investments in LM practices was explored. The results show that the different dimensions of social capital affect LM practices differently. In particular, the cooperation and trust dimensions of social capital are associated with the intensity of investment in SWC bunds and fertiliser use. The extent of participation in formal institutions has a positive effect on the use of fertiliser and compost.

    Furthermore, we evaluated different SWC practices using Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) to assess their ecological, economic and social impacts. The study reveals that MCA is an effective evaluation tool that can take into account non- monetary and less quantifiable effects of SWC measures, which is not possible with Cost Benefit Analysis. The results of the analysis indicate that farmers have a range of criteria to evaluate the performance of SWC measures. The relative importance of each criterion in the selection of SWC alternatives depends to a large extent on slope categories.

    For enhancing the adoption and impacts of land management, there is a need to increase knowledge about location specific viable LM practices, to promote collective action at watershed level, to pay more attention to farmers’ preferences and to improve the capacity and capability of farmers.

    Meerjarige effect- en productiemetingen aan MZI's in de Westelijke Waddenzee, Oosterschelde en Voordelta: samenvattend eindrapport
    Kamermans, P. ; Smit, C.J. ; Wijsman, J.W.M. ; Smaal, A.C. - \ 2014
    Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C191/13) - 93
    mossels - schaal- en schelpdierenvisserij - natura 2000 - bodembescherming - waddenzee - oosterschelde - voordelta - mussels - shellfish fisheries - soil conservation - wadden sea - eastern scheldt
    In het kader van het duurzaam beheer van de Nederlandse kustwateren is besloten tot de transitie van bodemberoerende mosselvisserij naar het gebruik van mosselzaadinvanginstallaties (MZI’s). Deze omschakeling was nodig omdat deze economische activiteit plaatsvindt in de Natura-2000 gebieden Waddenzee, Oosterschelde en Voordelta. Het hier gepresenteerde onderzoek richt zich op het wegnemen van onzekerheden en kennislacunes die gepaard gaan met de reeds uitgevoerde plaatsing en de opschaling van zaadinvang met MZI-systemen.
    Aanzet voor een adviessysteem voor oogst uit het bos : voor een evenwichtige nutriëntenbalans en een goede functievervulling van het bos
    Jong, J.J. de; Briel, J. van den; Vries, W. de; Spijker, J.H. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2494) - 52
    bosexploitatie - bodembescherming - bodemchemie - houtkap - voedingsstoffen - biomassa - habitats - natuurbeheer - biobased economy - forest exploitation - soil conservation - soil chemistry - logging - nutrients - biomass - nature management
    In Nederland zijn afspraken gemaakt om meer biomassa uit het bos te oogsten. Hierdoor kan de beschikbaarheid van voedingsstoffen afnemen. Dit rapport geeft een overzicht over de in andere landen bestaande systemen om uitputting van bosbodems tegen te gaan. Verder wordt een analyse gemaakt van de beschikbaarheid van gegevens om nutriëntenbalansen voor het Nederlandse bos op te stellen en worden eerste indicaties van de balanstermen en voorraden voedingsstoffen gegeven. Afsluitend wordt een aanzet gegeven voor een adviessysteem dat geschikt is voor praktisch gebruik door terreinbeheerders om eraan bij te dragen dat oogst van biomassa uit het bos kan plaatsvinden zonder dat dit tot ongewenste uitputting van nutriënten in de bodem leidt.
    Bodemkwaliteit Veenkoloniën
    Haan, J.J. de; Asperen, P. van; Visser, J.H.M. ; Wijnholds, K.H. - \ 2013
    Lelystad : PPO AGV
    bodembescherming - bodembeheer - minimale grondbewerking - bodemvruchtbaarheid - organische stof - akkerbouw - veenkolonien - soil conservation - soil management - minimum tillage - soil fertility - organic matter - arable farming
    Poster met onderzoeksinformatie. Doel van het project is het ontwikkelen van praktisch toepasbare maatregelen voor een duurzaam bodembeheer in de Veenkoloniën.
