Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The soil life cycle : food webs and ecosystem services during soil transformations
    Leeuwen, J.P. van - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Peter de Ruiter; Jaap Bloem; Lia Hemerik. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576261 - 166
    soil - food webs - ecosystem services - life cycle - soil biology - soil flora - soil fauna - bodem - voedselwebben - ecosysteemdiensten - levenscyclus - bodembiologie - bodemflora - bodemfauna

    Soil is one of the most important natural resource for life on Earth and provides important ecosystem services, such as food production, carbon sequestration, water regulation and contaminant attenuation. Soil quality, defined as the soil’s ability to provide these services, is drastically reduced in many locations and regions worldwide due to human activities. This loss in soil quality ultimately leads to soil degradation, erosion and desertification, imposing a severe and increasing risk for the growing human population. It is therefore essential that we are aware of the importance of protecting soil, and at the same time understand processes that build up and regenerate soil. The key objective of the present study was to obtain a better understanding of soil food web structure and functioning, and how these develop in stages along the soil life cycle. Using field surveys, I investigated the soil food web structure and functioning in different sites along the soil life cycle, including soils developing in glacial chronosequences, productive soils under different land use and management, and soils under risk of degradation.

    The soil food web was expected to build up in biomass and structure, be highest in the intermediate soils, and decrease in soils at or nearby degradation. This was indeed the case when comparing developing soils in the chronosequences, and comparing productive soils with degrading soils. But also land use type turned out to be very important for the structure of the soil food web. Biological measures such as biomass, activity and diversity of soil organisms, especially that of soil microarthropods, were found to be indicative for soil quality in all sites.

    I also investigated the possible role of soil organisms in the soil ecosystem functioning, in terms of soil structure formation and C and N mineralisation. Although soil organisms are known to have an important role on soil structure formation, no clear indications of such a role were found for that function in the studied sites. However, soil microbial biomass and activity, and the biomass of other trophic groups, did play a crucial role in soil ecosystem process rates, especially the C and N mineralisation rates.

    In conclusion, I have found that soil food webs assemble in a directive manner: organism biomass and activity increase with soil productivity. In productive soils, land use type and land management are the main drivers affecting soil food web structure and functioning, although this effect is limited to the topsoil. Under harsh conditions, soil organisms reach a relatively low biomass and are sensitive to aspects of intensive agricultural land use.

    Mycophagous soil bacteria
    Rudnick, M.B. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wietse de Boer, co-promotor(en): H. van Veen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572539 - 160
    bodembacteriën - bodemflora - bodembiologie - collimonas - bodemschimmels - bodemecologie - soil bacteria - soil flora - soil biology - collimonas - soil fungi - soil ecology
    Abstract

    Soil microorganisms evolved several strategies to compete for limited nutrients in soil. Bacteria of the genus Collimonas developed a way to exploit fungi as a source of organic nutrients. This strategy has been termed “mycophagy”. In this thesis, research is presented with a focus on two aspects of bacterial mycophagy: 1) Investigation of strategies and traits that are important for Collimonas bacteria to enable a mycophagous lifestyle, 2) Investigation of occurrence of mycophagy among other soil bacteria.

    Focusing on Collimonas bacteria, we find that several traits related to the mycophagous interaction with the fungal hosts, such as production of fungal inhibitors, are phylogenetically conserved. This implies that differentiation in lifestyles of Collimonas strains, is corresponding with phylogenetic distance. Furthermore, we show that collimonads are very motile in a soil-like matrix, especially when being confronted with low nutrient concentrations. This high motility can be used in order to effectively move towards oxalic acid (a metabolite exuded by a range of fungi for different purposes) in a concentration depended manner. Our results suggest that directed motility is an important trait, characterizing the mycophagous lifestyle of collimonads.

    In order to screen for other mycophagous bacteria besides collimonads, two baiting approaches (long- and short-term) were developed. With both approaches, we find fungal hyphae to be commonly colonized by specific communities of rhizosphere mycophagous bacteria. Furthermore, mycophagous colonizers show clear feeding preferences for fungal hosts. Interestingly, a surprisingly high amount of mycophagous bacteria belong to genera well known to harbor plant pathogenic strains. Considering the importance of mycophagous bacteria in the rhizosphere, we finally propose the “Sapro-Rhizosphere” concept. This concept states that a substantial amount of plant derived carbon that is channeled through rhizosphere fungi (primary consumers) might be finally consumed by mycophagous bacteria (secondary consumers).

