Maternal allocation in cooperative breeders: Should mothers match or compensate for expected helper contributions?
Savage, J.L. ; Russell, A.F. ; Johnstone, R.A. - \ 2015
Animal Behaviour 102 (2015). - ISSN 0003-3472 - p. 189 - 197.
egg size - clutch size - trade-off - parental investment - male attractiveness - offspring quality - breeding birds - body-size - number - growth
Among species with variable numbers of individuals contributing to offspring care, an individual's investment strategy should depend upon both the size of the breeding group and the relative contributions of each carer. Existing theoretical work on carer investment rules has, however, largely focused on biparental care, and on modelling offspring provisioning in isolation from other stages of investment. Consequently, there has been little exploration of how maternal investment prior to birth might be expected to influence carer provisioning decisions after birth, and how these should be modified by the number of carers present. In particular, it is unclear whether mothers should increase or decrease their investment in each offspring under favourable rearing conditions, and whether this differs under alternative assumptions about the consequences of being ‘high quality’ at birth. We develop a game-theoretical model of cooperative care that incorporates female control of prebirth investment, and allow increased maternal investment to either substitute for later investment (giving offspring a ‘head start’) or raise the value of later investment (a ‘silver spoon’). We show that mothers reduce prebirth investment under better rearing conditions (more helpers) when investment is substitutable, leading to concealed helper effects. In contrast, when maternal prebirth investment primes offspring to benefit more from postbirth care, mothers should take advantage of good care environments by investing more in offspring both before and after birth. These results provide novel mechanisms to explain contrasting patterns of maternal investment across cooperative breeders.
The effect of developmental nutrition on life span and fecundity depends on the adult reproductive environment in Drosophila melanogaster
May, C.M. ; Doroszuk, A. ; Zwaan, B.J. - \ 2015
Ecology and Evolution 5 (2015)6. - ISSN 2045-7758 - p. 1156 - 1168.
thrifty phenotype hypothesis - ischemic-heart-disease - dietary restriction - larval nutrition - caenorhabditis-elegans - resource-allocation - prenatal exposure - history evolution - food limitation - body-size
Both developmental nutrition and adult nutrition affect life-history traits; however, little is known about whether the effect of developmental nutrition depends on the adult environment experienced. We used the fruit fly to determine whether life-history traits, particularly life span and fecundity, are affected by developmental nutrition, and whether this depends on the extent to which the adult environment allows females to realize their full reproductive potential. We raised flies on three different developmental food levels containing increasing amounts of yeast and sugar: poor, control, and rich. We found that development on poor or rich larval food resulted in several life-history phenotypes indicative of suboptimal conditions, including increased developmental time, and, for poor food, decreased adult weight. However, development on poor larval food actually increased adult virgin life span. In addition, we manipulated the reproductive potential of the adult environment by adding yeast or yeast and a male. This manipulation interacted with larval food to determine adult fecundity. Specifically, under two adult conditions, flies raised on poor larval food had higher reproduction at certain ages – when singly mated this occurred early in life and when continuously mated with yeast this occurred during midlife. We show that poor larval food is not necessarily detrimental to key adult life-history traits, but does exert an adult environment-dependent effect, especially by affecting virgin life span and altering adult patterns of reproductive investment. Our findings are relevant because (1) they may explain differences between published studies on nutritional effects on life-history traits; (2) they indicate that optimal nutritional conditions are likely to be different for larvae and adults, potentially reflecting evolutionary history; and (3) they urge for the incorporation of developmental nutritional conditions into the central life-history concept of resource acquisition and allocation
Deriving estimates of individual variability in genetic potentials of performance traits for 3 dairy breeds, using a model of lifetime nutrient partitioning
Phuong, H.N. ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Schmidely, P. ; Friggens, N.C. ; Martin, O. - \ 2015
Journal of Dairy Science 98 (2015)1. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 618 - 632.
