Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The steering role of plant-soil interactions in natural community dynamics and nature restoration
    Wubs, Engel Reinder Jasper - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): W.H. Putten; T.M. Bezemer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434447 - 242
    soil plant relationships - soil - plants - ecological restoration - terrestrial ecosystems - soil inoculation - plant communities - soil ecology - bodem-plant relaties - bodem - planten - ecologisch herstel - terrestrische ecosystemen - bodeminoculatie - plantengemeenschappen - bodemecologie

    Biodiversity is declining worldwide and many ecosystems have been degraded due to human actions. There have been many attempts to restore degraded ecosystems, but restoration success varies. Past human management has left important abiotic and biotic legacies and active intervention is needed to overcome these legacies. Legacy effects include altered abiotic conditions and limited availability of appropriate seeds. However, plants also have many interactions with the myriad organisms that inhabit the soil. Soil biota include e.g. bacteria, fungi, nematodes, collembolan, and mites. Restoring plant-soil interactions may be key to successful ecological restoration, because studies on natural succession in ecosystems show that both plant and soil communities develop in concert. In addition, late-successional soil communities promote the performance of late-succession plant species that are often the target species for restoration. The aims of my thesis were to 1) test whether inoculation of living soil can improve restoration of species-rich grasslands and dry heathlands, and 2) understand how plant-soil interactions affect plant composition and diversity.

    In a large-scale field experiment, called “Reijerscamp-experiment”, I tested the potential of soil inoculation to speed up ecosystem restoration. On a former arable field large areas of on average 0.5 ha were inoculated with a thin layer of <1 cm living soil, which was taken either from a mid-succession grassland or a dry-heathland. After six years I monitored the species composition of the vegetation and the soil community. I found that both types of inoculum had substantially altered the community composition of both soil and vegetation. Moreover, the soil inocula had caused a shift in the direction of the respective donor communities. In a parallel mesocosm experiment I repeated the experiment while sowing a standardized species-rich seed mixture to ensure that seed availability was the same in all treatments. Also in this case the sown plant community developed towards the respective communities found in the donor sites. Consequently the soil community is, at least in part, able to steer plant community composition in the field.

    I also tested how mixtures of inocula from different donor systems affect restoration success. In a greenhouse experiment I made replacement series of soil inocula sourced from arable fields, mid-succession grasslands and dry heathlands and monitored the responses of target and ruderal plant species. The target species all responded positively to higher proportions of heathland material in the inoculum, while the responses of the ruderal species were variable. Interestingly, a 50:50 mixture of arable and heathland inoculum strongly reduced the growth of the ruderal species. Soil inoculation may be considered as a way of microbiome engineering, which is a newly emerging field mainly used to improve human health and agricultural production. My results show that conceptually similar techniques can be applied to improve inocula for the restoration of ecological communities.

    In a second field experiment I tested the long-term consequences of soil inoculation with and without sowing mid-successional plant species for plant and soil community composition. I found that sowing strongly altered plant community composition for over two decades. Soil inoculation, on the other hand, substantially altered the composition of the soil nematode community and that these effects persisted for at least 15 years. However, in contrast to the Reijerscamp experiment, the effect of soil inoculation on vegetation composition was transient. I propose that in this case the presence of an intact arable top soil, as well as perhaps a too minimal difference between the composition of the donor and recipient soil communities may have limited the impact of the soil inocula.

    In general, the restoration of plant cover and a number of common (‘matrix’) plant species can be achieved using standard approaches, e.g. reducing site fertility and providing seed material, but creating conditions that allow for coexistence of both locally dominant and rare subordinate species proves much more elusive. Fundamental knowledge on how biodiversity is regulated is needed to restore diverse plant communities including the rare species. Testing plant-soil feedback provides a way to directly study the net consequences of the myriad interactions between plants and soil biota for plant performance and community composition. However, while both plants and soil communities are strongly heterogeneous in space and time, spatiotemporally explicit tests of plant-soil feedback are rare.

