Macronutrient intake and inadequacies of community-dwelling older adults, a systematic review
Borg, S.J. ter; Verlaan, S. ; Mijnarends, D. ; Schols, J.M.G.A. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Luiking, Y.C. - \ 2015
Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 66 (2015)4. - ISSN 0250-6807 - p. 242 - 255.
dietary-protein intake - dependent elderly population - nutritional-status - cognitive function - physical-activity - food-consumption - body-composition - energy-intake - people - health
Background: Anorexia of ageing may predispose older adults to under-nutrition and protein energy malnutrition. Studies, however, report a large variation in nutrient inadequacies among community-dwelling older adults. Summary: This systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the energy and macronutrient intakes and possible inadequacies in community-dwelling older adults. PubMed and EMBASE were screened up to December 2013; data from national nutrition surveys were added. Forty-six studies were included, following the PRISMA guideline. Key Messages: Mean daily energy intake was 8.9 MJ in men and 7.3 MJ in women. Mean daily carbohydrate and protein intakes were 46 and 15 En% in men and 47 and 16 En% in women, respectively. Mean daily total fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA), mono-unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and poly-unsaturated fatty acid intakes were respectively 34, 13, 13 and 5-6 En%. The carbohydrates and MUFA intakes are below the acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDR). Fat intake is relatively high, and SFA intake exceeds the upper-AMDR. Based on the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method, 10-12% of older adults do not meet the EAR for protein. To interpret a possible energy imbalance additional information is needed on physical activity, energy expenditure and body weight changes. This systematic review indicates a suboptimal dietary macronutrient distribution and a large variation in nutrient intakes among community-dwelling older adults.
Handgrip strength does not represent an appropriate measure to evaluate changes in muscle strength during an exercise intervention program in frail elderly people
Tieland, C.A.B. ; Verdijk, L. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Loon, L.J.C. van - \ 2015
International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism 25 (2015). - ISSN 1526-484X - p. 27 - 36.
randomized controlled-trial - placebo-controlled trial - healthy elderly-women - bone-mineral density - protein supplementation - physical performance - training-program - body-composition - resistance exercise - muscular strength
Although handgrip strength is considered a strong predictor of negative health outcomes, it is unclear whether handgrip strength represents a useful measure to evaluate changes in muscle strength following resistance-type exercise training in elderly people. We assessed whether measuring handgrip strength provides proper insight in the efficacy of resistance-type exercise training to increase muscle mass, strength and physical performance in frail elderly. Methods: Pre-frail and frail elderly (=65 y) were either conducting a 24 wk resistance-type exercise training or no exercise training. Before, during, and after the intervention, handgrip strength (JAMAR), lean body mass (DXA), leg strength (1-RM), and physical performance (SPPB) were assessed. Results: Handgrip strength correlated with appendicular lean mass (¿ =0.68; P
Estimation of residual energy intake and its genetic background during the growing period in pigs
Shirali, M. ; Doeschl-Wilson, A. ; Duthie, C. ; Knap, P.W. ; Kanis, E. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Roehe, R. - \ 2014
Livestock Science 168 (2014). - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 17 - 25.
feed-intake - production traits - body-composition - nitrogen-excretion - chemical-analysis - yorkshire swine - growth - parameters - association - efficiency
The aims of this study were to (i) compare models estimating residual energy intake (REI) using either lean and fat tissue growth or their proxy traits (average daily gain (ADG) and backfat thickness (BF)); (ii) determine genetic characteristics of REI at different growth stages and the entire test period; and (iii) examine 9 genetic and phenotypic relationships of REI with other production traits. Data from 315 pigs of an F2 generation were used which originated from crossing Pietrain sires with a commercial crossbred dam population. Average daily protein (APD) and lipid deposition (ALD), as measurements of lean and fat tissue growth, were obtained using the deuterium dilution technique on live animals. During growth from 60 to 140 kg, REI was estimated using 4 different models for energy intake that included, besides other systematic effects, (1) ADG and BF; (2) APD and ALD; (3) and (4) incorporated the same covariables as the first two models, respectively, but pre-adjusted for systematic effects. Genetic parameters and estimated breeding values were obtained based on univariate animal models using REML analysis. Over the entire growing period, heritabilities of different REI using different models were all estimated at 0.44 and their genetic correlations were at unity. At different growth stages heritabilities for REI were greater ranging from 0.47 to 0.50. Genetic correlations between REI estimates at different stages of growth, obtained using genetic model 4, indicated that REI at 60 to 90 kg was non-significantly (P>0.05) associated with REI at 90–120 kg (0.32±0.29) and 120–140 kg (0.28±0.28), but REI of the latter growth stages showed a significant (P
Genome-wide candidate regions for selective sweeps revealed through massive parallel sequencing of DNA across ten turkey populations
Aslam, M.L. ; Bastiaansen, J.W.M. ; Megens, H.J.W.C. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Blomberg, L. ; Groenen, M. - \ 2014
BMC Genetics 15 (2014). - ISSN 1471-2156 - 10 p.
