Marine assessment guideline for BOPEC and Nustar operations
Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Meesters, H.W.G. ; Becking, L.E. - \ 2016
IMARES (Report / IMARES C056/16) - 26
environmental monitoring - bonaire - sint eustatius - oil spills - bleaching - saba - milieumonitoring - bonaire - sint eustatius - olieverontreinigingen - bleking - saba
As part of the permit, Rijkswaterstaat requested an ecological monitoring and evaluation framework guideline to accompany the permit-application for the activities of BOPEC (Bonaire) and Nustar (St. Eustatius), related to the activities of the loading and unloading of oil and oil-related-products. IMARES has been asked to develop a tailored guideline to assist in the design of a monitoring plan by BOPEC and Nustar. The current document is the requested guideline. A complete monitoring proposal by the license holder must subsequently be developed on the basis of this guideline. The generic framework developed by Becking and Slijkerman (2012) was applied and made more specific for this guideline. The basic steps undertaken were: 1. Establishing the context in which the project will take place. 2. Scoping of the project activities, their pressures and the environmental descriptors relevant to the potential impact area. 3. Assessment and evaluation of the anticipated pressures on the selected biological and environmental descriptors. The guidance thus contains an overview of relevant activities and their pressures. In addition, biological descriptors were selected based on the most important relationships to the planned activities and anticipated pressures. The scope of monitoring is based on the major linkages between activities, -pressures and -ecosystem descriptors. A distinction is made between baseline and accident monitoring. Baseline monitoring is necessary to guarantee that background levels and patterns of change over time are known. This should be done also at control sites to make sure that a natural pattern (e.g. bleaching) is not confused as an effect of pollution on the impact sites. Both control sites and impact sites to perform baseline monitoring are recommended in this report. Accident monitoring is the assessment of the environmental status following accidents. Polluted sites should be identified and monitored. In parallel, all baseline monitoring should be continued. Due to wind and currents, there is a high likelihood that oil spilled at Nustar will float to the coast of Saba. Therefor it is necessary to check the coast of Saba as well after an oil spill. The baseline monitoring should be a continuous process with and regular effort, while accident related monitoring is incidental, only but directly after a spill or accident. Each type of monitoring requires different frequencies (Chapter 6).
Coral restoration Bonaire : an evaluation of growth, regeneration and survival
Meesters, H.W.G. ; Boomstra, B. ; Hurtado-Lopez, N. ; Montbrun, A. ; Virdis, F. - \ 2015
Den Helder : IMARES Wageningen UR (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C152/15) - 33
coral - ecological restoration - marine ecology - bonaire - koraal - ecologisch herstel - mariene ecologie - bonaire
The Coral restoration of Staghorn (Acropora cervicornis) and Elkhorn (A. palmata) as practiced by the Coral Restoration Foundation Bonaire (CRFB) is shown to be highly successful in terms of growth and survival of new colonies, in both nurseries and transplant locations. Coral restoration is expected to contribute to ecosystem services and increase coastal protection, biodiversity, fish biomass, and tourism.
Populatieschatting geiten op Bonaire
Lagerveld, S. ; Debrot, A.O. ; Bertuol, P. ; Davaasuren, N. ; Neijenhuis, F. - \ 2015
Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C115/15) - 48
geiten - tellingen - karteringen - bonaire - goats - censuses - surveys - bonaire
Op basis van 75 lijntransecten van 500 m worden in dit verslag de eerste kwantitatieve schattingen gedaan van het geitenbestand van Bonaire. Deze transecten werden met behulp van het programma Distance 6.2 via een ‘random systematic design’ over het eiland verdeeld. Het veldonderzoek heeft plaatsgevonden in de periode 6 - 13 december 2014.
Quick scan to assess the prevalence of dermal parasites among coral reef fishes of Bonaire
Graaf, M. de; Simal, F. - \ 2015
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C055/15) - 15
waterkwaliteit - ecotoxicologie - vissen - caribisch gebied - bonaire - water quality - ecotoxicology - fishes - caribbean - bonaire
On Bonaire visual surveys were conducted at 17 different sites between 7 and 16 March 2015. The selection of sites was largely based on the water quality study of Slijkerman et al. (2014), resulting in a selection of sites known to vary in water quality (e.g. City-Salt locations versus northern locations). Some sites were added to the ‘quick scan’ as a reference based on assumed good water quality (e.g. east coast with minimal human influence) or as additional sites potential eutrophic sites based on the presence of deep-water cyanobacterial mats. In total 16040 coral reef fish were visually inspected for the presence of dermal parasites.