    In a greenhouse experiment I studied how spatial heterogeneity in plant-soil feedbacks influence plant communities. I found that when multiple species conditioned the soil, plant performance was reduced compared to mono-specific soil conditioning. This reduction in competitive ability led to a higher plant diversity in the experimental communities. The plant responses were not related to differences in abiotic conditions, but soil conditioning induced clear changes in fungal community composition. Recent meta-analyses and experiments have shown that spatial heterogeneity in abiotic conditions only promotes plant diversity when the grain of the heterogeneity is larger than the size of individual plants. When it is smaller, heterogeneity simply selects for those species that have the highest root plasticity and this leads to lower plant diversity. Together, these results suggest that spatial heterogeneity in abiotic conditions only promotes plant beta diversity, while interaction with the soil community, primarily soil-borne antagonists, maintains plant alpha diversity.

    Finally, I used repeated soil conditioning by conspecific and heterospecific species to show that soil feedbacks may carry over across soil conditioning periods. In contrast to what is commonly assumed my data show that heterospecific soil-conditioning can result in equally negative PSF as repeated conspecific soil-conditioning and repeated conspecific soil-conditioning does not always lead to stronger negative feedback. Instead, the particular sequence of plant species that successively condition the soil strongly determines the sign and magnitude of PSF. These results highlight the need to incorporate sequential soil-conditioning in models of plant communities and effective crop-rotations.

    In conclusion, plant-soil interactions are a key aspect in the natural dynamics of plant communities and can be used to improve restoration of semi-natural ecosystems. Abiotic conditions and dispersal ability determine which species may occur in a given site. However, at small spatial scales plant-soil feedbacks and particularly interactions with soil borne antagonists can enhance plant species diversity. Manipulation of the soil community, through inoculation of soil from well-developed donor sites can speed up natural succession and even steer its direction in the field. However, soil inoculation success will not be universal and depends on the match in abiotic conditions of donor and recipient sites, as well as the community composition of the inoculum and the resident communities. Future studies are needed to test the success of introducing soil communities across environmental gradients.

    Impact of trophic ecologies on the whereabouts of nematodes in soil
    Quist, Casper W. - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J. Bakker, co-promotor(en): J. Helder. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430814 - 129
    nematoda - spatial distribution - soil fauna - biota - trophic levels - food webs - soil ecology - soil biology - farming systems - soil types (ecological) - geostatistics - nematoda - ruimtelijke verdeling - bodemfauna - biota - trofische graden - voedselwebben - bodemecologie - bodembiologie - bedrijfssystemen - bodemtypen (ecologisch) - geostatistiek

    Soil life is highly diverse, and ecologically intricate due to myriad of biotic interactions that take place. Terrestrial nematodes have a high potential to serve as an effective and policy-relevant indicator group for ecosystem functioning and soil biodiversity. The work described in this thesis contributed to the robust mapping of nematode communities at scales relevant in both agronomic and environmental contexts. The overarching aim of the work described in this thesis was to contribute to a sound exploration of the potential of nematode communities as an indicator group for the biological condition of soils. Therefore, the distributions of a wide range of nematode taxa were studied, within and between trophic groups and in soils conditioned by various plant species and/or farming systems.

    In Chapter 2 nematode taxon-specific qPCR assays were used to pinpoint responses of nematode communities to invasive plant species Solidago gigantea in two invaded ecosystems: semi-natural grasslands and riparian floodplains. Nematode communities and fungal biomass were examined in adjacent invaded and uninvaded patches. The dominant presence of the invasive plant causes a decrease of plant species-richness and diversity, and an about twofold increase of fungal biomass. Only the density of a single group of fungivorous nematodes (Aphelenchoididea) increased, whereas the densities of two other, phylogenetically distinct lineages of fungivorous nematodes, Aphelenchidae and Diphtherophoridae, were unaffected by the local increase in fungal biomass. Apparently S. gigantea induces a local asymmetric boost of the fungal community, and only Aphelenchoididae were able to benefit from this change induced by the invasive plant.