body-composition - meleagris-gallopavo - metabolic traits - initial sequence - chicken lines - avian genome - growth - discovery - cattle - loci
Background The domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species that is largely used as a meat-type bird. Characterizing genetic variation in populations of domesticated species and associating these variation patterns with the evolution, domestication, and selective breeding is critical for understanding the dynamics of genomic change in these species. Intense selective breeding and population bottlenecks are expected to leave signatures in the genome of domesticated species, such as unusually low nucleotide diversity or the presence of exceptionally extended haplotype homozygosity. These patterns of variation in selected populations are highly useful to not only understand the consequences of selective breeding and population dynamics, but also to provide insights into biological mechanisms that may affect physiological processes important to bring changes in phenotype of interest. Results We observed 54 genomic regions in heritage and commercial turkey populations on 14 different chromosomes that showed statistically significant (P¿
Effects of alginate and resistant starch on feeding patterns, behaviour and performance in ad libitum-fed growing pigs
Souza Da Silva, C. ; Bosch, G. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Stappers, L.J.N. ; Hees, H.M.J. van; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2014
Animal 8 (2014)12. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1917 - 1927.
satiety-related hormones - adult female pigs - dietary fiber - food-intake - nonstarch polysaccharides - energy-metabolism - physical-activity - appetite regulation - body-composition - potato starch
This study assessed the long-term effects of feeding diets containing either a gelling fibre (alginate (ALG)), or a fermentable fibre (resistant starch (RS)), or both, on feeding patterns, behaviour and growth performance of growing pigs fed ad libitum for 12 weeks. The experiment was set up as a 2×2 factorial arrangement: inclusion of ALG (yes or no) and inclusion of RS (yes or no) in the control diet, resulting in four dietary treatments, that is, ALG-RS- (control), ALG+RS-, ALG-RS+, and ALG+RS+. Both ALG and RS were exchanged for pregelatinized potato starch. A total of 240 pigs in 40 pens were used. From all visits to an electronic feeding station, feed intake and detailed feeding patterns were calculated. Apparent total tract digestibility of energy, dry matter (DM), and CP was determined in week 6. Pigs’ postures and behaviours were scored from live observations in weeks 7 and 12. Dietary treatments did not affect final BW and average daily gain (ADG). ALG reduced energy and DM digestibility (P
DHA Serum Levels Were Significantly Higher in Celiac Disease Patients Compared to Healthy Controls and Were Unrelated to Depression
Hees, N.J.M. van; Giltay, E.J. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Janssen, N. ; Does, A.J.W. van der - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)5. - ISSN 1932-6203
gluten-free diet - fatty-acid-composition - major depression - body-composition - children - omega-3-fatty-acids - adolescents - prevalence - disorders - diagnosis
Objectives: Celiac disease (CD), a genetically predisposed intolerance for gluten, is associated with an increased risk of major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated whether dietary intake and serum levels of the essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) found in fatty fish play a role in this association. Methods: Cross-sectional study in 71 adult CD patients and 31 healthy volunteers, matched on age, gender and level of education, who were not using n-3 PUFA supplements. Dietary intake, as assessed using a 203-item food frequency questionnaire, and serum levels of EPA and DHA were compared in analyses of covariance, adjusting for potential confounders. Serum PUFA were determined using gas chromatography. Results: Mean serum DHA was significantly higher in CD patients (1.72 mass%) than controls (1.28 mass%) after multivariable adjustment (mean diff. 0.45 mass%; 95% CI: 0.22-0.68; p = 0.001). The mean intake of EPA plus DHA did not differ between CD patients and controls after multivariable adjustment (0.15 and 0.22 g/d, respectively; p = 0.10). There were no significant differences in intake or serum levels of EPA and DHA between any of the CD patient groups (never depressed, current MDD, minor/partially remitted MDD, remitted MDD) and controls. Conclusions: Patients on a long term gluten-free diet had similar intakes of EPA plus DHA compared to controls. Contrary to expectations, DHA serum levels were significantly higher in CD patients compared to healthy controls and were unrelated to MDD status.