repeated reproductive-cycles - milk-yield - lactating cow - holstein cows - body-size - cattle - parameters - efficiency - fertility - genotype
This study explored the ability of an existing lifetime nutrient partitioning model for simulating individual variability in genetic potentials of dairy cows. Generally, the model assumes a universal trajectory of dynamic partitioning of priority between life functions and genetic scaling parameters are then incorporated to simulate individual difference in performance. Data of 102 cows including 180 lactations of 3 breeds: Danish Red, Danish Holstein, and Jersey, which were completely independent from those used previously for model development, were used. Individual cow performance records through sequential lactations were used to derive genetic scaling parameters for each animal by calibrating the model to achieve best fit, cow by cow. The model was able to fit individual curves of body weight, and milk fat, milk protein, and milk lactose concentrations with a high degree of accuracy. Daily milk yield and dry matter intake were satisfactorily predicted in early and mid lactation, but underpredictions were found in late lactation. Breeds and parities did not significantly affect the prediction accuracy. The means of genetic scaling parameters between Danish Red and Danish Holstein were similar but significantly different from those of Jersey. The extent of correlations between the genetic scaling parameters was consistent with that reported in the literature. In conclusion, this model is of value as a tool to derive estimates of genetic potentials of milk yield, milk composition, body reserve usage, and growth for different genotypes of cow. Moreover, it can be used to separate genetic variability in performance between individual cows from environmental noise.
Native and Non-Native Plants Provide Similar Refuge to Invertebrate Prey, but Less than Artificial Plants
Grutters, B.M.C. ; Pollux, B.J.A. ; Verberk, W.C.E.P. ; Bakker, E.S. - \ 2015
PLoS ONE 10 (2015)4. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 11 p.
submerged aquatic vegetation - structural complexity - habitat complexity - foraging success - intraguild predation - largemouth bass - fish predation - hunting mode - body-size - food-web
Non-native species introductions are widespread and can affect ecosystem functioning by altering the structure of food webs. Invading plants often modify habitat structure, which may affect the suitability of vegetation as refuge and could thus impact predator-prey dynamics. Yet little is known about how the replacement of native by non-native vegetation affects predator-prey dynamics. We hypothesize that plant refuge provisioning depends on (1) the plant’s native status, (2) plant structural complexity and morphology, (3) predator identity, and (4) prey identity, as well as that (5) structurally similar living and artificial plants provide similar refuge. We used aquatic communities as a model system and compared the refuge provided by plants to macroinvertebrates (Daphnia pulex, Gammarus pulex and damselfly larvae) in three short-term laboratory predation experiments. Plant refuge provisioning differed between plant species, but was generally similar for native (Myriophyllum spicatum, Ceratophyllum demersum, Potamogeton perfoliatus) and non-native plants (Vallisneria spiralis, Myriophyllum heterophyllum, Cabomba caroliniana). However, plant refuge provisioning to macroinvertebrate prey depended primarily on predator (mirror carp: Cyprinus carpio carpio and dragonfly larvae: Anax imperator) and prey identity, while the effects of plant structural complexity were only minor. Contrary to living plants, artificial plant analogues did improve prey survival, particularly with increasing structural complexity and shoot density. As such, plant rigidity, which was high for artificial plants and one of the living plant species evaluated in this study (Ceratophyllum demersum), may interact with structural complexity to play a key role in refuge provisioning to specific prey (Gammarus pulex). Our results demonstrate that replacement of native by structurally similar non-native vegetation is unlikely to greatly affect predator-prey dynamics. We propose that modification of predator-prey interactions through plant invasions only occurs when invading plants radically differ in growth form, density and rigidity compared to native plants.
Heritable Environmental Variance Causes Nonlinear Relationships Between Traits: Application to Birth Weight and Stillbirth of Pigs
Mulder, H.A. ; Hill, W.G. ; Knol, E.F. - \ 2015
Genetics 199 (2015)4. - ISSN 0016-6731 - p. 1255 - 1269.
generalized linear-models - phenotypic variability - genetic-heterogeneity - residual variance - natural-populations - breeding values - litter size - body-size - selection - uniformity
There is recent evidence from laboratory experiments and analysis of livestock populations that not only the phenotype itself, but also its environmental variance, is under genetic control. Little is known about the relationships between the environmental variance of one trait and mean levels of other traits, however. A genetic covariance between these is expected to lead to nonlinearity between them, for example between birth weight and survival of piglets, where animals of extreme weights have lower survival. The objectives were to derive this nonlinear relationship analytically using multiple regression and apply it to data on piglet birth weight and survival. This study provides a framework to study such nonlinear relationships caused by genetic covariance of environmental variance of one trait and the mean of the other. It is shown that positions of phenotypic and genetic optima may differ and that genetic relationships are likely to be more curvilinear than phenotypic relationships, dependent mainly on the environmental correlation between these traits. Genetic correlations may change if the population means change relative to the optimal phenotypes. Data of piglet birth weight and survival show that the presence of nonlinearity can be partly explained by the genetic covariance between environmental variance of birth weight and survival. The framework developed can be used to assess effects of artificial and natural selection on means and variances of traits and the statistical method presented can be used to estimate trade-offs between environmental variance of one trait and mean levels of others.