    Taken together, by using molecular biological as well as microbiological methods, this thesis further extends our knowledge on the ecology of mycophagous Collimonas bacteria and highlights the importance of mycophagous bacteria in the rhizosphere.

    Soil Ecology and Ecosystem Services
    Wall, D.H. ; Bardgett, R.D. ; Behan-Pelletier, V. ; Herrick, J.E. ; Jones, T.H. ; Ritz, K. ; Six, J. ; Strong, D.R. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2012
    Oxford : Oxford University Press - ISBN 9780199575923 - 406
    bodemecologie - bodembiologie - ecosysteemdiensten - agro-ecosystemen - biologische bodemactiviteit - bodemflora - bodembiodiversiteit - plantengenetica - soil ecology - soil biology - ecosystem services - agroecosystems - biological activity in soil - soil flora - soil biodiversity - plant genetics
    This book synthesizes contributions from leading soil scientists and ecologists, describing cutting-edge research that provides a basis for the maintenance of soil health and sustainability. It covers these advances from a unique perspective of examining the ecosystem services produced by soil biota across different scales - from biotic interactions at microscales to communities functioning at regional and global scales. The book leads the user towards an understanding of how the sustainability of soils, biodiversity, and ecosystem services can be maintained and how humans, other animals, and ecosystems are dependent on living soils and ecosystem services.
    Aardbei op weerbare bodem : benutten van natuurlijke functies voor het leveren van ecosysteemdiensten
    Cuijpers, W.J.M. ; Belder, P. ; Zanen, M. - \ 2012
    Louis Bolk Instituut (Publicatie / Louis Bolk Instituut nr. 2012-024 LbP) - 48
    bodemweerbaarheid - aardbeien - fruitteelt - kleinfruit - bodemonderzoek - gewasbescherming - bodemschimmels - bodempathogenen - bodemchemie - bodemflora - vollegrondsteelt - zuid-nederland - soil suppressiveness - strawberries - fruit growing - small fruits - soil testing - plant protection - soil fungi - soilborne pathogens - soil chemistry - soil flora - outdoor cropping - south netherlands
    In this research, 11 soils of strawberry growers in Noord-Brabant and Limburg are examined for disease suppressiveness. Soils are examined for a number of biological, chemical and physical characteristics, in order to relate those parameters to the degree of disease suppressiveness. Strawberry growers were interviewed on management practices, in particular on the application of organic manure and compost, and on the frequency and use of chemical soil disinfestation.
    Consequences of intra-specific metabolic diversity in plants for soil organisms : a baseline approach for evaluating ecological effects of genetic modifications
    Kabouw, P. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wim van der Putten; N.M. van Dam, co-promotor(en): A. Biere. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731197 - 136
    brassica oleracea var. capitata - glucosinolaten - exudaten - genetische variatie - genetische modificatie - bodemflora - bodemfauna - niet-doelorganismen - rizosfeer - transgene planten - brassica oleracea var. capitata - glucosinolates - exudates - genetic variation - genetic engineering - soil flora - soil fauna - nontarget organisms - rhizosphere - transgenic plants

    Plant intra-specific variation, i.e. variation within a plant species, is known to affect organisms that are directly associated to plants. These effects may be due to for example differences in nutritional quality or defensive metabolites. Plant intra-specific variation can also affect higher trophic level and organisms not directly associated to the plants, i.e. non-target organisms. These effects occur via differences in the quality of herbivores serving as host or prey, due to differences in the rates of attractiveness for higher trophic level organisms, differences in decomposition rates of litter, or differences in root exudates. Intra-specific variation occurs naturally in wild plant populations and humans have used this to select plants for agricultural use. Breeding and artificial selection for plant traits that were desirable for agricultural practices resulted in novel varieties, adding to intra-specific variation in these species.