High dietary protein intake, reducing or eliciting insulin resistance?
Rietman, A. ; Schwarz, J. ; Tome, D. ; Kok, F.J. ; Mensink, M.R. - \ 2014
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68 (2014). - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 973 - 979.
metabolic risk-factors - low-carbohydrate-diet - blood-glucose control - chain amino-acids - weight-loss diet - low-fat diets - skeletal-muscle - body-composition - glycemic control - mammalian target
Dietary proteins have an insulinotropic effect and thus promote insulin secretion, which indeed leads to enhanced glucose clearance from the blood. In the long term, however, a high dietary protein intake is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), a prominent group of amino acids, were recently identified to be associated with diabetes. Observational data and intervention studies do not point in the same direction regarding the effect of protein intake on insulin sensitivity and diabetes risk. Therefore, the first aim of this review will be to discuss human studies addressing high dietary protein intake and insulin action, with special attention for BCAA. In the second part, we will highlight the (patho) physiological consequences of high-protein diets regarding insulin action, in particular the role of the mechanistic target of the rapamycin pathway.
Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health: research completed?
Brouwer, I.A. ; Wanders, A.J. ; Katan, M.B. - \ 2013
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67 (2013)5. - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. 541 - 547.
conjugated linoleic-acid - coronary-heart-disease - c-reactive protein - middle-aged men - body-composition - blood-lipids - risk-factors - metabolic syndrome - serum-lipids - moderately overweight
This review asks the question if further research on trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health is needed. We therefore review the evidence from human studies on trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health, and provide a quantitative review of effects of trans fatty acid intake on lipoproteins. The results show that the effect of industrially produced trans fatty acids on heart health seen in observational studies is larger than predicted from changes in lipoprotein concentrations. There is debate on the effect of ruminant trans fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. Of special interest is conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which is produced industrially for sale as supplements. Observational studies do not show higher risks of cardiovascular disease with higher intakes of ruminant trans fatty acids. However, CLA, industrial and ruminant trans fatty acids all raise plasma low-density lipoprotein and the total to high-density lipoprotein ratio. Gram for gram, all trans fatty acids have largely the same effect on blood lipoproteins. In conclusion, the detrimental effects of industrial trans fatty acids on heart health are beyond dispute. The exact size of effect will remain hard to determine. Further research is warranted on the effects of ruminant trans fatty acids and CLA on cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.
The Positive Impact of the Early-Feeding of a Plant-Based Diet on Its Future Acceptance and Utilisation in Rainbow Trout
Geurden, I. ; Borchert, P. ; Balasubramanian, M.N. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Dupont-Nivet, M. ; Quillet, E. ; Kaushik, S.J. ; Panserat, S. ; Médale, F. - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)12. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 9 p.
salmon oncorhynchus-kisutch - atlantic salmon - amino-acids - epigenetic modifications - growth-performance - homing migration - body-composition - oil replacement - ration level - mykiss
Sustainable aquaculture, which entails proportional replacement of fish-based feed sources by plant-based ingredients, is impeded by the poor growth response frequently seen in fish fed high levels of plant ingredients. This study explores the potential to improve, by means of early nutritional exposure, the growth of fish fed plant-based feed. Rainbow trout swimup fry were fed for 3 weeks either a plant-based diet (diet V, V-fish) or a diet containing fishmeal and fish oil as protein and fat source (diet M, M-fish). After this 3-wk nutritional history period, all V- or M-fish received diet M for a 7-month intermediate growth phase. Both groups were then challenged by feeding diet V for 25 days during which voluntary feed intake, growth, and nutrient utilisation were monitored (V-challenge). Three isogenic rainbow trout lines were used for evaluating possible family effects. The results of the V-challenge showed a 42% higher growth rate (P = 0.002) and 30% higher feed intake (P = 0.005) in fish of nutritional history V compared to M (averaged over the three families). Besides the effects on feed intake, V-fish utilized diet V more efficiently than M-fish, as reflected by the on average 18% higher feed efficiency (P = 0.003). We noted a significant family effect for the above parameters (P,0.001), but the nutritional history effect was consistent for all three families (no interaction effect, P.0.05). In summary, our study shows that an early shortterm exposure of rainbow trout fry to a plant-based diet improves acceptance and utilization of the same diet when given at later life stages. This positive response is encouraging as a potential strategy to improve the use of plant-based feed in fish, of interest in the field of fish farming and animal nutrition in general. Future work needs to determine the persistency of this positive early feeding effect and the underlying mechanisms.