    Natuurcompensatie op hoop van zegen (interview met Ingrid Tulp)
    Wilt, H. de; Tulp, I.Y.M. - \ 2013
    Visionair : het vakblad van sportvisserij Nederland 8 (2013)29. - ISSN 1569-7533 - p. 19 - 23.
    havens - ontwerp - grondverzet - natuurcompensatie - bodemfauna - bodembescherming - monitoring - noordzee - harbours - design - earth moving - nature compensation - soil fauna - soil conservation - north sea
    Met het zand van de tweede Maasvlakte kun je de Amsterdam Arena ruim 223 keer vullen. Het illustreert wat er voor de Zuid-Hollandse kust in zee is veranderd. Om het verlies aan zeebodem te compenseren, is een deel van de Voordelta aangewezen als bodembeschermingsgebied. IMARES onderzoekt of dit werkt voor de bodemfauna.
    Onzekerheid en gevoeligheid van het CUMULEO-RAM model
    Vries, P. de - \ 2013
    Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C136/13) - 23
    noordzee - marien milieu - mariene gebieden - mariene ecologie - benthos - bodembescherming - north sea - marine environment - marine areas - marine ecology - soil conservation
    Slijkerman et al. (2013) onderzocht eerder welke instrumenten ingezet kunnen worden om een oordeel te vellen over effecten van ruimtelijke beschermingsmaatregelen op de zeebodemintegriteit van het Friese Front. Een van de onderzochte instrumenten is het CUMULEO-RAM model. Deze studie is bedoeld om een beter inzicht te krijgen in de gevoeligheid van verschillende typen bodemorganismen voor effecten van menselijk handelen.
    Zeebodemintegriteit en visserij op het Friese Front en de Centrale Oestergronden: Beschikbare kennis en 1e uitwerkingen
    Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Bos, O.G. ; Wal, J.T. van der; Tamis, J.E. ; Vries, P. de - \ 2013
    Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C078/13) - 100
    marien milieu - mariene gebieden - mariene ecologie - benthos - bodembescherming - ecosystemen - noordzee - marine environment - marine areas - marine ecology - soil conservation - ecosystems - north sea
    De implementatie van de Europese Kaderrichtlijn Mariene strategie (KRM) is in Nederland in volle gang. Onderdeel van de implementatie is het definieren van ruimtelijke beschermingsmaatregelen. Hierbij worden in de Mariene Strategie als randvoorwaarden meegegeven de ambitie om 10 tot 15 procent van het Nederlandse deel van de Noordzee (NCP) te vrijwaren van bodemberoering; en het tot een minimu beperken van de last voor de visserijsector.
    Geen kans voor nieuwe generatie frambozenschorsgalmug : afdekken van bodem effectief
    Helsen, H.H.M. ; Klaassen, W.I.J. - \ 2012
    De Fruitteelt 102 (2012)35. - ISSN 0016-2302 - p. 8 - 9.
    kleinfruit uit de gematigde streken - frambozen - insectenplagen - cecidomyiidae - bestrijdingsmethoden - bodembescherming - afdekken - proeven - temperate small fruits - raspberries - insect pests - control methods - soil conservation - casing - trials
    De frambozenschorsgalmug is een moeilijk te bestrijden plaag in de frambozenteelt. Op de open dag van het Kennis en Innovatie Centrum Kleinfruit (KICK) in Randwijk werden de nieuwste resultaten uit het onderzoek gepresenteerd. Afdekken van de bodem blijkt het verschijnen van een nieuwe generatie muggen te kunnen voorkomen.
    A process for effective desertification mitigation
    Schwilch, G. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder; H. Hurni, co-promotor(en): Jan de Graaff. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732880 - 178
    woestijnvorming - grondbeheer - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - besluitvorming - participatie - stakeholders - bodembescherming - milieueffect - mitigatie - desertification - land management - sustainability - decision making - participation - stakeholders - soil conservation - environmental impact - mitigation

    in these ecosystems can easily result in widespread and severe land degradation and thus desertification.