    In Chapter 3 the outcome is shown of a test whether farming system effects are mirrored in compositional changes in nematode communities. The long-term impact of three farming systems (conventional, integrated and organic) on nematode communities was investigated at the Vredepeel, an experimental farm in the southeastern part of The Netherlands. The results showed that organic farming causes specific shifts in nematode community composition, exceeding the usually large crop-related assemblage shifts. Strongest effects were observed for the (putative) bacterivore Prismatolaimus, which was relatively common in organic fields and nearly absent in conventional and integrated farming. A reverse effect was observed for Pristionchus; this necromenic bacterivore and facultative predator made up about 7 – 21% of the total nematode community in integrated and conventional farming, whereas it was nearly absent from organic fields. The observed farming system effects suggest that specific nematode taxa might be indicative for the impact of farming practices on soil biota. Knowledge of spatial distribution patterns of soil organisms with distinct trophic preferences will contribute to our understanding of factors that maintain and regulate soil biodiversity, and is essential information to design soil sampling strategies with predictable accuracies.

    Chapter 4 deals with microscale patchiness of 45 nematode taxa (at family, genus or species-level) in arable fields and semi-natural grasslands, on marine clay, river clay or sandy soils. Contrary to our expectations, an increase of the number of cores per composite sample above 3, did not result in more accurate detection for any of the taxa under investigation (range of number of cores per composite sample: 3, 6, 12 or 24). Neither system nor soil type did influence microscale distribution. The insights in the spatial distribution of nematodes at microscale presented here, sheds light on the impact of trophic preferences on the spatial distribution of individual nematode taxa, and will allow for the design of statistically sound soil sampling strategies.

    Chapter 5 shows belowground distribution patterns of 48 nematode taxa in 12 visually homogeneous fields (each 100 x 100 m) on three soil types (marine clay, river clay and sand) and two land-use types (arable and natural grasslands) across the Netherlands. Over 35,000 nematode-taxon specific qPCR assays allowed us to quantitative analyse nematode taxa at family, genus or species level in over 1,200 soil samples. A sampling scheme was optimized for Bayesian geostatistical analysis (Integrated nested Laplace approximations; INLA). Multivariate analysis show soil type and land-use related differences in the nematode community composition, which underline the effects of environmental filtering and niche partitioning of nematodes. All individual nematode taxa together show a wide range of degrees of spatial variabilities were found (expressed by the range-parameter and the spatial variance parameter (s2spatial). No general effects were detected of soil characteristics or nematode traits (cp-value, trophic group, weight) on the spatial distribution parameters. The relatively high percentages of unexplained spatial variability – 92.5% of the variation for the range-parameter and 74% for spatial variance (s2spatial) – point at a major role of stochasticity for variability of nematode densities within fields. This study adds empirical evidence that distribution patterns of terrestrial nematodes, in areas without noticeable gradients, are driven by neutral / stochastic processes, within the boundaries set by the environment.

    In the final Chapter 6, I discuss the opportunities and challenges of the use of molecular tools in soil ecological research, the impact of trophic preferences on the whereabouts of nematodes, the use of nematode communities as indicator for soil condition and how this might be developed and applied to facilitate more sustainable ecosystem management.