Odonata of Curacao, southern Caribbean, with an update to the fauna of the ABC islands
Paulson, D.R. ; Haseth, C. de; Debrot, A.O. - \ 2014
The International Journal of Odonatology 17 (2014)4. - ISSN 1388-7890 - p. 237 - 249.
fresh-water - west-indies - bonaire - libellulidae - anisoptera - orthemis - fishes - aruba
A three-year field study (January 2011–December 2013) of the Odonata of Curaçao, supported by photos and exuvial collections, recorded a total of 21 species from the island, almost doubling its previously known fauna. The lists of Odonata known from Aruba and Bonaire were also updated by specimen and photo records, and 24 species are now known from these three islands. During the period of the study, odonates decreased in abundance and diversity in Curaçao, apparently because heavy rains just before the study began led to colonization of the island by several nonresident species that subsequently declined and disappeared as wetlands diminished during a period with normal rainfall
The potential Outstanding Universal Value and natural heritage values of Bonaire National Marine Park: an ecological perspective
Beek, I.J.M. van; Cremer, J.S.M. ; Meesters, H.W.G. ; Becking, L.E. ; Langley, J.M. - \ 2014
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C145/14) - 51
mariene gebieden - nationale parken - koraalriffen - caribisch gebied - bonaire - marine areas - national parks - coral reefs - caribbean - bonaire
The Bonaire National Marine Park is an outstanding example of a fringing coral reef that has evolved to one of the most diverse reef in the Caribbean. The Bonaire Marine Park, protected since 1979 and declared a National Park in 1999, includes one of the healthiest coral reef in the Caribbean and two Ramsar sites which include mangrove forests and seagrass meadows, globally important for 4 species of endangered species of marine turtles and at least 29 species of migratory waterbirds and a nursery habitat for many reef fish species.
Proximate response of fish, conch, and sea turtles to the presence of the invasive seagrass Halophila stipulacea in Bonaire
Becking, L.E. ; Bussel, T. ; Engel, M.S. ; Christianen, M. ; Debrot, A.O. - \ 2014
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C118/14) - 35
lespedeza stipulacea - invasieve soorten - marien milieu - zeeplanten - bonaire - lespedeza stipulacea - invasive species - marine environment - marine plants - bonaire
In this report we examined the proximate response of fish assemblages, queen conch, and sea turtles on H. stipulacea meadows in Lac Bay, Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands. Here we primarily focused on the differences between the invasive species H. stipulacea and the principal species of native sea grass in Lac Bay, namely turtle grass Thalassia testudinum.
Bonaire Deep Reef Expedition I
Becking, L.E. ; Meesters, H.W.G. - \ 2014
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C006/14) - 50
aquatische ecologie - fauna - mariene gebieden - bonaire - biodiversiteit - aquatic ecology - fauna - marine areas - bonaire - biodiversity
From 30 May – 1 June 2013 the deep reef of Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands, was explored with the aid of the “Curasub” submarine of Substation Curaçao. The shallow reefs of the Caribbean are considered a biodiversity-hotspot, an area with exceptional diversity of plants, animals and ecosystems yet surprisingly little is known about the flora and fauna of the deeper reefs. Particularly the deep reefs of Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba have hardly been explored. This represents a critical knowledge gap for developing future reef policies and management practices. In order to adequately protect the ecosystem and construct sustainable management plans it is essential to document the biodiversity and to gain an understanding of what processes keep it in place.