Species–area relationships are modulated by trophic rank, habitat affinity, and dispersal ability
Noordwijk, C.G.E. ; Verberk, W.C.E.P. ; Turin, H. ; Heijerman, Th. ; Alders, K. ; Deconinck, W. ; Hannig, K. ; Regan, E. ; McCormack, S. ; Brown, M.J. ; Remke, E. ; Siepel, H. ; Berg, M.P. ; Bonte, D. - \ 2015
Ecology 96 (2015)2. - ISSN 0012-9658 - p. 518 - 531.
abundance-occupancy relationships - ground beetles coleoptera - insect communities - calcareous grasslands - population-density - forest fragments - tropical forest - body-size - traits - conservation
In the face of ongoing habitat fragmentation, species–area relationships (SARs) have gained renewed interest and are increasingly used to set conservation priorities. An important question is how large habitat areas need to be to optimize biodiversity conservation. The relationship between area and species richness is explained by colonization–extinction dynamics, whereby smaller sites harbor smaller populations, which are more prone to extinction than the larger populations sustained by larger sites. These colonization– extinction dynamics are predicted to vary with trophic rank, habitat affinity, and dispersal ability of the species. However, empirical evidence for the effect of these species characteristics on SARs remains inconclusive. In this study we used carabid beetle data from 58 calcareous grassland sites to investigate how calcareous grassland area affects species richness and activity density for species differing in trophic rank, habitat affinity, and dispersal ability. In addition, we investigated how SARs are affected by the availability of additional calcareous grassland in the surrounding landscape. Beetle species richness and activity density increased with calcareous grassland area for zoophagous species that are specialists for dry grasslands and, to a lesser extent, for zoophagous habitat generalists. Phytophagous species and zoophagous forest andwet-grassland specialistswere not affected by calcareous grassland area. The dependence of species on large single sites increased with decreasing dispersal ability for species already vulnerable to calcareous grassland area. Additional calcareous grassland in the landscape had a positive effect on local species richness of both dry-grassland specialists and generalists, but this effect was restricted to a few hundred meters. Our results demonstrate that SARs are affected by trophic rank, habitat affinity, and dispersal ability. These species characteristics do not operate independently, but should be viewed in concert. In addition, species’ responses depend on the landscape context. Our study suggests that the impact of habitat area on trophic interactions may be larger than previously anticipated. In small habitat fragments surrounded by a hostile matrix, food chains may be strongly disrupted. This highlights the need to conserve continuous calcareous grassland patches of at least several hectares in size.
A Mixed Modeling Approach to Predict the Effect of Environmental Modification on Species Distributions
Cozzoli, F. ; Eelkema, M. ; Bouma, T.J. ; Ysebaert, T. ; Escaravage, V. ; Herman, P.M.J. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)2. - ISSN 1932-6203
cockles cerastoderma-edule - natural animal assemblages - quantile regression - lanice-conchilega - body-size - ecosystem engineers - sediment transport - hydrobia-ulvae - abundance - oosterschelde
Human infrastructures can modify ecosystems, thereby affecting the occurrence and spatial distribution of organisms, as well as ecosystem functionality. Sustainable development requires the ability to predict responses of species to anthropogenic pressures. We investigated the large scale, long term effect of important human alterations of benthic habitats with an integrated approach combining engineering and ecological modelling. We focused our analysis on the Oosterschelde basin (The Netherlands), which was partially embanked by a storm surge barrier (Oosterscheldekering, 1986). We made use of 1) a prognostic (numerical) environmental (hydrodynamic) model and 2) a novel application of quantile regression to Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) to simulate both the realized and potential (habitat suitability) abundance of four macrozoobenthic species: Scoloplos armiger, Peringia ulvae, Cerastoderma edule and Lanice conchilega. The analysis shows that part of the fluctuations in macrozoobenthic biomass stocks during the last decades is related to the effect of the coastal defense infrastructures on the basin morphology and hydrodynamics. The methodological framework we propose is particularly suitable for the analysis of large abundance datasets combined with high-resolution environmental data. Our analysis provides useful information on future changes in ecosystem functionality induced by human activities.