    Negen vragen over ecologie van bosbodems
    Jong, J.J. de; Waal, R.W. de; Al, Erwin - \ 2015
    Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 12 (2015)119. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 18 - 21.
    natuurbeheer - bosbeheer - bodemecologie - bodembeheer - bodemkwaliteit - bossen - nature management - forest administration - soil ecology - soil management - soil quality - forests
    Een goed functionerende bodem van het bos is een van de belangrijke pijlers voor duurzaam bosbeheer. Een bosbeheerder leert dan ook al vroeg in zijn opleiding dat het zijn verantwoordelijkheid is om de mogelijkheden van de bodem voor de ontwikkeling van bos niet aan te tasten maar zo mogelijk te verbeteren. Een bosbodem kan zich daarbij onafhankelijk van het moedermateriaal op den duur ontwikkelen tot een drager van een bijzonder rijk ecosysteem. Bekend zijn de tropische regenwouden, waar het moedermateriaal extreem arm is, maar waar het bos zich op een flinterdunne laag bosbodem in ongekende dimensies en soortenrijkdom weet te handhaven en te ontwikkelen. Ook voor de gematigde streken bestaan voorbeelden van oude rijke bossen op ondergrond waar je dat in eerste instantie niet zou verwachten, zoals in het zuidoosten van Finland en in Bialowieza. Een vraag die hier centraal staat is: wat maakt nu dat die bosbodems zich zo kunnen ontwikkelen en hoe kan je daar als beheerder zo goed mogelijk op inspelen? Aan de hand van onderstaande negen vragen met antwoorden geven we u hierin meer inzicht.
    Biophysical soil quality of tillage systems in conventional and organic farming
    Crittenden, S. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Lijbert Brussaard, co-promotor(en): Mirjam Pulleman; Marius Heinen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575981 - 135
    bodemkwaliteit - bodemfysica - grondbewerking - biologische landbouw - bedrijfssystemen - bodembiologie - bodemecologie - soil quality - soil physics - tillage - organic farming - farming systems - soil biology - soil ecology
    Data rapport: Effect van vooroeververdediging op bodemorganismen in Oosterschelde en Westerschelde in 2014
    Tangelder, M. ; Kluijver, M. de; Brummelhuis, E.B.M. ; Heuvel-Greve, M.J. van den - \ 2015
    Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C116/15) - 81
    oevers - bescherming - milieueffect - oeverecologie - bodemarthropoden - bodeminvertebraten - oosterschelde - westerschelde - bodemecologie - zeeland - shores - protection - environmental impact - riparian ecology - soil arthropods - soil invertebrates - eastern scheldt - western scheldt - soil ecology - zeeland
    Hoe verhoudt de rekolonisatie van infauna (diversiteit en aantallen) in het nieuwe gevormde sediment op de aangelegde vooroever op de Cluster 1 en 2 locaties in de Oosterschelde en Westerschelde zich tot de eerdere T0-, T1-, T2-,T3- en T4 monitoring en referentielocaties en hoe is de T0 situatie bij Cluster 3 locatie Wemeldinge in de Oosterschelde?
    Ecological functions of earthworms in soil
    Andriuzzi, W.S. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Lijbert Brussaard; T. Bolger, co-promotor(en): O. Schmidt. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574175 - 154
    aardwormen - oligochaeta - bodemfauna - bodembiologie - bodemecologie - ecosystemen - bodemstructuur - earthworms - oligochaeta - soil fauna - soil biology - soil ecology - ecosystems - soil structure

    Ecological functions of earthworms in soil

    Walter S. Andriuzzi


    Earthworms are known to play an important role in soil structure and fertility, but there are still big knowledge gaps on the functional ecology of distinct earthworm species, on their own and in interaction with other species. This thesis investigated how earthworms affect soil biochemical and biophysical functioning, and other organisms such as plants and smaller soil organisms.

    Two field experiments with stable isotope tracers were performed to investigate how anecic earthworms (which feed on organic matter at the soil surface and dig deep burrows) transfer carbon and nitrogen from fresh plant litter into soil, and how this in turn affects soil organic matter composition, protists and nematodes. Another field experiment tested whether the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris can counteract negative effects of intense rainfall on soil and plants (ryegrass). A greenhouse experiment was carried out to study how co-occurring earthworm species – two anecic and one endogeic (smaller, soil-feeding) – affect transfer of nitrogen from dung to soil and plants, nitrogen retention in soil, and plant growth. For the latter experiment, a method to produce herbivore (rabbit) dung triple-labelled with carbon, nitrogen and sulphur stable isotopes was developed.

    Overall, the findings highlight important functions of earthworms in carbon and nitrogen cycling, soil biophysical structure maintenance due to burrow formation, and resulting biotic interactions. A novel finding was that the sphere of influence of anecic earthworms in soil (the ‘drilosphere’) is a much larger biochemical and biological hotspot than hitherto assumed. Rapid movement of carbon and nitrogen from surface to soil thanks to anecic earthworm activity resulted in spatial heterogeneity in soil carbon content, organic matter composition, and density of smaller eukaryotes (e.g. bacterial-feeding protists). Evidence was found that distinct earthworm anecic species may have dissimilar effects on soil biochemistry and plant growth, and that both anecic and endogeic earthworms may feed on surface organic matter (dung). This shows that the validity of earthworm ecological groups depends on the function under study, and suggests that, for some research questions, species identity should not be neglected; other approaches to quantify ecological differences between species (e.g. functional traits) are appraised. Finally, L. terrestris was found to ameliorate the disturbance of intense rain on plants, giving evidence to the idea that some components of soil biodiversity may contribute to ecosystem stability in the face of disturbance.