A comparative study of the metabolic response in rainbow trout and Nile tilapia to changes in dietary macronutrient composition
Figueiredo-Silva, A.C. ; Subramanian, S. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Panserat, S. ; Kaushik, S.J. ; Geurden, I. - \ 2013
The British journal of nutrition 109 (2013)5. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 816 - 826.
x oreochromis-aureus - european sea-bass - oncorhynchus-mykiss - body-composition - lipid level - hepatic lipogenesis - growth-performance - enzyme-activities - glucose-6-phosphatase expression - glucose-metabolism
Metabolic mechanisms underlying the divergent response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to changes in dietary macronutrient composition were assessed. Fish were fed one of four isoenergetic diets having a digestible protein-to-digestible energy (DP:DE) ratio above or below the optimal DP:DE ratio for both species. At each DP:DE ratio, fat was substituted by an isoenergetic amount of digestible starch as the non-protein energy source (NPE). Dietary DP:DE ratio did not affect growth and only slightly lowered protein gains in tilapia. In rainbow trout fed diets with low DP:DE ratios, particularly with starch as the major NPE source, growth and protein utilisation were highly reduced, underlining the importance of NPE source in this species. We also observed species-specific responses of enzymes involved in amino acid catabolism, lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis to dietary factors. Amino acid transdeamination enzyme activities were reduced by a low dietary DP:DE ratio in both species and in tilapia also by the substitution of fat by starch as the NPE source. Such decreased amino acid catabolism at high starch intakes, however, did not lead to improved protein retention. Our data further suggest that a combination of increased lipogenic and decreased gluconeogenic enzyme activities accounts for the better use of carbohydrates and to the improved glycaemia control in tilapia compared with rainbow tront fed starch-enriched diets with low DP:DE ratio.
Stiffening in gels containing whey protein isolate
Purwanti, N. ; Veen, E. van der; Goot, A.J. van der; Boom, R.M. - \ 2013
International Dairy Journal 28 (2013)2. - ISSN 0958-6946 - p. 62 - 69.
physicochemical changes - body-composition - filled gels - aggregation - stability - matrix - bars - microstructure - storage - muscle
Gels made only from whey protein isolate (WPI) stiffened over the first few days of storage, after which the textural properties remained nearly constant. However, protein gels containing WPI microparticles, at the same total protein content, stiffened over a longer period than those without microparticles. This stiffening was suggested to be the result of rearrangement of crosslinks in the gel. Addition of particles induces additional effects leading to water distribution between the protein particles and continuous phase. The stiffness change over time was different for gels made from a mixture of locust bean gum and xanthan gum containing microparticles. The stiffness of matrix gel and of gels containing 20% (w/w) microparticles was rather stable over time; microscopy analysis of these gels showed that particle size was constant after 72 h storage. Nevertheless, changes were observed in small deformation; this might be the consequence of slow rearrangements within the protein particles.