    Combined with global issues such as climate change, economic disparities, migration, and competing claims
    on land, this often leads to a vicious cycle of aridity, land degradation, and productivity loss. In addition to
    the harsh environmental conditions limiting land productivity, the socio-economic situation in drylands can
    pose challenges as well, given that these regions are often characterised by remoteness, marginality, lowproductivity
    farming, weak institutions, and even conflict. Managing land sustainably under such conditions
    is a challenge which concerns land users and other stakeholders, policymakers, and researchers alike.
    Desertification research has traditionally focused on degradation assessments, whereas prevention and
    mitigation strategies have not sufficiently been emphasised, although the concept of sustainable land
    management (SLM) is increasingly being acknowledged (Chapter 1).
    The present research was embedded in the EU FP6 research project DESIRE (Desertification
    Mitigation and Remediation of Land – a Global Approach for Local Solutions; 2007–2012). DESIRE aimed to
    establish promising alternative land use and management strategies in 17 areas affected by land
    degradation and desertification around the world. Project work was based on close collaboration of
    scientists with local stakeholder groups. The study sites served as a global laboratory for developing and
    applying new methods of science – stakeholder collaboration and trialling traditional and innovative
    approaches to combating desertification.
    Chapter 2 offers a compilation and review of a number of methodological approaches to monitoring
    and assessing SLM which to date have been little reported in the literature. Lessons are drawn from these
    experiences, and common elements and future pathways are identified as a basis for a global approach.
    The local-level methods of the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT)
    framework serve to catalogue SLM technologies and approaches as case studies. This tool was included in
    the local-level Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA) as well as in the DESIRE project.
    Complementary site-based approaches can enhance an ecological process-based understanding of SLM
    variation. At national and sub-national levels, a joint WOCAT/LADA/DESIRE spatial assessment based on
    land use systems can be used to identify the status and trends of degradation and SLM, including causes,
    drivers, and impacts on ecosystem services. Expert consultation is combined with scientific evidence and,
    where necessary, enhanced with secondary data and indicator databases. Key lessons learnt include the
    need for a multi-scale approach, for using common indicators, and for drawing on a variety of information
    sources, including scientific data and local knowledge, by means of participatory methods. Methodological
    consistency allows for cross-scale analyses, and findings can be analysed and documented for use by
    decision-makers at various levels. Effective monitoring and assessment of SLM (e.g. for the United Nations
    Convention to Combat Desertification, UNCCD) requires a comprehensive methodological framework
    agreed upon and adopted by the major players.
    Although a variety of conservation measures are already applied at the local level, they are not
    adequately recognised, evaluated, and shared by land users, technicians, researchers, and policymakers.
    Likewise, collaboration between researchers and implementers is often insufficient. Chapter 3 presents a
    new methodological framework for a participatory process of appraising and selecting desertification
    mitigation strategies, and outlines first experiences from its application in the DESIRE project. The
    methodology – a key product developed within this PhD study – combines a collective learning and
    decision-making approach with the use of evaluated global best practices. It moves through a concise
    process in three parts, starting out with the identification of land degradation and locally applied solutions
    in a stakeholder workshop, followed by an assessment of local solutions using a standardised evaluation
    tool, and ending with the joint selection of promising strategies for implementation with the help of a
    decision support tool. A preliminary analysis of the application of the first part of the methodology showed
    that the initial stakeholder workshop resulted in a good basis for stakeholder cooperation and yielded
    promising land conservation practices for further assessment. Study site research teams appreciated the
    results, which they considered particularly valuable because urgent issues and promising options had
    emerged from joint reflection. The methodology was found to be suitable for initiating mutual learning
    among different stakeholder groups, as well as for integrating local and scientific knowledge.