Island life shapes the physiology and life history of eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis)
Matson, K.D. ; Mauck, R.A. ; Lynn, S.E. ; Tieleman, B.I. - \ 2014
Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 87 (2014)1. - ISSN 1522-2152 - p. 172 - 182.
body-size - immune-response - birds - populations - conservation - biodiversity - haptoglobin - extinction - trends - growth
Abstract Island organisms face a range of extrinsic threats to their characteristically small populations. Certain biological differences between island and continental organisms have the potential to exacerbate these threats. Understanding how island birds differ from their continental relatives may provide insight into population viability and serve as a predictive tool for conservation efforts. We compared an eastern bluebird population in Ohio with a threatened population in Bermuda in terms of the birds' development, morphology, immunology, and reproduction. These comparisons revealed that island nestlings had shorter wings and island adults had longer wings than their continental analogs. Island nestlings also had shorter tarsi than continental nestlings at day 8 posthatch, but this difference was absent at day 15 and in adults. Adults weighed less in Bermuda than in Ohio, and both nestlings and adults in Bermuda exhibited higher levels of two immunological indexes (concentrations of an acute-phase protein and titers of nonspecific antibodies). Clutch sizes and hatch rates did not differ between the island and continental populations; however, as the breeding season progressed, brood sizes declined in Bermuda, whereas no such decline occurred in Ohio. Despite these differences and differences in nestling development, island and continental parents fed their nestlings at equal rates. Overall, our results suggest that the Bermuda phenotype may be adjusted to certain aspects of the island environment but not to others. Efforts to conserve the bluebirds of Bermuda may be improved by focusing on the intraseasonal patterns in nestling mortality and, more generally, the survival probabilities of different age classes.
Feeding preferences of the aphidophagous hoverfly Sphaerophoria rueppellii affect the performance of its offspring
Amorós-Jiménez, R. ; Pineda Gomez, A.M. ; Fereres, A. ; Marcos-García, M.A. - \ 2014
BioControl 59 (2014)4. - ISSN 1386-6141 - p. 427 - 435.
episyrphus-balteatus diptera - sweet-pepper greenhouses - biological-control - hymenopteran parasitoids - floral resources - insectary plants - natural enemies - cereal aphids - host-plant - body-size
Provision of additional floral resources in the crop is a successful strategy of conservation biological control for attracting several natural enemies including predatory syrphids. However, the selection of flower species is mainly based on visiting preferences, paying little attention to the link between preference and performance. In this study, we assess the influence of feeding on flowers of two insectary plants (sweet alyssum and coriander) and flowers of a crop species (sweet pepper) on performance of the parental and first generation of the syrphid Sphaerophoria rueppellii (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Syrphidae). We found that floral preference of the adults was linked to developmental performance of their offspring. Sweet alyssum was the flower most frequently visited by syrphid adults, enhancing adult body size and egg-to adult survival of the F1 generation.
Artificial light at night causes diapause inhibition and sex-specific life history changes in a moth
Geffen, K.G. van; Grunsven, R.H.A. van; Ruijven, J. van; Berendse, F. ; Veenendaal, E.M. - \ 2014
Ecology and Evolution 4 (2014)11. - ISSN 2045-7758 - p. 2082 - 2089.
epirrita-autumnata lepidoptera - body-size - plutella-xylostella - utetheisa-ornatrix - diamondback moth - lobesia-botrana - flight ability - geometridae - biodiversity - plasticity
Rapidly increasing levels of light pollution subject nocturnal organisms to major alterations of their habitat, the ecological consequences of which are largely unknown. Moths are well-known to be attracted to light at night, but effects of light on other aspects of moth ecology, such as larval development and life-history, remain unknown. Such effects may have important consequences for fitness and thus for moth population sizes. To study the effects of artificial night lighting on development and life-history of moths, we experimentally subjected Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae) caterpillars to low intensity green, white, red or no artificial light at night and determined their growth rate, maximum caterpillar mass, age at pupation, pupal mass and pupation duration. We found sex-specific effects of artificial light on caterpillar life-history, with male caterpillars subjected to green and white light reaching a lower maximum mass, pupating earlier and obtaining a lower pupal mass than male caterpillars under red light or in darkness. These effects can have major implications for fitness, but were absent in female caterpillars. Moreover, by the time that the first adult moth from the dark control treatment emerged from its pupa (after 110 days), about 85% of the moths that were under green light and 83% of the moths that were under white light had already emerged. These differences in pupation duration occurred in both sexes and were highly significant, and likely result from diapause inhibition by artificial night lighting. We conclude that low levels of nocturnal illumination can disrupt life-histories in moths and inhibit the initiation of pupal diapause. This may result in reduced fitness and increased mortality. The application of red light, instead of white or green light, might be an appropriate measure to mitigate negative artificial light effects on moth life history.