Nitrogen excretion at different stages of growth and its association with production traits in growing pigs
Shirali, M. ; Doeschl-Wilson, A. ; Knap, P.W. ; Duthie, C. ; Kanis, E. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Roehe, R. - \ 2012
Journal of Animal Science 90 (2012)6. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 1756 - 1765.
meat quality - carcass characteristics - body-composition - feed-intake - phosphorus consumption - chemical-analysis - halothane gene - performance - losses
The objectives of this study were to determine nitrogen loss at different stages of growth and during the entire growing period and to investigate the associations between nitrogen excretion and production traits in growing pigs. Data from 315 pigs of an F-2 population which originated from crossing Pietrain sires with a commercial dam line were used. Nitrogen retention was derived from protein retention as measured using the deuterium dilution technique during different stages of growth (60 to 90 kg, 90 to 120 kg, and 120 to 140 kg). Pigs were fed ad libitum with 2 pelleted diets containing 17% (60 to 90 kg) and 16.5% (90 to 120 and 120 to 140 kg) CP. Average daily nitrogen excretion (ADNE) within each stage of growth was calculated on the basis of the accumulated difference between average daily nitrogen intake (ADNI) and average daily nitrogen retention (ADNR). Least ADNE, nitrogen excretion per BW gain (NEWG) and total nitrogen excretion (TNE) were observed during growth from 60 to 90 kg. In contrast, the greatest ADNE, NEWG, and TNE were found during growth from 120 to 140 kg. Statistical analyses indicated that gender, housing type, the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) gene, and batch influenced nitrogen excretion (P <0.05), but the degree and direction of influences differed between growth stages. Gender differences showed that gilts excreted less nitrogen than barrows (P <0.05), which was associated with decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR; feed: gain) and lipid: protein gain ratio. Single-housed pigs showed reduced nitrogen excretion compared with group-housed pigs (P <0.05). In comparison to other genotypes, pigs carrying genotype NN (homozygous normal) at the RYR1 locus had the least nitrogen excretion (P <0.05) at all stages of growth except from 60 to 90 kg. The residual correlations indicated that NEWG and TNE have large positive correlations with FCR (r = 0.99 and 0.91, respectively) and moderate negative correlations with ADG (r = -0.53 and -0.48, respectively), for the entire growing period. Improvement in FCR, increase in ADG and reduction in lipid: protein gain ratio by 1 phenotypic SD reduced TNE per pig by 709 g, 307 g, and 211 g, respectively, over the entire growing period. The results indicate that nitrogen excretion changes substantially during growth, and it can be reduced most effectively by improvement of feed efficiency and to a lesser extent through the improvement of BW gain or body composition or both.
Protein supplementation improves physical performance in frail elderly people: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Tieland, C.A.B. ; Rest, O. van de; Dirks, M.L. ; Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Mensink, M.R. ; Loon, L.J.C. van; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2012
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 13 (2012)8. - ISSN 1525-8610 - p. 720 - 726.
skeletal-muscle hypertrophy - lower-extremity function - essential amino-acids - body-composition - older-adults - leucine supplementation - resistance exercise - meaningful change - whey-protein - health abc
Objectives: Protein supplementation has been proposed as an effective dietary strategy to increase skeletal muscle mass and improve physical performance in frail elderly people. Our objective was to assess the impact of 24 weeks of dietary protein supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and physical performance in frail elderly people. Design/setting/participants: A total of 65 frail elderly subjects were included and randomly allocated to either daily protein or placebo supplementation (15 g protein at breakfast and lunch). Measurements: Skeletal muscle mass (DXA), muscle fiber size (muscle biopsy), strength (1-RM), and physical performance (SPPB) were assessed at baseline, and after 12 and 24 weeks of dietary intervention. Results: Skeletal muscle mass did not change in the protein- (from 45.8 ± 1.7 to 45.8 ± 1.7 kg) or placebo-supplemented group (from 46.7 ± 1.7 to 46.6 ± 1.7 kg) following 24 weeks of intervention (P > .05). In accordance, type I and II muscle fiber size did not change over time (P > .05). Muscle strength increased significantly in both groups (P <.01), with leg extension strength tending to increase to a greater extent in the protein (57 ± 5 to 68 ± 5 kg) compared with the placebo group (57 ± 5 to 63 ± 5 kg) (treatment × time interaction effect: P = .059). Physical performance improved significantly from 8.9 ± 0.6 to 10.0 ± 0.6 points in the protein group and did not change in the placebo group (from 7.8 ± 0.6 to 7.9 ± 0.6 points) (treatment × time interaction effect: P = .02). Conclusion: Dietary protein supplementation improves physical performance, but does not increase skeletal muscle mass in frail elderly people.