    In addition to natural variation and variation between cultivars, plant genetic modification can result in crop varieties with novel traits such as increased productivity or insect resistance. These traits may also affect non-target organisms. The question is whether these effects fall within or outside the range of non-target effects observed for conventionally bred varieties. To answer this question, one first needs to determine the range of non-target effects caused by conventional varieties, a so-called ‘baseline’.In this thesis, I examined the baseline effects that conventional white cabbage varieties have on soil organisms, the mechanisms behind these effects, and the consequences for interactions between below-and aboveground organisms. The range of effects observed in the conventionally bred varieties can then serve as a baseline for evaluating the effects of genetic modifications.
    I started by examining intra-specific variation in glucosinolate concentrations and profiles in white cabbage cultivars. Glucosinolates, a group of circa 120 secondary plant compounds predominantly present in the Brassicaceae, have been shown to affect not only aboveground organisms but also belowground organisms. Glucosinolate profiles in both roots and shoots of white cabbage cultivars showed significant intra-specific variation. The root glucosinolate profiles were more diverse than in the shoots. The variation in root glucosinolate profiles between four of the cultivars was used to evaluate the effects of glucosinolates on a range of soil organisms from different trophic levels, which differ in their degree of association with plant roots. In the field I recorded that plant-parasitic nematodes were affected by the differences in the root glucosinolate profiles, whereas non-target organisms were not. The latter observation might be explained by the reduced intra-specific variation in the glucosinolate profiles of the root exudates compared to those of the roots. Even though total glucosinolate concentrations in roots and root exudates correlated positively, the number of individual glucosinolates that were recorded in the root exudates did not match those found in the roots. My experiments show that this may be due to different degradation rates of the individual glucosinolates in the soil.
    By adding different soil communities to sterilized soils I examined whether belowground organisms can affect aboveground organisms via their shared host plant. For this, I used two cabbage cultivars that were highly divergent both in their effects on soil organisms and glucosinolate profiles. Microorganisms added to the soils promoted aphid population growth. The addition of nematodes tended to decrease aphid population growth. However, the effect of the soil organisms on aboveground organisms was similar for both cultivars, indicating that the outcome of below-aboveground interactions was not affected by intra-specific differences.
    Genetic modification of plants could also indirectly affect plant growth, for example if the modification would affect the soil communities associated with the plants, which could subsequently affect aerial plant parts and aboveground processes. I explored this possibility by reviewing the recent literature on genetic modified plants, focusing on two case studies; rice plants modified to tolerate drought and salt stress and plants transformed to enhance their capacity to accumulate pollutants. Indeed, feedback loops between plants and the rhizosphere can result in both positive and negative feedback effects of the modified gene on aboveground plant properties. This may have unexpected consequences for the net effect of the genetic modification and eventually annihilate the positive effect of the modification on desired plant properties such as yield.
    In this thesis I also showed that when evaluating genetically modified plants in greenhouse studies, effects on soil organisms are limited when compared to the field. I propose that this is due to the fact that greenhouse studies use relatively simple soils that lack the complex plant-soil interactions that can be present in the field. This is an indication that greenhouse studies have a limited predictive value for field effects on soil organisms. Greenhouse studies are nevertheless useful for selecting a suitable and manageable set of varieties that are representative for the range of variation present in the full set of available cultivars. The selection of this sub-set can be made using the appropriate statistical tools, such as multivariate statistics. The selected sub-set can then be used as a baseline for more extensive studies assessing effects on (non-target) organisms in the field. I found that for root glucosinolate profiles this was a useful approach. Whether this holds true for other traits is yet to be assessed.
    Before one can evaluate whether effects of genetically modified plants fall within or outside the effects of conventional plants, a good knowledge of the range of effects that can be observed for conventional varieties is required. In this thesis, I have provided the basis for this knowledge for white cabbage, especially for belowground interactions and to some extent on belowground-aboveground interactions. Conventional varieties already differ in their effects on soil organisms and these effects can potentially result in altered below-aboveground interactions, as was simulated by the addition of specific organism groups to the soil. This range of effects can serve as a baseline to determine whether effects of genetically modified white cabbage plants fall inside or outside the range of effects that can be observed for these conventional varieties.