Trophic niche-space imaging, using resource and consumer traits
Nagelkerke, L.A.J. ; Rossberg, A.G. - \ 2014
Theoretical Ecology 7 (2014)4. - ISSN 1874-1738 - p. 423 - 434.
food-web structure - lake tana ethiopia - interaction strengths - fish assemblage - barbs barbus - body-size - ecological networks - species flock - general-model - patterns
The strength of trophic (feeding) links between two species depends on the traits of both the consumer and the resource. But which traits of consumer and resource have to be measured to predict link strengths, and how many? A novel theoretical framework for systematically determining trophic traits from empirical data was recently proposed. Here we demonstrate this approach for a group of 14 consumer fish species (Labeobarbus spp., Cyprinidae) and 11 aquatic resource categories coexisting in Lake Tana in northern Ethiopia, analysing large sets of phenotypic consumer and resource traits with known roles in feeding ecology. We systematically reconstruct structure and geometry of trophic niche space, in which link strengths are predicted by the distances between consumers and resources. These distances are then represented graphically resulting in an image of trophic niche space and its occupancy. We find trophic niche to be multi-dimensional. Among the models we analysed, one with two resource and two consumer traits had the highest predictive power for link strength. Results further suggest that trophic niche space has a pseudo-Euclidean geometry, meaning that link strength decays with distance in some dimensions of trophic niche space, while it increases with distance in other dimensions. Our analysis not only informs theory and modelling, but may also be helpful for predicting trophic link strengths for pairs of other, similar species.
Sustainable fishing of inland waters
Kolding, J. ; Zwieten, P.A.M. van - \ 2014
Journal of Limnology 73 (2014)s1. - ISSN 1129-5767 - p. 132 - 148.
size-based indicators - multispecies fisheries - marine ecosystems - celtic sea - body-size - exploitation - community - abundance - patterns - fluctuations
Sustainability in fisheries has over the past decades evolved from a single species maximization concept to covering ecosystem and biodiversity considerations. This expansion of the notion, together with increased evidence that the targeted removal of selected components of the fish community may have adverse ecological consequences, poses a serious dilemma to the conventional fisheries management approach of protecting juveniles and targeting adults. Recently, the idea of balanced harvest, harvesting all components in the ecosystem in proportion to their productivity, has been promoted as a unifying solution in accordance the ecosystem approach to fisheries, but this will require a fundamental change to management. In this paper, we review theoretical background, and practicalities of securing high yielding fisheries in inland waters, with empirical examples freshwater fisheries which satisfy the extended objectives of minimal impact on community and ecosystem structure. We propose framework of ecological indicators to assess these objectives.
Mate preference of female blue tits varies with experimental photoperiod
Reparaz, L.B. ; Oers, K. van; Naguib, M. ; Doutrelant, C. ; Visser, M.E. ; Caro, S.P. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)3. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 8 p.
parus-caeruleus populations - sexually selected trait - great tits - extrapair paternity - body-size - reproductive-performance - cyanistes-caeruleus - plumage coloration - european starlings - genetic-variation
Organisms use environmental cues to time their life-cycles and among these cues, photoperiod is the main trigger of reproductive behaviours such as territory defence or song activity. Whether photoperiod is also important for another behaviour closely associated with reproduction, mate choice, is unknown. In many bird species, mate choice occurs at two different times during the annual cycle that strongly differ in daylength: in late winter when photoperiod is short and social mates are chosen, and again around egg-laying when photoperiod is longer and extra-pair mates are chosen. This duality makes the role that photoperiod plays on mate choice behaviours intriguing. We investigated the effect of photoperiod on mate choice using three experimental photoperiodic treatments (9 L:15 D, 14 L:10 D, 18 L:6 D), using blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) as a biological model. We show that female choice was stronger under long photoperiods. In addition, female blue tits spent significantly more time near males with long tarsi and long wings. This latter preference was only expressed under long photoperiods, suggesting that some indices of male quality only become significant to females when they are strongly photostimulated, and therefore that females could select their social and extra-pair mates based on different phenotypic traits. These results shed light on the roles that photoperiod may play in stimulating pair-bonding and in refining female selectivity for male traits.