    The thus identified SLM practices were then documented and evaluated by local researchers in
    collaboration with land users and using the internationally recognised and standardised WOCAT
    questionnaires. These in-depth assessments of 30 technologies and 8 approaches are analysed and
    compared across the DESIRE study sites in Chapter 4, highlighting key issues of SLM in drylands. Careful
    attention is paid to features which specifically characterise SLM in drylands and make SLM practices
    especially useful regarding the identified threats. Among the achievements attributed to the documented
    technologies, those mentioned most were diversified and enhanced production, as well as better
    management of water and soil degradation, whether by means of water harvesting, by improving soil
    moisture, or by reducing runoff. Demonstrating a favourable local-scale cost–benefit relationship was
    found to be crucial to improving people’s livelihoods and preventing further outmigration. However, it was
    also found that more research is needed to support the case study authors’ assessments of SLM impacts as
    well as to provide a solid rationale for investments in SLM.
    There are many and often competing options for SLM, and each must be assessed – and sometimes
    negotiated – prior to implementation. This makes SLM a classic multi-stakeholder issue which concerns
    individual and community land users, agricultural advisors, natural resource managers, government
    authorities, civil society, and researchers alike. Selecting appropriate SLM technologies for implementation
    thus requires an approach that is capable of integrating the diverse knowledge, perceptions, and
    judgements of the different stakeholders involved. Time and resource constraints often impede the
    development of contextualised, targeted, and sophisticated decision support systems. The DESIRE research
    project provided an excellent opportunity to develop and test a generic decision support methodology,
    using it to assist the study site teams in selecting, together with stakeholders in a stakeholder workshop,
    the most promising SLM option(s) for subsequent test implementation in the field (Chapter 5). Special
    attention was paid to the screening of local innovations, the selection and adaptation of potential SLM
    technologies, and the decision-making process determining which options are to be implemented. Chapter
    5 reviews the application of the DESIRE decision support methodology in a variety of biophysical and socioeconomic
    contexts, finding it to be well-structured, comprehensive, and relatively easy to apply. The builtin
    global database of SLM options provided knowledge from various environments, while the use of simple
    software allowed for easy calculation and visualisation of results. The scoring and negotiation of each
    option’s sustainability forced stakeholders to consider and acknowledge each other’s positions and
    opinions, ensuring that the final choice was well-accepted. The methodology included seeking
    commitments from stakeholders to implement the selected option(s). Challenges included the complexity
    of the issues at hand and the need for skilled moderators. Nonetheless, positive outcomes and user
    feedback confirmed that the DESIRE decision support methodology is an easy-to-use stepwise methodology
    for facilitating decision-focused participatory processes.
    Participatory and multi-stakeholder approaches are increasingly motivated by social learning and
    empowerment goals. Yet there remains a lack of practical tools for facilitating such processes. The research
    presented here aimed to close the gap between the theory and the practice of stakeholder participation
    and learning in decision-making processes concerned with SLM. Chapter 6 analyses and describes how the
    3-part participatory methodology for selecting SLM options contributed to multi-stakeholder learning.
    Cross-site analysis and in-depth evaluation of the Moroccan and Portuguese sites were used to evaluate
    how well the proposed process facilitated stakeholder learning and the selection of appropriate SLM
    options for local implementation. The structured nature of the process – starting with the joint setting of
    SLM goals – was found to facilitate mutual understanding and collaboration between stakeholders. The
    deliberation process led to a high degree of consensus over the outcome and, although this had not been
    an initial aim, in many cases also fostered social learning. This solution-oriented methodology is applicable
    in a wide range of contexts and can be implemented with limited time and resources.