    Bodembreed interreg : deel 1: Duurzaam bodembeheer & Functionele Agrobiodiversiteit in de bodem : deel 2: Bodemleven
    Zanen, M. ; Belder, P. ; Cuijpers, W.J.M. ; Bos, M. - \ 2011
    [S.l.] : S.n. - 83
    bodemkwaliteit - bodembiologie - bodembiodiversiteit - functionele biodiversiteit - agrobiodiversiteit - bodembeheer - bodemfauna - bodemflora - akkerbouw - bodemvruchtbaarheid - bodemecologie - soil quality - soil biology - soil biodiversity - functional biodiversity - agro-biodiversity - soil management - soil fauna - soil flora - arable farming - soil fertility - soil ecology
    Deze literatuurstudie is het resultaat van de eerste fase van het project 'Functionele agrobiodiversiteit in de bodem' in het kader van Bodembreed. In deze studie wordt een overzicht gegeven van wat we verstaan onder bodemkwaliteit en de rol van bodemleven daarin. Aan de hand van bedreigingen voor bodemkwaliteit wordt gekeken naar de rol die de landbouwpraktijk speelt in het tegengaan van deze bedreigingen en wederom de rol van bodemleven daarin.
    Community perspectives of individual plant-soil interactions
    Voorde, T.F.J. van de - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wim van der Putten, co-promotor(en): T.M. Bezemer. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858560 - 175
    senecio jacobaea - bodem-plant relaties - landbouwgronden - plantensuccessie - plantengemeenschappen - populatiedynamica - bodemflora - natuurbeheer - senecio jacobaea - soil plant relationships - agricultural soils - plant succession - plant communities - population dynamics - soil flora - nature management
    Het doel van dit onderzoek was 1. het begrijpen van het belang van plant-bodeminteracties voor de populatiedynamiek van een vroege successie-soort gedurende secundaire successie in oude landbouwgronden; 2. Daarnaast bestudering van samenstelling van de plantengemeenschap in relatie tot bodemsymbionten in de plantengemeenschap. Voor dit onderzoek is de plantensoort Jakobskruiskruid, Jacobaea vulgaris ssp. vulgaris gebruikt, omdat deze plant een groot effect kan hebben op vroege-successie plantengemeenschappen in Nederland.
    Oliebollen in de zomer
    Roobeek, K. - \ 2010
    Nature Today 2010 (2010)14-07.
    bosecologie - rhizina undulata - bedreigde soorten - bosgronden - bodemflora - flora - ecologisch herstel - forest ecology - rhizina undulata - endangered species - forest soils - soil flora - flora - ecological restoration
    De oliebolzwam is een typische brandplekpaddenstoel die nu ondanks de grote droogte en hitte bij Schoorl te vinden is. Vroeger algemeen voorkomend als de koffievuurtjeszwam, is het nu in Nederland een bedreigde soort.
    Plants on the move: plant-soil interactions in poleward shifting plant species
    Grunsven, R.H.A. van - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frank Berendse; Wim van der Putten, co-promotor(en): Elmar Veenendaal. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085852513 - 140
    planten - plantenecologie - plantensuccessie - invasies - soorten - bodem - interacties - rizosfeer - bodemflora - bodemfauna - klimaatverandering - bodem-plant relaties - plants - plant ecology - plant succession - invasions - species - soil - interactions - rhizosphere - soil flora - soil fauna - climatic change - soil plant relationships
    As a result of recent global climate change, areas that have previously been climatically unsuitable for species have now become suitable new habitats. Many plant-species are expanding their range polewards, colonizing these newly available areas. If these species are able to expand their range faster than their natural enemies they can become released from these limiting factors. A similar mechanism has been reported for invasive plant species, introduced into foreign continent, which are often found to be released from natural enemies.
    An example of an invasive plant species that is introduced into a foreing contintinent is Carpobrotus edulis. This species was found to be negatively affected by the soil community collected in the native range, while the soil communities from the invaded range did not have an effect on plant performance compared to a sterilized control. I hypothesized that a similar reduction of the negative effects of the soil community can occur when plant species shift their range. This hypothesis was tested in a greenhouse experiment. I compared plant-soil feedbacks of three plant species that have recently expanded their range into The Netherlands, with three related native species. The non-native species experienced a significantly less negative effect of plant-soil feedback than the native plant species.