Toward better application of minimum area requirements in conservation planning
Pe’er, G. ; Tsianou, M.A. ; Franz, K.W. ; Matsinos, Y.G. ; Mazaris, A.D. ; Storch, D. ; Kopsova, L. ; Verboom, J. ; Baguette, M. ; Stevens, V.M. ; Henle, K. - \ 2014
Biological Conservation 170 (2014). - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 92 - 102.
population viability analysis - home-range size - land-use change - body-size - extinction - mammals - birds - fragmentation - biodiversity - management
The Minimum Area Requirements (MAR) of species is a concept that explicitly addresses area and therefore can be highly relevant for conservation planning and policy. This study compiled a comprehensive database of MAR estimates from the literature, covering 216 terrestrial animal species from 80 studies. We obtained estimates from (a) Population Viability Analyses (PVAs) which explored a range of area-related scenarios, (b) PVAs that provided a fixed value – either MAR or the minimum viable population size (MVP) alongside other area-relevant information, and (c) empirical studies of occupancy patterns in islands or isolated habitat patches across area. We assessed the explanatory power of life-history traits (body mass, feeding guild, generation length and offspring size), environmental variables (average precipitation and temperature), research approach and phylogenetic group on MAR estimates. PVAs exploring area showed strong correlation between MAR and body mass. One to two additional variables further improved the predictive power. PVA reporting fixed MAR, and occupancy-based studies, were better explained by the combination of feeding guild, climatic variables and additional life history traits. Phylogeny had a consistent but usually small contribution to the predictive power of models. Our work demonstrates that estimating the MAR across species and taxa is achievable but requires cautious interpretation. We further suggest that occupancy patterns are likely sensitive to transient dynamics and are therefore risky to use for estimating MAR. PVA-based evaluations enable considering time horizon and extinction probability, two aspects that are critical for future implementation of the MAR concept into policy and management.
Convergence and Divergence in Direct and Indirect Life-History Traits of Closely Related Parasitoids (Braconidae: Microgastrinae)
Harvey, J.A. ; Visser, B. ; Lann, C. le; Boer, J.G. de; Ellers, J. ; Gols, R. - \ 2014
Evolutionary Biology 41 (2014)1. - ISSN 0071-3260 - p. 134 - 144.
wasp venturia-canescens - sexual size dimorphism - developmental strategies - reproductive strategies - evolutionary argument - development time - egg-production - body-size - host - hymenoptera
Closely related species in nature often show similarities in suites of direct and indirect traits that reveal aspects of their phylogenetic history. Here we tested how common descent affects trait evolution in several closely related parasitoid species in the genera Cotesia and Microplitis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) by comparing development, resource use and allocation into reproduction and maintenance. Parasitoids in these genera exhibit traits, like haemolymph feeding as larvae and external pupation that are rare in most parasitoid lineages. The growth of parasitized hosts was reduced by 90 % compared with healthy hosts, and maximum host size depended to a large extent on adult parasitoid size. Development time was longer in the more generalist parasitoids than in the specialists. Adult body mass was sexually dimorphic in all Cotesia species, with females being larger, but not in Microplitis spp. In contrast, in one of the Microplitis species males were found to be the larger sex. Egg load dynamics during the first 6 days after emergence were highly variable but egg number was typically higher in Cotesia spp. compared to Microplitis spp. Longevity in the various species was only greater in female than in male wasps in two Microplitis sp. There was a clear inverse relationship between resource use and allocation, e.g. maximum egg load and longevity, in these parasitoids. Our results reveal that adaptation to constraints imposed by host quality and availability has resulted in trait convergence and divergence at the species, genus and subfamily level.
