Potential benefits of satiety to the consumer: scientific considerations
Hetherington, M.M. ; Cunningham, K. ; Dye, L. ; Gibson, E.L. ; Gregersen, N.T. ; Halford, J.C.G. ; Lawton, C.L. ; Lluch, A. ; Mela, D.J. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2013
Nutrition Research Reviews 26 (2013). - ISSN 0954-4224 - p. 22 - 38.
low-calorie diet - high-protein-diet - body-weight loss - disentangling food reward - sensory-specific satiety - glucagon-like peptide-1 - cognitive performance - energy-intake - appetite sensations - eating behavior
Foods and dietary patterns that enhance satiety may provide benefit to consumers. The aim of the present review was to describe, consider and evaluate research on potential benefits of enhanced satiety. The proposal that enhanced satiety could only benefit consumers by a direct effect on food intake should be rejected. Instead, it is proposed that there is a variety of routes through which enhanced satiety could (indirectly) benefit dietary control or weight-management goals. The review highlights specific potential benefits of satiety, including: providing appetite control strategies for consumers generally and for those who are highly responsive to food cues; offering pleasure and satisfaction associated with low-energy/healthier versions of foods without feeling ‘deprived’; reducing dysphoric mood associated with hunger especially during energy restriction; and improved compliance with healthy eating or weight-management efforts. There is convincing evidence of short-term satiety benefits, but only probable evidence for longer-term benefits to hunger management, possible evidence of benefits to mood and cognition, inadequate evidence that satiety enhancement can promote weight loss, and no evidence on which consumers would benefit most from satiety enhancement. The appetite-reducing effects of specific foods or diets will be much more subtle than those of pharmaceutical compounds in managing hunger; nevertheless, the experience of pharmacology in producing weight loss via effects on appetite suggests that there is potential benefit of satiety enhancement from foods incorporated into the diet to the consumer.
|Induction of satiation via aroma in dairy products
Ruijschop, R. ; Boelrijk, A.E.M. ; Giffel, M.C. te; Graaf, C. de; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S. - \ 2009
Australian Journal of Dairy Technology 64 (2009)1. - ISSN 0004-9433 - p. 50 - 53.
body-weight loss - flavor perception - energy-intake - food-intake - release - humans - satiety - maintenance - orthonasal - viscosity
Sensory satiation is probably one of the most important factors in meal termination. In this paper, the use of aromas to induce satiation via dairy products is illustrated by means of two examples: the use of organic acids, obtained by fermentation; and altering the extent of retro-nasal aroma release. In a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised cross-over preload-test meal design, it was demonstrated that a dairy beverage fermented with propionic acid bacteria was perceived as more satiating than a non-fermented equivalent dairy beverage. Satiety-inducing effects lasted up to 50 min. However, ad libitum energy intake was not reduced in the time frame tested. Another approach is to increase satiation by making use of differences in retro-nasal aroma release profiles. It is known that the physical structure of a food product is important for the extent of retro-nasal aroma release, i.e. solid foods generate a longer retro-nasal aroma release compared to liquid foods. This is possibly also related to satiation. Using olfactometry, aroma stimuli can be administered separately from other stimuli, such as different ingredients, textures and tastes. Hence, the relative importance of aroma stimuli apart from other stimuli on satiation mechanisms can be investigated. In a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised cross-over full factorial design, it was shown that perceived satiation can be increased by altering the extent of aroma release during consumption of a liquid dairy product