    Ecologie van bosbodems : een verkennende studie naar ecologisch functioneren van bosbodems op zandgronden
    Jong, J.J. de; Bloem, J. ; Delft, S.P.J. van; Hommel, P.W.F.M. ; Oosterbaan, A. ; Waal, R.W. de - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2657) - 89
    bosecologie - bodemecologie - bodemvruchtbaarheid - humus - organische stof - zandgronden - forest ecology - soil ecology - soil fertility - humus - organic matter - sandy soils
    De bodem van een bos is bepalend voor het functioneren van het bos als productie- en ecosysteem. Het is het substraat waar organismen in leven en waar planten in wortelen. De bodem houdt vocht en nutriënten vast en levert deze aan planten en het bodemleven, terwijl planten organische stof aan de bodem leveren. De wijze waarop dit allemaal gebeurt, bepaalt in grote mate welke organismen er in en op voor kunnen komen en hoe die functioneren. De bodemorganismen en voedingstoestand van de bodem worden beïnvloed door beheer en externe factoren, zoals depositie. Kennis van de onderlinge relaties tussen de factoren die de bodemvruchtbaarheid bepalen of door de bodemvruchtbaarheid bepaald worden, is daarom van groot belang voor een duurzaam bosbeheer. Dit rapport bevat een verkenning van de kennis die er aanwezig is op dat gebied.
    Flyshoot visserij in relatie met de instelling van bodem beschermende maatregelen voor het Friese Front en de Centrale Oestergronden
    Rijnsdorp, A.D. - \ 2015
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C065/15) - 23
    visserij - bodemecologie - onderwatergronden - vissersschepen - vismethoden - vistuig - waterbodems - mariene gebieden - nadelige gevolgen - noordzee - bodembescherming - milieueffect - fisheries - soil ecology - subaqueous soils - fishing vessels - fishing methods - fishing gear - water bottoms - marine areas - adverse effects - north sea - soil conservation - environmental impact
    Dit rapport geeft een samenvatting van de ‘state of the art’ kennis met betrekking tot de impact van bodemberoerende vistuigen en bespreekt de te verwachte effecten van de flyshoot methode in vergelijking met de andere vismethoden.
    Minimum zuurstofgehalte voor bodemdieren in het Grevelingenmeer
    Smaal, A.C. ; Wijsman, J.W.M. - \ 2015
    Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C022/15) - 21
    grevelingen - waterkwaliteit - zuurstof - bodemecologie - waterbodems - grevelingen - water quality - oxygen - soil ecology - water bottoms
    Vanwege het plan om de wateruitwisseling tussen het Grevelingenmeer en de Noordzee te vergroten met als doel de waterkwaliteit in het Grevelingenmeer te verbeteren, is er een onderbouwing nodig voor de zuurstofconcentratie die niet onderschreden zou moeten worden voor het bodemleven in het Grevelingenmeer. Op basis van een literatuurstudie is een inschatting gemaakt van grenswaarden voor het zuurstofgehalte voor verschillende soortgroepen zeedieren.
    Mycophagous soil bacteria
    Rudnick, M.B. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wietse de Boer, co-promotor(en): H. van Veen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572539 - 160
    bodembacteriën - bodemflora - bodembiologie - collimonas - bodemschimmels - bodemecologie - soil bacteria - soil flora - soil biology - collimonas - soil fungi - soil ecology

    Soil microorganisms evolved several strategies to compete for limited nutrients in soil. Bacteria of the genus Collimonas developed a way to exploit fungi as a source of organic nutrients. This strategy has been termed “mycophagy”. In this thesis, research is presented with a focus on two aspects of bacterial mycophagy: 1) Investigation of strategies and traits that are important for Collimonas bacteria to enable a mycophagous lifestyle, 2) Investigation of occurrence of mycophagy among other soil bacteria.

    Focusing on Collimonas bacteria, we find that several traits related to the mycophagous interaction with the fungal hosts, such as production of fungal inhibitors, are phylogenetically conserved. This implies that differentiation in lifestyles of Collimonas strains, is corresponding with phylogenetic distance. Furthermore, we show that collimonads are very motile in a soil-like matrix, especially when being confronted with low nutrient concentrations. This high motility can be used in order to effectively move towards oxalic acid (a metabolite exuded by a range of fungi for different purposes) in a concentration depended manner. Our results suggest that directed motility is an important trait, characterizing the mycophagous lifestyle of collimonads.