The relationship between zinc intake and serum/plasma zinc concentration in children: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis
Hall Moran, V. ; Stammers, A.L. ; Wharton Medina, M. ; Patel, S. ; Dykes, F. ; Souverein, O.W. ; Dullemeijer, C. ; Perez-Rodrigo, C. ; Serra-Majem, L. ; Nissensohn, M. ; Lowe, N.M.M. - \ 2012
Nutrients 4 (2012)8. - ISSN 2072-6643 - p. 841 - 858.
iron supplementation - preschool-children - body-composition - micronutrient requirements - mexican preschoolers - adolescent girls - lactating women - school-children - vitamin-a - growth
Recommendations for zinc intake during childhood vary widely across Europe. The EURRECA project attempts to consolidate the basis for the definition of micronutrient requirements, taking into account relationships among intake, status and health outcomes, in order to harmonise these recommendations. Data on zinc intake and biomarkers of zinc status reported in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) can provide estimates of dose-response relationships which may be used for underpinning zinc reference values. This systematic review included all RCTs of apparently healthy children aged 1–17 years published by February 2010 which provided data on zinc intake and biomarkers of zinc status. An intake-status regression coefficient () was calculated for each individual study and calculated the overall pooled and SE () using random effects meta-analysis on a double log scale. The pooled dose-response relationship between zinc intake and zinc status indicated that a doubling of the zinc intake increased the serum/plasma zinc status by 9%. This evidence can be utilised, together with currently used balance studies and repletion/depletion studies, when setting zinc recommendations as a basis for nutrition policies.
Signatures of selection in the genomes of commercial and non-commercial chicken breeds
Elferink, M.G. ; Megens, H.J.W.C. ; Vereijken, A. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Groenen, M.A.M. - \ 2012
PLoS ONE 7 (2012). - ISSN 1932-6203
quantitative trait loci - single-nucleotide polymorphisms - pulmonary-hypertension syndrome - genetic diversity - ascites syndrome - body-composition - growth-factor - layer cross - dna pools - domestication
Identifying genomics regions that are affected by selection is important to understand the domestication and selection history of the domesticated chicken, as well as understanding molecular pathways underlying phenotypic traits and breeding goals. While whole-genome approaches, either high-density SNP chips or massively parallel sequencing, have been successfully applied to identify evidence for selective sweeps in chicken, it has been difficult to distinguish patterns of selection and stochastic and breed specific effects. Here we present a study to identify selective sweeps in a large number of chicken breeds (67 in total) using a high-density (58 K) SNP chip. We analyzed commercial chickens representing all major breeding goals. In addition, we analyzed non-commercial chicken diversity for almost all recognized traditional Dutch breeds and a selection of representative breeds from China. Based on their shared history or breeding goal we in silico grouped the breeds into 14 breed groups. We identified 396 chromosomal regions that show suggestive evidence of selection in at least one breed group with 26 of these regions showing strong evidence of selection. Of these 26 regions, 13 were previously described and 13 yield new candidate genes for performance traits in chicken. Our approach demonstrates the strength of including many different populations with similar, and breed groups with different selection histories to reduce stochastic effects based on single populations.