    Concurrently with these range shifts local climate is changing and this might affect plant-soil feedback as well. In order to test this plant-soil feedbacks of six range expanding and six related native species were compared at two temperatures, 20°C and 25°C daytime temperature. While again native species showed a more negative plant-soil feedback than the non-native species, temperature did not affect the strength or direction of plant-soil feedback.
    Besides pair wise comparisons between native and non-native species in the invaded range, comparisons between the native and non-native range of a range expanding plant can be used to test for effects of range shifts on plant-soil interactions. Rhizosphere soil was collected from populations of Tragopogon dubius in both the native and the recently colonized range. The soil communities from the native range had a more negative effect on plant performance than the soil communities from the invaded range as compared to sterilized controls. T. pratensis, which is native to the entire studied range, did not show this pattern.
    As plant-soil interactions are the net effect of many positive and negative factors the less negative effect of plant-soil feedback can be either a result of more positive or less negative effects of the soil community. One of the mutualistic groups of organisms, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known to be a major factor contributing to ecosystem functioning and to the maintenance of plant biodiversity and the most important soil-borne mutualists for many plants. I therefore focus on this group of soil organisms. I compared the association of T.dubius with AMF in the new part of its range with T. pratensis native to this area. Three measures for plant-fungal affinity were compared between these two plant species; the density of AMF propagules able to colonize the plant, the percentage of root length colonized by arbuscular mycorrhiza, and the composition of the resulting AMF community in the roots. This was done for four replicate soil inocula from different sites in The Netherlands. The two plant species did not differ in any of the tested factors. As there are no differences in the association with the most important mutualist the observed differences in plant-soil interaction are likely an effect of release from negative components in the soil community, e.g. soil pathogens, but further studies are needed to test this.
    Alterations in biotic interactions, through climate change and range shifts, such as a release of soil-borne natural enemies, can have significant effects on the performance of plants. Predictions of future ranges and impact of range expanding plant species on invaded ecosystems can therefore not be accurately made without a thorough understanding of its biotic interactions and the way these interactions are changed by the range shifts.

    Soil suppressiveness and functional diversity of soil microflora in organic farming systems
    Postma, J. ; Schilder, M.T. ; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L. - \ 2008
    biologische landbouw - bodemflora - schimmelziekten - thanatephorus cucumeris - streptomyces scabiei - verticillium dahliae - bodemweerbaarheid - organic farming - soil flora - fungal diseases - soil suppressiveness
    Arable fields of 10 organic farms from different locations within the Netherlands were sampled in four subsequent years. The soil samples were analysed for disease suppressiveness against Rhizoctonia solani, Streptomyces scabies and Verticillium dahliae. Furthermore, a variety of microbial characteristics and chemical and physical soil properties were assessed. All these characteristics and different environmental factors were correlated by multivariate analyses. Significant differences in soil suppressiveness were found for all three diseases. Suppressiveness against Rhizoctonia was more or less consistent between the sampled fields in 2004 and 2005. This suppressiveness correlated with higher numbers of Lysobacter and Pseudomonas antagonists, as well as fungal diversity in DGGE patterns. Furthermore, results of 2006 showed that one year of grass-clover clearly stimulated Rhizoctonia suppression. Also Streptomyces soil suppressiveness was consistent between 2004 and 2005, but it concerned other soils than the ones which were suppressive against Rhizoctonia. Streptomyces suppression correlated with higher numbers of antagonists in general, Streptomyces and the fungal/bacterial biomass ratio, but with a lower organic matter content and respiration. Soil suppressiveness against Verticillium was not consistent between the years and therefore probably not related to soil factors.