    In order to screen for other mycophagous bacteria besides collimonads, two baiting approaches (long- and short-term) were developed. With both approaches, we find fungal hyphae to be commonly colonized by specific communities of rhizosphere mycophagous bacteria. Furthermore, mycophagous colonizers show clear feeding preferences for fungal hosts. Interestingly, a surprisingly high amount of mycophagous bacteria belong to genera well known to harbor plant pathogenic strains. Considering the importance of mycophagous bacteria in the rhizosphere, we finally propose the “Sapro-Rhizosphere” concept. This concept states that a substantial amount of plant derived carbon that is channeled through rhizosphere fungi (primary consumers) might be finally consumed by mycophagous bacteria (secondary consumers).

    Taken together, by using molecular biological as well as microbiological methods, this thesis further extends our knowledge on the ecology of mycophagous Collimonas bacteria and highlights the importance of mycophagous bacteria in the rhizosphere.

    Een indicatorsysteem voor ecosysteemdiensten van de bodem : life support functions revisited
    Rutgers, M. ; Schouten, T. ; Bloem, J. ; Dimmers, W.J. ; Eekeren, N.J.M. van; Goede, R.G.M. de; Jagers Op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M. ; Keidel, H. ; Korthals, G.W. ; Mulder, C. ; Wattel-Koekkoek, E.J.W. - \ 2014
    Bilthoven : Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM rapport 2014-0145) - 126
    bodemecologie - ecosysteemdiensten - landbouwgronden - bodemkwaliteit - biodiversiteit - monitoring - soil ecology - ecosystem services - agricultural soils - soil quality - biodiversity - monitoring
    Om ecosysteemdiensten te beoordelen zijn ook fysische en systeemgerichte indicatoren nodig. Dit rapport is de uitkomst van een multicriteria-analyse waarin de bruikbaarheid van indicatoren voor toepassing in een meetnet werd geschat door twaalf deskundigen in de bodemkunde, de bodemecologie en het agrarische bodemadvies. De indicatoren zijn ook bruikbaar voor metingen van het Natuurlijk Kapitaal van de bodem en om praktische instrumenten te ontwerpen waarmee het lokale bodembeheer en de gebiedsinrichting ondersteund kunnen worden.
    Biodiversity and ecosystem services: does species diversity enhance effectiveness and reliability?
    Vos, C.C. ; Grashof-Bokdam, C.J. ; Opdam, P.F.M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 25) - 63
    ecosysteemdiensten - biodiversiteit - bodemecologie - broeikasgassen - plagenbestrijding - landschapsbeleving - ecosystem services - biodiversity - soil ecology - greenhouse gases - pest control - landscape experience
    In this report recent scientific literature was analysed, focussing on systematic review papers to clarify the relationship between species diversity and the effectiveness and reliability of seven ecosystem services. For those services where a relation with species diversity was found, the importance of the Dutch National Nature Network (NNN) and the network of small natural elements (green infrastructure, GI) in the landscape was assessed. Results indicate that species diversity is important for ecosystem service effectiveness. However, reliability is not well studied. NNN and GI are important for ecosystem service effectiveness, but it is not yet possible to derive concrete guidelines on the required amount and spatial configuration of NNN and GI for optimal ecosystem service provisioning. Several suggestions have been made to acquire knowledge on ecosystem services that is needed to improve the implementation of ecosystem services in local landscape planning
    De schoonheid van een duurzaam beheerde bodem - leidt biologische landbouw tot een gezondere bodem?
    Schouten, A.J. ; Goede, R.G.M. de; Eekeren, N.J.M. van; Rutgers, M. - \ 2014
    Bodem 24 (2014)6. - ISSN 0925-1650 - p. 14 - 15.
    bodemkwaliteit - bodemecologie - bodemchemie - bodemwater - fosfaten - hydrologie - ecosysteemdiensten - graslanden - biologische landbouw - melkveehouderij - soil quality - soil ecology - soil chemistry - soil water - phosphates - hydrology - ecosystem services - grasslands - organic farming - dairy farming