Whole genome SNP discovery and analysis of genetic diversity in Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)
Aslam, M.L. ; Bastiaansen, J.W.M. ; Elferink, M.G. ; Megens, H.J.W.C. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Blomberg, L.A. ; Fleischer, R.C. ; Tassell, C.P. van; Sonstegard, T.S. ; Schroeder, S.G. ; Groenen, M. ; Long, J.A. - \ 2012
BMC Genomics 13 (2012). - ISSN 1471-2164
single-nucleotide polymorphisms - breast meat yield - linkage disequilibrium - evolutionary genomics - sequencing technology - body-composition - holstein cattle - farm-animals - dna analysis - chicken
Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species and the second largest contributor to the world’s poultry meat production. Genetic improvement is attributed largely to selective breeding programs that rely on highly heritable phenotypic traits, such as body size and breast muscle development. Commercial breeding with small effective population sizes and epistasis can result in loss of genetic diversity, which in turn can lead to reduced individual fitness and reduced response to selection. The presence of genomic diversity in domestic livestock species therefore, is of great importance and a prerequisite for rapid and accurate genetic improvement of selected breeds in various environments, as well as to facilitate rapid adaptation to potential changes in breeding goals. Genomic selection requires a large number of genetic markers such as e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) the most abundant source of genetic variation within the genome. Results Alignment of next generation sequencing data of 32 individual turkeys from different populations was used for the discovery of 5.49 million SNPs, which subsequently were used for the analysis of genetic diversity among the different populations. All of the commercial lines branched from a single node relative to the heritage varieties and the South Mexican turkey population. Heterozygosity of all individuals from the different turkey populations ranged from 0.17-2.73 SNPs/Kb, while heterozygosity of populations ranged from 0.73-1.64 SNPs/Kb. The average frequency of heterozygous SNPs in individual turkeys was 1.07 SNPs/Kb. Five genomic regions with very low nucleotide variation were identified in domestic turkeys that showed state of fixation towards alleles different than wild alleles. Conclusion The turkey genome is much less diverse with a relatively low frequency of heterozygous SNPs as compared to other livestock species like chicken and pig. The whole genome SNP discovery study in turkey resulted in the detection of 5.49 million putative SNPs compared to the reference genome. All commercial lines appear to share a common origin. Presence of different alleles/haplotypes in the SM population highlights that specific haplotypes have been selected in the modern domesticated turkey
Control of voluntary feed intake in fish: a role for dietary oxygen demand in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets with different macronutrient profiles
Subramanian, S. ; Geurden, I. ; Figueiredo-Silva, A.C. ; Kaushik, S.J. ; Haidar, M.N. ; Verreth, J.A.J. ; Schrama, J.W. - \ 2012
The British journal of nutrition 108 (2012)8. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1519 - 1529.
trout oncorhynchus-mykiss - bass dicentrarchus-labrax - salmon salmo-salar - rainbow-trout - energy-utilization - food-intake - body-composition - dynamic action - gadus-morhua - lipid-levels
It has been hypothesised that, at non-limiting water oxygen conditions, voluntary feed intake (FI) in fish is limited by the maximal physiological capacity of oxygen use (i.e. an ‘oxystatic control of FI in fish’). This implies that fish will adjust FI when fed diets differing in oxygen demand, resulting in identical oxygen consumption. Therefore, FI, digestible energy (DE) intake, energy balance and oxygen consumption were monitored at non-limiting water oxygen conditions in Nile tilapia fed diets with contrasting macronutrient composition. Diets were formulated in a 2 × 2 factorial design in order to create contrasts in oxygen demand: two ratios of digestible protein (DP):DE (‘high’ v. ‘low’); and a contrast in the type of non-protein energy source (‘starch’ v. ‘fat’). Triplicate groups of tilapia were fed each diet twice daily to satiation for 48 d. FI (g DM/kg0·8 per d) was significantly lower (9·5 %) in tilapia fed the starch diets relative to the fat diets. The DP:DE ratio affected DE intakes (P <0·05), being 11 % lower with ‘high’ than with ‘low’ DP:DE ratio diets, which was in line with the 11·9 % higher oxygen demand of these diets. Indeed, DE intakes of fish showed an inverse linear relationship with dietary oxygen demand (DOD; R 2 0·81, P <0·001). As hypothesised (‘oxystatic’ theory), oxygen consumption of fish was identical among three out of the four diets. Altogether, these results demonstrate the involvement of metabolic oxygen use and DOD in the control of FI in tilapia.
Protein supplementation augments the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to resistance-type exercise training: a meta-analysis
Cermak, N.M. ; Res, P.T. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Saris, W.H.M. ; Loon, L.J.C. van - \ 2012
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 96 (2012)6. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1454 - 1464.