    Biodiversidade do solo em ecossistemas brasileiros
    Moreira, F.M.S. ; Siqueira, J.O. ; Brussaard, L. - \ 2008
    Lavras : Universidade Federal de Lavras - ISBN 9788587692504 - 768
    bodembiologie - bodemfauna - bodemflora - biodiversiteit - ecosystemen - micro-organismen - amazonia - brazilië - bodemecologie - bodembiodiversiteit - soil biology - soil fauna - soil flora - biodiversity - ecosystems - microorganisms - amazonia - brazil - soil ecology - soil biodiversity
    Biodiversidade do Solo em Ecossistemas Brasileiros R,00 O solo é considerado o ecossistema mais complexo e dinâmico do planeta, cuja heterogeneidade de habitats, que varia na escala de nanômetros até quilômetros, abriga enorme biodiversidade que desempenha papel essencial para a continuida¬de dos processos da biosfera e para a existência da vida. Apesar do grande volume de informações já acumuladas, que nos permite fazer tais inferências, nosso real co¬nhecimento sobre a dimensão, diversidade e papel da pedobiota ainda é incipien¬te, principalmente em se tratando da região tropical que abriga, reconhecidamente, cerca de 50 % de todas as espécies do planeta. Editar e escrever esta obra em parceria com 45 pesquisadores de diferentes instituições do Brasil e também do exterior, foi uma tarefa instigante e valiosa que nos permitiu conhecer e integrar diversas facetas da biodiversidade do solo, e assim contribuir para diversas ações e pesquisas futuras. Parte desta obra é a tradução para a língua portuguesa do livro: "Soil biodiversity in Amazonian and other ecosystems" publicado em 2006 pela CABI, cujos direitos para publicação em português foram garantidos no contrato com esta editora, pois pretendíamos atingir um público mais amplo e diverso no Brasil, visando a contribuir para a conscientização sobre este assunto tão importante e atual e que diz respeito a todos nós, detentores da maior megadiversidade entre as nações tropicais. Os onze capítulos publicados na versão em inglês foram atualizados e oito novos capítulos foram adicionados, ampliando as informações sobre um maior número de grupos de organismos relevantes. Apesar de a Biologia do Solo ser muito antiga no mundo, ela é bastante recente no Brasil, e esta obra representa a primeira publicação que aborda de forma abrangente a diversidade e função de diversos grupos chave que compõem a biota do solo. Convidamos o leitor a visitar as páginas seguintes, e esperamos que descobrindo e se conscientizando sobre a diversidade e o importante papel destes seres nos ecossistemas, ajude a conservá los.
    Interactions of plant parasitic nematodes and their natural enemies in coastal foredunes
    Piskiewicz, A.M. - \ 2007
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wim van der Putten. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047988 - 139
    ammophila arenaria - duinen - tylenchorhynchus - plantenparasitaire nematoden - natuurlijke vijanden - gastheer parasiet relaties - verdedigingsmechanismen - microbiële flora - bodemflora - ecosystemen - duingebieden - natuurgebieden - ammophila arenaria - dunes - tylenchorhynchus - plant parasitic nematodes - natural enemies - host parasite relationships - defence mechanisms - microbial flora - soil flora - ecosystems - duneland - natural areas
    Plant-ectoparasitaire nematoden zijn belangrijke bodembewonende planteneters. Het doel van dit proefschrift was de interacties tussen de ectoparasiet Tylenchorhynchus ventralis, de gastheerplant Ammophila arenaria (helmgras) en de natuurlijke vijanden van de nematode op te helderen. Deze studie was bedoeld om een meer compleet overzicht te krijgen van nematodeonderdrukkingmechanismen in buitenduinen.
    Ondergrondse communicatie: de driehoeksrelatie gastheerplant, parasitaire plant en mycorrhiza-schimmel
    Kohlen, W. ; Bouwmeester, H.J. - \ 2007
    Gewasbescherming 38 (2007)4. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 145 - 149.