Seed germination methods for native Caribbean trees and shrubs : with emphasis on species relevant for Bonaire
Burg, W.J. van der; Freitas, J. ; Debrot, A.O. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Plant Research International, Business Unit Agrosystems Research (Report / Plant Research International 551) - 60
zaadkieming - bomen - struiken - zaden - opslag van zaden - zaad verzamelen - kiemrust - bonaire - caribisch gebied - seed germination - trees - shrubs - seeds - seed storage - seed collection - seed dormancy - bonaire - caribbean
This paper is intended as a basis for nature restoration activities using seeds of trees and (larger) shrubs native to Bonaire with the aim of reforestation. It describes the main seed biology issues relevant for species from this region, to facilitate decisions on time and stage of harvesting, safe storage, breaking dormancy and germinating seeds and planting the young trees in the field. The paper also emphasises that natural process of seedling establishment and succession must be observed in order to be successful. The choice of species and method of protection once planted in nature will prove essential. The paper ends with stressing that such a reforestation activity needs to be planned far ahead: seeds must be collected from tree species taking care of genetic diversity and their storage potential. Recalcitrant seeds (see paper) must be treated carefully and in a different way.
Key elements towards a Joint Invasive Alien Species Strategy for the Dutch Caribbean
Smith, S.R. ; Burg, W.J. van der; Debrot, A.O. ; Buurt, G. van; Freitas, J.A. de - \ 2014
Den Helder, Wageningen : IMARES / PRI (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C020/14) - 102
invasieve exoten - zoetwaterecologie - terrestrische ecologie - parasitaire onkruiden - inventarisaties - bonaire - caribisch gebied - invasive alien species - freshwater ecology - terrestrial ecology - parasitic weeds - inventories - bonaire - caribbean
Recent inventories have documented no less than 211 exotic alien species in the wild for the Dutch Caribbean. These amount to no less than 27 introduced marine species, 65 introduced terrestrial plants, 72 introduced terrestrial and freshwater animals and 47 introduced agricultural pests and diseases. A list of these species, pests and diseases are found in resp. Debrot et al. (2011), Van der Burg et al. 2012, and Van Buurt and Debrot (2012, 2011). The rate of introductions and establishment of invasive alien species (IAS) worldwide has grown rapidly as a result of increasing globalisation. Invasive species cause major ecological effects (decimating native flora or fauna populations) as well as economic losses to these islands, across sectors such as agriculture (diseases, weeds and vectors), fisheries (fish diseases and the lionfish), industry (rodents and termites), tourism (roadside weedy species) and public health (mosquitos). Recently in Curaçao the kissing bug Triatoma infestans was found; this is a vector for Chagas disease. It almost certainly came in with palm leaves imported from South America to be used as roof covering for recreational beach “palapa’s”.
Salina Goto and reduced flamingo abundance since 2010: Ecological and ecotoxicological research
Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Vries, P. de; Kotterman, M.J.J. ; Cuperus, J. ; Kwadijk, C.J.A.F. ; Wijngaarden, R. van - \ 2013
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C211/13) - 72
phoenicopteridae - ecologie - chemie - toxicologie - bonaire - phoenicopteridae - ecology - chemistry - toxicology - bonaire
In 2010 a petrochemical fire took place at the BOPEC oil terminals on Bonaire. These facilities are located on the shores of the Goto lake, a legally protected RAMSAR wetland and important flamingo foraging area. Before the fire, daily flamingo counts averaged approximately 400 birds that used the area to feed on Artemia (brine shrimp) and Ephydra (brine fly larvae). Immediately after the fire, flamingo densities plummeted to nearly none and have not recovered. A large amount of fire retardants were used to combat the fire, and were hypothesised to be a potential cause for the flamingo declines. Our analyses of 15 years of baseline flamingo monitoring data show that rainfall does influence flamingo densities but only on the short-term and steering seasonal dynamics of flamingos. Therefore the rainfall event/change in the rainfall regime cannot account for lasting absence of flamingos. Nearby control lakes that were not affected by the fire showed no lasting reduction in flamingo densities, but instead an increase due to the birds no longer feeding in Goto.
Waterquality of the coastal zone of Bonaire: results field monitoring 2011 - 2013
Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Leon, R. ; Vries, P. de; Koelemij, E.I. - \ 2013
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C158/13) - 66
eutrofiëring - mariene gebieden - mariene ecologie - waterverontreiniging - beschermde gebieden - bonaire - caribisch gebied - eutrophication - marine areas - marine ecology - water pollution - reserved areas - bonaire - caribbean
Eutrophication is a common threat to the integrity of coral reefs as it can cause altered balance and integrity of the reef ecosystem. On the island Bonaire the former waste water treatment is limited which is a point of concern to the quality of the marine park. The reef of Bonaire faces nutrient input by various sources, of which enriched groundwater outflow from land is considered to be a substantial one. It is assumed that groundwater is enriched with nutrients e.g. due to leaking septic tanks.