amino-acid supplementation - body-composition - dietary-protein - whey-protein - older men - dose-response - fiber adaptations - muscular strength - elderly-men - mass
Background: Protein ingestion after a single bout of resistance-type exercise stimulates net muscle protein accretion during acute postexercise recovery. Consequently, it is generally accepted that protein supplementation is required to maximize the adaptive response of the skeletal muscle to prolonged resistance-type exercise training. However, there is much discrepancy in the literature regarding the proposed benefits of protein supplementation during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in younger and older populations. Objective: The objective of the study was to define the efficacy of protein supplementation to augment the adaptive response of the skeletal muscle to prolonged resistance-type exercise training in younger and older populations. Design: A systematic review of interventional evidence was performed through the use of a random-effects meta-analysis model. Data from the outcome variables fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass, type I and II muscle fiber cross-sectional area, and 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) leg press strength were collected from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of dietary protein supplementation during prolonged (>6 wk) resistance-type exercise training. Results: Data were included from 22 RCTs that included 680 subjects. Protein supplementation showed a positive effect for FFM (weighted mean difference: 0.69 kg; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.91 kg; P <0.00001) and 1-RM leg press strength (weighted mean difference: 13.5 kg; 95% CI: 6.4, 20.7 kg; P <0.005) compared with a placebo after prolonged resistance-type exercise training in younger and older subjects. Conclusion: Protein supplementation increases muscle mass and strength gains during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in both younger and older subjects.
Protein supplementation increases muscle mass gain during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail elderly people: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Tieland, C.A.B. ; Dirks, M.L. ; Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Verdijk, L. ; Rest, O. van de; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Loon, L.C. van - \ 2012
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 13 (2012)8. - ISSN 1525-8610 - p. 713 - 719.
lower-extremity function - body-composition - older-adults - physical function - men - sarcopenia - performance - disability - ingestion - strength
Objectives Protein supplementation has been proposed as an effective dietary strategy to augment the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training in elderly people. Our objective was to assess the impact of protein supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and physical performance during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail elderly men and women. Design/setting/participants A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 2 arms in parallel among 62 frail elderly subjects (78 ± 1 year). These elderly subjects participated in a progressive resistance-type exercise training program (2 sessions per week for 24 weeks) during which they were supplemented twice daily with either protein (2 * 15 g) or a placebo. Measurements Lean body mass (DXA), strength (1-RM), and physical performance (SPPB) were assessed at baseline, and after 12 and 24 weeks of intervention. Results Lean body mass increased from 47.2 kg (95% CI, 43.5–50.9) to 48.5 kg (95% CI, 44.8–52.1) in the protein group and did not change in the placebo group (from 45.7 kg, 95% CI, 42.1–49.2 to 45.4 kg, 95% CI, 41.8–48.9) following the intervention (P value for treatment × time interaction = .006). Strength and physical performance improved significantly in both groups (P = .000) with no interaction effect of dietary protein supplementation. Conclusions Prolonged resistance-type exercise training represents an effective strategy to improve strength and physical performance in frail elderly people. Dietary protein supplementation is required to allow muscle mass gain during exercise training in frail elderly people. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01110369
How science thinks and practice acts: bridging the gap in weight management interventions for adolescents
Swan, E.C. ; Bouwman, L.I. ; Roos, N.M. de; Koelen, M. - \ 2012
Family Practice 29 (2012)1. - ISSN 0263-2136 - p. i117 - i125.
primary-care - obese adolescents - overweight adolescents - health-promotion - body-composition - controlled-trial - children - program - nutrition - diet
Background. Adolescent obesity calls for evidence-based treatment approaches given its long-term physical and psychosocial consequences. However, research shows there are many problems in the translation of scientific evidence into practice. Objective. The aim of this study was to develop science- and practice-based recommendations for the planning of future adolescent weight management interventions. Methods. We performed (i) literature reviews on intervention studies targeting treatment of obesity in adolescents and Dutch clinical guidelines for obesity as well as practice-based documents and grey literature on treating obesity and delivering health programs for adolescents and (ii) semi-structured interviews with eight clinicians and four non-clinicians working in obesity treatment, management and prevention to explore perspectives on treating adolescent obesity and using evidence in practice. Results. After merging the results from the literature reviews and interviews, four issues emerged: (i) little reporting on theoretical models used in intervention studies, Dutch clinical guidelines and semi-structured interviews; (ii) inconsistency on age-specific considerations for treating obesity in adolescents in intervention studies and Dutch clinical guidelines; (iii) inconsistency on addressing the social nature of obesity in intervention studies and Dutch clinical guidelines and (iv) how professional responsibility should be divided is unclear from intervention studies, Dutch clinical guidelines and semi-structured interviews. Conclusions. Joined action of science and practice is required for future interventions. Future interventions should include topics relevant to the stage of adolescence and give greater focus to the complex social nature of obesity. Lastly, practitioners can generate more practice-based evidence by starting their own practice-based research