    detectie - zintuiglijke waarneming - waardplanten - parasitaire planten - striga - mycorrhizaschimmels - scrophulariales - interacties - plantenvoeding - wortels - bodemflora - symbiose - detection - organolepsis - host plants - parasitic plants - striga - mycorrhizal fungi - scrophulariales - interactions - plant nutrition - roots - soil flora - symbiosis
    De ontdekking van strigolactonen laat zien dat planten op grote schaal ondergronds communiceren. Planten produceren die strigolactonen niet om te communiceren met de parasitaire planten, maar met de mycorrhiza schimmels en mogelijk ook andere voor de plant nuttige organismen. De parasitaire planten hebben een mechanisme ontwikkeld om deze communicatie af te luisteren en te gebruiken in hun eigen voordeel. Om het grote belang van deze stoffen verder te onderzoeken heeft Harro Bouwmeester begin 2006 van NWO een Vici-fellowship ontvangen ter waarde van 1.2 miljoen euro. Met een onderzoeksgroep, waartoe ook auteur Wouter Kohlen behoort, probeert hij de genen in kaart te brengen die zijn betrokken bij de productie van strigolactonen en inzicht te krijgen in hoe ze gereguleerd worden. Ook wil het team weten hoe de strigolactonen worden waargenomen door de parasitaire planten en hoe deze stoffen de interactie tussen de gastheer en beide bezoekers - parasitaire planten en mycorrhiza schimmels - reguleren. De bedoeling is dat het onderzoek niet alleen het begrip zal verbeteren van hoe gastheren communiceren met mycorrhiza schimmels en parasitaire planten, maar ook zal bijdragen aan het verminderen van een reusachtig probleem in Afrika, waar in vele landen Striga de oorzaak is van catastrofale oogstverliezen
    Soil biodiversity in amazonian and other Brazilian ecosystems
    Moreira, F.M.S. ; Siqueira, J.O. ; Brussaard, L. - \ 2006
    Wallingford UK : CABI Publishing - ISBN 9781845930325 - 280
    bodembiologie - bodemflora - bodemfauna - rizosfeer - micro-organismen - biodiversiteit - amazonia - brazilië - soil biology - soil flora - soil fauna - rhizosphere - microorganisms - biodiversity - amazonia - brazil
    This book reviews soil biodiversity and related ecological processes in one of the key biodiversity hotspots of the world, the Amazon, and nearby regions of Brazil. It covers both the tropical savannah and rainforests. Chapters describe the biology, ecology, taxonomy, geographic distribution and sampling methods for the most important soil functional groups.
    Netwerken in de bodem
    Kuyper, T.W. - \ 2006
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - 43
    mycorrhizae - bodemflora - bodembiologie - bodem - openbare redes - mycorrhizas - soil flora - soil biology - soil - public speeches
    Bekalking en toevoegen van nutriënten; evaluatie van de effecten op flora en bodemfauna; een literatuurstudie
    Wolf, R.J.A.M. ; Olsthoorn, A.F.M. - \ 2006
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra rapport 1337.4) - 27
    bossen - bodemflora - bodemfauna - kunstmeststoffen - bekalking - humus - mycorrhizae - forests - soil flora - soil fauna - fertilizers - liming - humus - mycorrhizas
    Dit rapport doet verslag van een deelonderzoek uit de Evaluatie van effectgerichte maatregelen in multifunctionele bossen 2004-2005 en is gericht op de effecten van de maatregelen bemesting en bekalking in bossen als overbruggingsmaatregel in het ka-der van het Overlevingsplan Bos en Natuur (OBN). In dit rapport worden de effecten van bekalking en mineralengiften besproken op bodem, flora en bodemfauna aan de hand van literatuurgegevens. Hierbij is gekeken naar bodemontwikkeling, humuspro-fiel, kruidlaag, mossen, mycoflora, mycorrhiza, bodemfauna. Ondanks dat veel onder-zoek gedaan is, is het nog altijd moeilijk om, zeker voor de lange termijn, voor een concrete opstand een betrouwbare prognose te geven van het effect dat een bekalking en/of een nutriëntengift zal hebben op de flora en de bodemfauna. Dit heeft te maken met de grote complexiteit van het bodemkundige systeem. Aanvullend Nederlands ex-perimenteel onderzoek zou beter inzicht kunnen geven in de lange termijn effecten. Dit zou goed kunnen in oude bemestings- en bekalkingsproefvelden. Daarnaast wordt een extensieve vorm van monitoring aanbevolen na uitvoering van maatregelen in OBN-kader.
    Toepassingsmogelijkheden van ziektewering in de praktijk
    Lamers, J.G. ; Westerdijk, C.E. - \ 2005
    Gewasbescherming 36 (2005)5. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 193 - 197.