    Chapter 7 presents insights into the field implementation of one of the selected SLM measures in
    Sehoul, Morocco. The Moroccan DESIRE study site was located near the city of Rabat, in an area where
    desertification poses a threat to marginal and often stony and degraded slopes. The use of marginal and
    stony land by the local population had become necessary due to increased poverty and the occupation of
    the best stretches of land by new owners. The land use change from grazing to cropping caused a
    deterioration of the field water balance, characterised by increased water loss through runoff, drainage,
    and evaporation, and resulting in less primary production. Promising experiences with no-tillage practices
    elsewhere in Morocco had motivated the Moroccan government to promote Conservation Agriculture
    throughout the country. This combination of crop rotation, minimal soil disturbance, and soil cover
    maintenance, however, had not yet been tested on sloping degraded land. The field trial results showed
    that covering the soil with crop residues neither improved yields nor increased rainwater use efficiency,
    although soil water was generally enhanced. Soil moisture measurements revealed that no-tillage was
    favourable mainly at soil depths of 5 cm and in connection with low-rainfall events (< 20 mm); under these
    circumstances, moisture content was generally higher under no-tillage than under conventional tillage.
    Moreover, farmers in Sehoul were found to be primarily interested in animal husbandry, and both crop
    residues and grains were used as feed. Chapter 7 concludes with lessons learnt from the on-farm trials in
    The synthesis (Chapter 8) offers more detailed reflection on certain key aspects of the research
    findings, such as the 3-part methodology, monitoring and assessment, stakeholder collaboration and
    learning, decision support, and desertification mitigation by means of SLM technologies and approaches.
    This is followed by a review of challenges and limitations of the proposed methodological framework and
    an assessment of its overall impact. The chapter concludes with an outlook and recommendations. One
    major conclusion is that research needs to move beyond simply idealising and promoting participatory
    approaches and learning processes: in addition, researchers must also advocate the provision of time and
    resources and the establishment of long-term partnerships by both scientific and policymaking bodies. Indepth
    and long-term field-based research remains important, but it requires sufficient resources and longterm
    commitment in order to provide adequate evidence. The methodology developed within this thesis is
    not limited to desertification; it is appropriate and useful for tackling land degradation anywhere in the
    world and for advancing towards more sustainable decisions on SLM strategies with a higher acceptance
    among stakeholders. Negotiation of, and deliberation over, ecosystem services might be the key to
    boosting SLM beyond the local scale, while at the same time compensating land users for their crucial
    efforts to combat desertification.

    PMR Monitoring natuurcompensatie Voordelta. Perceel Vis: Jaarrapport 2011
    Damme, C.J.G. van; Tulp, I.Y.M. ; Teal, L.R. ; Tien, N.S.H. - \ 2012
    IMARES : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C031.12) - 86
    natuurcompensatie - mariene gebieden - benthos - natura 2000 - noordzee - visbestand - foerageren - vogels - bodembescherming - rijnmondgebied - voordelta - nature compensation - marine areas - north sea - fishery resources - foraging - birds - soil conservation
    In juni 2008 is in de Voordelta een Bodembeschermingsgebied ingesteld als compensatie voor de aanleg van de Tweede Maasvlakte. Naar verwachting zal de instelling van dit gebied leiden tot een toename van het benthos ter plaatse. De doelstelling van het onderzoek is vast te stellen welke veranderingen er in de periode 2009-2013 zullen optreden in de visgemeenschap. In deze rapportage worden de bevindingen gepresenteerd van de bemonsteringen in het derde jaar na de instelling van het Bodembeschermingsgebied (2008), in het voorjaar van 2011.