    Grondgebonden landbouw is afhankelijk van de ecosysteemdiensten die het natuurlijk kapitaal van de bodem levert. Een gezonde bodem maakt voedingsstoffen vrij, geeft water door, heeft een goede bodemstructuur en het vermogen om ziekten en plagen te onderdrukken. Door gebruik te maken van deze diensten kunnen boeren een aanzienlijke agrarische productie realiseren van een goede kwaliteit. Het bodemleven vormt hierbij een belangrijke spil. We hebben gegevens van 137 melkveehouderijbedrijven onderzocht op de vraag hoe het is gesteld met de bodemgezondheid onder verschillende typen bedrijven.
    Ecologie van bodemmicro-organismen: de basis voor een gezonde bodem
    Boer, W. de - \ 2014
    Gewasbescherming 45 (2014)1. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 4 - 6.
    bodemecologie - terrestrische ecosystemen - microbiologie - openbare redes - gewasbescherming - bodemweerbaarheid - bodembiologie - soil ecology - terrestrial ecosystems - microbiology - public speeches - plant protection - soil suppressiveness - soil biology
    Dit is de titel van de inaugurele rede die op 14 februari 2013 heb gehouden in de aula van Wageningen University bij de aanvaarding van het ambt als buitengewoon hoogleraar Microbiële Bodemecologie. Onlangs is de gedrukte versie verschenen. In de rede wordt ingegaan op het belang van interacties tussen bodemmicro-organismen voor het functioneren van het bodemecosysteem en met name op de natuurlijk regulerende werking die microbiële interacties kunnen hebben op ziekteverwekkers in de bodem.
    Linkages between plant traits and soil ecology in the rhizosphere and through litter decomposition
    Brolsma, K.M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ellis Hoffland, co-promotor(en): Ron de Goede. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571068 - 112
    bodemecologie - rizosfeer - ligstro - decompositie - wortels - bodembiologie - nematoda - solanum tuberosum - globodera pallida - biofumigatie - genotypen - soil ecology - rhizosphere - litter - decomposition - roots - soil biology - nematoda - solanum tuberosum - globodera pallida - biofumigation - genotypes
    Boomkorvisserij: hoe voedselweb-interacties op de zeebodem het succes van visserijmaatregelen kunnen bepalen
    Kooten, T. van - \ 2014
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C127/14) - 12
    visserij - visserij-ecologie - boomkorvisserij - onderwatergronden - bodemecologie - benthos - mariene gebieden - visserijbeheer - noordzee - voedselwebben - visbestand - visstand - aquatische ecosystemen - natuurbeheer - fisheries - fisheries ecology - beam trawling - subaqueous soils - soil ecology - benthos - marine areas - fishery management - north sea - food webs - fishery resources - fish stocks - aquatic ecosystems - nature management
    Dit document is een samenvatting, met daarbij de beleidsrelevantie, van de wetenschappelijke publicatie ‘When does fishing lead to more fish? Community consequences of bottom trawl fisheries in demersal food webs ’ geschreven door Daniel van Denderen, Tobias van Kooten en Adriaan Rijnsdorp, gepubliceerd in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 280, no. 20131883 op 4 september 2013. Het doel van deze Nederlandstalige samenvatting is het ontsluiten van de conclusies uit deze publicatie voor een breder publiek, en het schetsen van de consequenties daarvan voor het Nederlandse visserij- en natuurbeheer.
    Toekomst van de pulsvisserij in de Waddenzee : een verkenning met relevantie voor de internationale Waddenzee en de Noordzeekustzone
    Goldsborough, D. ; Steenbergen, J. ; Jager, Z. ; Zaalmink, W. - \ 2014
    Leeuwarden : Van Hall Larenstein - 43
    garnalen - schaal- en schelpdierenvisserij - pulsvisserij - aquatische ecosystemen - ecosystemen - bodemecologie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - economische aspecten - waddenzee - noordzee - shrimps - shellfish fisheries - pulse trawling - aquatic ecosystems - ecosystems - soil ecology - sustainability - economic development - wadden sea - north sea