Zooplankton, fish communities and the role of planktivory in nine Ethiopian lakes
Vijverberg, J. ; Dejen, E. ; Getahun, A. ; Nagelkerke, L.A.J. - \ 2014
Hydrobiologia 722 (2014)1. - ISSN 0018-8158 - p. 45 - 60.
fresh-water zooplankton - top-down control - trophic relationships - subtropical lake - nutrient state - body-size - sri-lanka - shallow - reservoirs - food
Fish and zooplankton populations of nine Ethiopian freshwater lakes were quantitatively sampled along a North–South gradient. Differences in altitude and latitude resulted in a temperature gradient from North to South. We tested three hypotheses: (1) the degree of zooplanktivory decreases with water temperature, i.e. from North to South; (2) the degree of zooplanktivory increases with the abundance of large-bodied zooplankton; and (3) the pattern of zooplanktivory in eutrophic Ethiopian water bodies differs from other tropical and temperate water bodies. Proportions of zooplanktivory in the fish communities did not show a geographical trend, but mainly depended on fish species, zooplankton density and the availability of large-bodied cladocerans. The degree of zooplanktivory in eutrophic Ethiopian water bodies differs from other eutrophic water bodies, both temperate and tropical. In Ethiopia, the degree of zooplanktivory can be both low and high, in contrast with other tropical water bodies where zooplanktivory is generally low and with temperate eutrophic water bodies where it is generally high. As a result, predation pressure on zooplankton by fish varies dramatically amongst Ethiopian water bodies.
Larger antelopes are sensitive to heat stress throughout all seasons but smaller antelopes only during summer in an African semi-arid environment
Shrestha, A.K. ; Wieren, S.E. van; Langevelde, F. van; Fuller, A. ; Hetem, R.S. ; Meyer, L. ; Bie, S. de; Prins, H.H.T. - \ 2014
International Journal of Biometeorology 58 (2014)1. - ISSN 0020-7128 - p. 41 - 49.
body-size - ambient-temperature - activity patterns - food-intake - behavior - endotherms - serengeti - ruminants - ecology - mammals
Heat stress can limit the activity time budget of ungulates due to hyperthermia, which is relevant for African antelopes in ecosystems where temperature routinely increases above 40 °C. Body size influences this thermal sensitivity as large bodied ungulates have a lower surface area to volume ratio than smaller ungulates, and therefore a reduced heat dissipation capacity. We tested whether the activity pattern during the day of three antelope species of different body size—eland, blue wildebeest and impala—is negatively correlated with the pattern of black globe temperature (BGT) during the day of the ten hottest days and each season in a South African semi-arid ecosystem. Furthermore, we tested whether the larger bodied eland and wildebeest are less active than the smaller impala during the hottest days and seasons. Our results show that indeed BGT was negatively correlated with the diurnal activity of eland, wildebeest and impala, particularly during summer. During spring, only the activity of the larger bodied eland and wildebeest was negatively influenced by BGT, but not for the smallest of the three species, the impala. We argue that spring, with its high heat stress, coupled with poor forage and water availability, could be critical for survival of these large African antelopes. Our study contributes to understanding how endothermic animals can cope with extreme climatic conditions, which are expected to occur more frequently due to climate change.
The Predictive Adaptive Response: Modeling the Life-History Evolution of the Butterfly
Heuvel, J. van den; Saastamoinen, M. ; Brakefield, P.M. ; Kirkwood, T.B. ; Zwaan, B.J. ; Shanley, D.P. - \ 2013
American Naturalist 181 (2013)2. - ISSN 0003-0147 - p. E28 - E42.
phenotypic plasticity - metabolic syndrome - body-size - adaptation - starvation - growth - flight - lepidoptera - temperature - hypothesis
A predictive adaptive response (PAR) is a type of developmental plasticity where the response to an environmental cue is not immediately advantageous but instead is later in life. The PAR is a way for organisms to maximize fitness in varying environments. Insects living in seasonal environments are valuable model systems for testing the existence and form of PAR. Previous manipulations of the larval and the adult environments of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana have shown that individuals that were food restricted during the larval stage coped better with forced flight during the adult stage compared to those with optimal conditions in the larval stage. Here, we describe a state-dependent energy allocation model, which we use to test whether such a response to food restriction could be adaptive in nature where this butterfly exhibits seasonal cycles. The results from the model confirm the responses obtained in our previous experimental work and show how such an outcome was facilitated by resource allocation patterns to the thorax during the pupal stage. We conclude that for B. anynana, early-stage cues can direct development toward a better adapted phenotype later in life and, therefore, that a PAR has evolved in this species
Impact of diets with a high content of greaves-meal protein or carbohydrates on faecal characteristics, volatile fatty acids and faecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy dogs
Hang, I. ; Heilmann, R.M. ; Grützner, N. ; Suchodolski, J.S. ; Steiner, J.M. ; Atroshi, F. ; Sankari, S. ; Kettunen, A. ; Vos, W.M. de; Zentek, J. ; Spillmann, T. - \ 2013
BMC Veterinary Research 9 (2013). - ISSN 1746-6148 - 8 p.