    bodem - bodemfactoren - bodemeigenschappen - weerstand - bodemflora - bodembiologie - bodemfauna - ziekteresistentie - plantenziekten - gewasbescherming - triticum - gaeumannomyces - thanatephorus cucumeris - bloemkolen - suikerbieten - aardappelen - vollegrondsteelt - soil - edaphic factors - soil properties - resistance - soil flora - soil biology - soil fauna - disease resistance - plant diseases - plant protection - triticum - gaeumannomyces - thanatephorus cucumeris - cauliflowers - sugarbeet - potatoes - outdoor cropping
    In dit artikel gaat het over ziektewering voornamelijk als gevolg van biologische oorzaken. Dit is het gehele complex van bodemflora en -fauna die interacteren met het pathogeen, de omgeving en met het gewas. Er is een algemene ziektwering en een specifieke ziektewering te onderscheiden. Besproken worden de intensief onderzochte pathogeen-gewas combinaties tarwehalmdoder - tarwe en Rhizoctonia solani - bloemkool/suikerbiet/aardappel. Verder het maximaliseren van de bodemweerbaarheid en het tegengaan van verlaging van de bodemweerbaarheid
    Genoom analyse van ziektewerende bodems
    Overbeek, L.S. van; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L. - \ 2005
    Gewasbescherming 36 (2005)5. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 225 - 227.
    gewasbescherming - ziektepreventie - bodem - bodemfactoren - bodemeigenschappen - grondanalyse - bodemkunde - bodembiologie - bodemflora - bodemschimmelgroeiremming - antibiotica - antibacteriële eigenschappen - genen - genenbanken - dna-probes - dna - bodemvruchtbaarheid - plant protection - disease prevention - soil - edaphic factors - soil properties - soil analysis - soil science - soil biology - soil flora - soil fungistasis - antibiotics - antibacterial properties - genes - gene banks - dna probes - dna - soil fertility
    Het grootste deel van de micro-organismen in de bodem is niet bekend. Micro-organismen kunnen een stimulerende werking hebben op plant en dier en zelfs een beschermende functie uitoefenen. Opportunistische belagers van buitenaf kunnen worden afgeweerd door competitie en antibiotica productie. Beschreven wordt hoe via DNA technieken de bodempopulatie wordt gemonitord. Naast de aanwezigheid en diversiteit van micro-organismen wordt ook gekeken naar de aanwezigheid van genen die direct verantwoordelijk zijn voor bepaalde processen. Hiermee wordt een genenbank van werende bodems samengesteld. Deze genenbank wordt met DNA probes onderzocht op biologische activiteit. Onbekende antibiotica-genen worden verder onderzocht.
    The significance of microbial diversity in agricultural soil for disease suppressiveness
    Garbeva, P. - \ 2005
    Wageningen University; Leiden University. Promotor(en): J.A. van Veen; J.D. van Elsas, co-promotor(en): E.J.J. Lugtenberg; Lijbert Brussaard. - NWO - 169
    micro-organismen - bodemflora - microbiële ecologie - diversiteit - plantenziekten - bedrijfssystemen - bodembeheer - plantenziektebestrijding - microbiële diversiteit - microorganisms - soil flora - microbial ecology - diversity - plant diseases - farming systems - soil management - plant disease control - microbial diversity
    Bodemweerbaarheid tegen Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 in bloemkool
    Postma, J. ; Schilder, M.T. - \ 2005
    Gewasbescherming 36 (2005)5. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 208 - 211.
    gewasbescherming - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - plantenziekteverwekkers - bodemschimmels - thanatephorus cucumeris - waardplanten - brassica - bodemflora - weerstand - bodemfactoren - toegepast onderzoek - analyse - bloemkolen - plant protection - plant pathogenic fungi - plant pathogens - soil fungi - thanatephorus cucumeris - host plants - brassica - soil flora - resistance - edaphic factors - applied research - analysis - cauliflowers
    Rhizoctonia solani is een algemeen voorkomende bodemschimmel die bij diverse gewassen schade veroorzaakt. Dit pathogeen is moeilijk te bestrijden vanwege zijn goede overleving in de bodem. Bovendien kunnen geringe hoeveelheden van het pathogeen onder gunstige omstandigheden het gewas reeds ernstige schade toebrengen. De mate van schade is slecht te voorspellen. Het is gebleken dat onder bepaalde omstandigheden een hoge bodemweerbaarheid tegen Rhizoctonia kan ontstaan. Om meer inzicht te krijgen in het vóórkomen van bodemweerbaarheid en maatregelen die bodemweerbaarheid stimuleren, is hiernaar onderzoek gedaan bij R. solani AG 2-1 in bloemkool. De belangrijkste bevindingen zijn in dit artikel beschreven
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