    Dit onderzoek is uitgevoerd in het kader van het EVF project Uitvoeringsprogramma Brede Visie duurzame visserij in de Waddenzee . Het rapport beschrijft de bevindingen van de verkenning Toekomst van de pulsvisserij in de Waddenzee. Het onderzoek is ook relevant voor pulsvisserij in de internationale Waddenzee en de Noordzeekustzone. Het onderzoek geeft antwoord op de vraag: Wat is de (potentiële) bijdrage van de garnalenpuls om te komen tot een gezonde garnalenvisserij en een rijke (Wadden)zee? Drie thema’s zijn hiervoor onderzocht: (1) wat is de ecologische meerwaarde van de garnalenpuls?, (2) Wat is de economische meerwaarde? en (3) Wat is de praktische inpasbaarheid van de techniek op de Waddenzee? Het rapport is opgesteld op basis van literatuurstudie, interviews en gesprekken met betrokkenen.
    Verkenning zoneringsmaatregelen met Marxan: Kaderrichtlijn Marien op het Friese Front en Centrale Oestergronden
    Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Wal, J.T. van der; Hal, R. van; Witbaard, R. ; Lavaleye, M.S.S. - \ 2014
    Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C005/14) - 71
    mariene gebieden - visserij - bodemecologie - onderwatergronden - nadelige gevolgen - monitoring - noordzee - marine areas - fisheries - soil ecology - subaqueous soils - adverse effects - monitoring - north sea
    De ambitie is om van het Nederlands Continentaal Plat (NCP) 10-15% van de bodem te beschermen tegen bodemberoering. Een belangrijk uitgangspunt in de Mariene Strategie is dat de genoemde maatregel voor de visserijsector tot een minimumlast beperkt dient te worden. Daartoe wordt in deze studie het model Marxan toegepast. De geanalyseerde scenario’s resulteren in ruimtelijke uitwerkingen waarbij de te sluiten zone en een schets van de visserijkosten worden gepresenteerd, en ook welke ecologische winst worden behaald.
    De ontwikkeling van een indicator voor het bodemleven en de bodemkwaliteit van akkergronden op basis van overige aaltjes
    Keidel, H. ; Zanen, M. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : BLGG AgroXpertus - 49 p.
    bodemkwaliteit - duurzame landbouw - akkerbouw - bodemecologie - nematoda - biologische monitoring - dna - functionele biodiversiteit - soil quality - sustainable agriculture - arable farming - soil ecology - nematoda - biomonitoring - dna - functional biodiversity
    Om vast te stellen of de doelen voor duurzamer bodemgebruik worden gehaald, kunnen indicatoren worden gebruikt. Op basis van de wetenschappelijke literatuur bleek dat aaltjes relevant zijn voor het bodemvoedselweb en de functionele biodiversiteit. Ook bleek dat aaltjes goede mogelijkheden bieden om als indicator te worden gebruikt. Om de indicator te kunnen gebruiken moet deze op de een of andere manier iets zeggen over het bodemleven (biodiversiteit) en bodemkwaliteit. Er werd veel tijd besteed aan de implementatie en kwaliteitscontrole van de DNA-testen. Uit eerdere ervaringen bleek namelijk dat het overzetten van DNA-testen uit laboratoriumomstandigheden naar routineomstandigheden niet zo eenvoudig was.
    Modellen en beslisregels voor variabel doseren van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen op basis van variatie in bodem en gewas
    Kempenaar, C. ; Heijting, S. ; Kessel, G.J.T. ; Michielsen, J.G.P. ; Wijnholds, K.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Plant Research International (Rapport / Plant Research International 496b) - 56
    gewasbescherming - precisielandbouw - pesticiden - fungiciden - herbiciden - bodemecologie - akkerbouw - milieubeheersing - plant protection - precision agriculture - pesticides - fungicides - herbicides - soil ecology - arable farming - environmental control
    Dit rapport bevat kennis en ervaring die nodig is voor brede introductie van variabel doseren van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen in de Nederlandse land- en tuinbouw. De resultaten komen uit Programma Precisielandbouwproject (PPL). Variabel doseren betekent het automatische aanpassen en toedienen van doseringen van middelen aan de plaatselijke behoefte binnen een perceel of gewas. Door enkele recente technische ontwikkelingen (positiebepalingstechnologie (GNSS), sensortechnologie en geavanceerde spuittechniek) komt variabel doseren van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen voor de praktijk binnen handbereik, met voordelen voor (bedrijfs)economie, ecologie en volksgezondheid.
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