    PMR Monitoring natuurcompensatie Voordelta. Perceel Vis: Jaarrapport 2009
    Damme, C.J.G. van - \ 2012
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C030.12) - 30
    natuurcompensatie - mariene gebieden - benthos - natura 2000 - noordzee - visbestand - foerageren - vogels - bodembescherming - rijnmondgebied - voordelta - nature compensation - marine areas - north sea - fishery resources - foraging - birds - soil conservation
    In juni 2008 is in de Voordelta een Bodembeschermingsgebied ingesteld als compensatie voor de aanleg van de Tweede Maasvlakte. Naar verwachting zal de instelling van dit gebied leiden tot een toename van het benthos ter plaatse. De doelstelling van het onderzoek is vast te stellen welke veranderingen er in de periode 2009-2013 zullen optreden in de visgemeenschap. In deze rapportage worden bevindingen gepresenteerd van de eerste bemonsteringen na de instelling van het Bodembeschermingsgebied, in het voorjaar en late zomer van 2009.
    Desire for greener land : options for sustainable land management in drylands
    Schwilch, G. ; Hessel, R. ; Verzandvoort, S.J.E. - \ 2012
    Bern [etc.] : University of Bern [etc.] - ISBN 9789461733290 - 282
    droge gebieden - grondbeheer - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaam bodemgebruik - woestijnvorming - bodembescherming - waterbeheer - teeltsystemen - begrazingsbeheer - bosbedrijfsvoering - arid lands - land management - sustainability - sustainable land use - desertification - soil conservation - water management - cropping systems - grazing management - forest management
    Desire for Greener Land compiles options for Sustainable Land Management (SLM) in drylands. It is a result of the integrated research project DESIRE (Desertification Mitigation and Remediation of Land - A Global Approach for Local Solutions). Lasting five years (2007–2012) and funded within the EU’s Sixth Framework Programme, DESIRE brought together the expertise of 26 international research institutes and non-governmental organisations. The DESIRE project aimed to establish promising alternative land use and management strategies in 17 degradation and desertification sites around the world, relying on close collaboration between scientists and local stakeholder groups. The study sites provided a global laboratory in which researchers could apply, test, and identify new and innovative approaches to combatting desertification. The resulting SLM strategies are local- to regional-scale interventions designed to increase productivity, preserve natural resource bases, and improve people’s livelihoods. These were documented and mapped using the internationally recognised WOCAT (World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies) methodological framework, which formed an integral part of the DESIRE project. The DESIRE approach offers an integrated multidisciplinary way of working together from the beginning to the end of a project; it enables scientists, local stakeholders and policy makers to jointly find solutions to desertification. This book describes the DESIRE approach and WOCAT methodology for a range of audiences, from local agricultural advisors to scientists and policymakers. Links are provided to manuals and online materials, enabling application of the various tools and methods in similar projects. The book also includes an analysis of the current context of degradation and SLM in the study sites, in addition to analysis of the SLM technologies and approaches trialled in the DESIRE project. Thirty SLM technologies, eight SLM approaches, and several degradation and SLM maps from all the DESIRE study sites are compiled in a concise and well-illustrated format, following the style of this volume’s forerunner where the land is greener (WOCAT 2007). Finally, conclusions and policy points are presented on behalf of decision makers, the private sector, civil society, donors, and the research community. These are intended to support people’s efforts to invest wisely in the sustainable management of land – enabling greener drylands to become a reality, not just a desire.
    Duurzame beheersing bodemziekten : een praktisch handvat
    Boer, M. de - \ 2012
    BloembollenVisie 2012 (2012)244. - ISSN 1571-5558 - p. 22 - 23.
    bloembollen - sierteelt - bodembeheer - cultuurmethoden - bodembescherming - nematoda - bodemschimmels - bestrijdingsmethoden - ornamental bulbs - ornamental horticulture - soil management - cultural methods - soil conservation - soil fungi - control methods
    Aaltjes, schimmels, insecten en onkruiden vormen in de teelt van bloembollen, vaste planten en zomerbloemen op zandgrond een hardnekkig probleem. De oplossing ligt in het toepassen van duurzaam bodembeheer. Dit kan op veel manieren. In dit artikel een praktisch overzicht van de stappen en verschillende maatregelen die relatief gemakkelijk toepasbaar zijn. Dat is de eerste stap naar een gezonde bodem en dus een gezonde teelt.
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