calcium-binding proteins - nutrient digestibility - intestinal inflammation - bacterial metabolites - rheumatoid-arthritis - canine calprotectin - responsive diarrhea - epithelial-cells - cystic-fibrosis - body-size
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that dietary composition influences gastrointestinal function and bacteria-derived metabolic products in the dog colon. We previously reported that dietary composition impacts upon the faecal microbiota of healthy dogs. This study aims at evaluating the dietary influences on bacteria-derived metabolic products associated with the changes in faecal microbiota that we had previously reported. We fed high-carbohydrate starch based (HCS), [crude protein: 194 g/kg, starch: 438 g/kg], high-protein greaves-meal (HPGM), [crude protein: 609 g/kg, starch: 54 g/kg] and dry commercial (DC), [crude protein: 264 g/kg, starch: 277 g/kg] diets, and studied their effects on the metabolism of the colonic microbiota and faecal calprotectin concentrations in five Beagle dogs, allocated according to the Graeco-Latin square design. Each dietary period lasted for three weeks and was crossed-over with washout periods. Food intake, body weight, and faecal consistency scores, dry matter, pH, ammonia, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), and faecal canine calprotectin concentrations were determined. RESULTS: Faecal ammonia concentrations decreased with the HCS diet. All dogs fed the HPGM diet developed diarrhoea, which led to differences in faecal consistency scores between the diets. Faecal pH was higher with the HPGM diet. Moreover, decreases in propionic and acetic acids coupled with increases in branched-chain fatty acids and valeric acid caused changes in faecal total VFAs in dogs on the HPGM diet. Faecal canine calprotectin concentration was higher with the HPGM diet and correlated positively with valeric acid concentration. CONCLUSIONS: The HPGM diet led to diarrhoea in all dogs, and there were differences in faecal VFA profiles and faecal canine calprotectin concentrations
Larval nutrition differentially affects adult fitness and Plasmodium development in the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi
Takken, W. ; Smallegange, R.C. ; Vigneau, A.J. ; Johnston, V. ; Brown, M. ; Mordue-Luntz, A.J. ; Billingsley, P.F. - \ 2013
Parasites & Vectors 6 (2013). - ISSN 1756-3305
body-size - aedes-aegypti - reproductive success - rapid-determination - sugar availability - yoelii-nigeriensis - mosquito - infection - culicidae - diptera
BACKGROUND: Mosquito fitness is determined largely by body size and nutritional reserves. Plasmodium infections in the mosquito and resultant transmission of malaria parasites might be compromised by the vector's nutritional status. We studied the effects of nutritional stress and malaria parasite infections on transmission fitness of Anopheles mosquitoes. METHODS: Larvae of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and An. stephensi were reared at constant density but with nutritionally low and high diets. Fitness of adult mosquitoes resulting from each dietary class was assessed by measuring body size and lipid, protein and glycogen content. The size of the first blood meal was estimated by protein analysis. Mosquitoes of each dietary class were fed upon a Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis-infected mouse, and parasite infections were determined 5 d after the infectious blood meal by dissection of the midguts and by counting oocysts. The impact of Plasmodium infections on gonotrophic development was established by dissection. RESULTS: Mosquitoes raised under low and high diets emerged as adults of different size classes comparable between An. gambiae and An. stephensi. In both species low-diet females contained less protein, lipid and glycogen upon emergence than high-diet mosquitoes. The quantity of larval diet impacted strongly upon adult blood feeding and reproductive success. The prevalence and intensity of P. yoelii nigeriensis infections were reduced in low-diet mosquitoes of both species, but P. yoelii nigeriensis impacted negatively only on low-diet, small-sized An. gambiae considering survival and egg maturation. There was no measurable fitness effect of P. yoelii nigeriensis on An. stephensi. CONCLUSIONS: Under the experimental conditions, small-sized An. gambiae expressed high mortality, possibly caused by Plasmodium infections, the species showing distinct physiological concessions when nutrionally challenged in contrast to well-fed, larger siblings. Conversely, An. stephensi was a robust, successful vector regardless of its nutrional status upon emergence. The data suggest that small-sized An. gambiae, therefore, would contribute little to malaria transmission, whereas this size effect would not affect An. stephensi.