Ecological rehabilitation of Lac Bonaire by wise management of water and sediments
Wosten, J.H.M. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2448) - 40
mangroves - zoutgehalte - sediment - vee - waterkwaliteit - waterbeheer - herstel - ecologisch herstel - bonaire - mangroves - salinity - sediment - livestock - water quality - water management - rehabilitation - ecological restoration - bonaire
Lac Bonaire is confronted with a gradually decreasing open water area because mangrove is occupying this area. At the same time mangrove growth deteriorates at the back of the mangrove belt, the area of hyper saline flats gradually increases and sediment is deposited in the bay area. During a field visit, the most prominent problems are identified and concrete management actions are proposed for the ecological rehabilitation of Lac Bonaire.
Towards a predictive model supporting coral reef management of Bonaire's coral reef. Progress report 2012
Meesters, H.W.G. ; Brinkman, A.G. ; Duyl, F.C. van; Gerla, D.J. ; Groot, A.V. de; Meer, J. van der; Ruardij, P. ; Vries, P. de - \ 2013
Den Burg : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C070/13) - 10
coral reefs - models - environmental management - aquatic environment - bonaire - koraalriffen - modellen - milieubeheer - aquatisch milieu - bonaire
Bird communities of contrasting semi-natural habitats of Lac bay, Bonaire, during the fall migration season, 2011
Debrot, A.O. ; Bemmelen, R.S.A. van; Ligon, J. - \ 2013
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C165/12) - 25
habitats - vogels - mangroves - monitoring - nationale parken - caribisch gebied - bonaire - habitats - birds - mangroves - monitoring - national parks - caribbean - bonaire
The mangrove and seagrass lagoon of Lac Bay on Bonaire covers an area of roughly 700 ha. It is home to endangered green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, and the Caribbean queen conch, Strombus gigas, and is a roosting and breeding area for several birds. Based on its nature values this 7 km2 bay has been designated as a legally protected Ramsar site. The area falls under the management responsibility of the National Parks Foundation of Bonaire.
Water quality monitoring Bonaire: Results monitoring November 2011 and recommendations for future research
Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Leon, R. ; Vries, P. de; Koelemij, E.I. - \ 2012
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C028/12) - 77
waterkwaliteit - eutrofiëring - monitoring - mariene gebieden - bonaire - caribisch gebied - water quality - eutrophication - monitoring - marine areas - bonaire - caribbean
On the island Bonaire, eutrophication is a point of serious concern, affecting the coral reefs in the marine park. Eutrophication can cause altered balance of the reef ecosystem because algae can outcompete corals, leading to a disturbed composition and deterioration of the biodiversity of the reef . The reef of Bonaire faces nutrient input by various sources, of which enriched groundwater outflow from land to the reef is considered to be a substantial one. Groundwater is enriched with nutrients e.g. due to leaking septic tanks. In order to reduce the input of nutrients on the reef via sewage water, a water treatment plant is being built on Bonaire. The treatment of sewage water will be extended in 2012 with a sewage system covering the so called sensitive zone, the urbanised area from Hato to Punt Vierkant. Based on the dimensions of the treatment plant and estimated connections to the plant, it can be assumed that a total of 17520-35040 kg of Nitrogen a year is removed from the sensitive zone, and will not leach out to the sea at the western coast of Bonaire. No estimates are known of the contribution of other sources to the total nitrogen load.
Water quality monitoring Bonaire: Identifications of indicators, methods and locations
Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Smith, S.R. ; Koelemij, E.I. ; Rippen, A.D. - \ 2012
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C027/12) - 52
waterkwaliteit - eutrofiëring - septische tanks - mariene gebieden - rioolwaterzuivering - waterbeleid - bonaire - caribisch gebied - water quality - eutrophication - septic tanks - marine areas - sewage treatment - water policy - bonaire - caribbean
On the island Bonaire, eutrophication is a point of serious concern, affecting the coral reefs in the marine park. Eutrophication can cause altered balance of the reef ecosystem because algae shall outcompete corals, eventually leading to a disturbed composition of the reef. The reef of Bonaire faces nutrient input by various sources, of which enriched groundwater outflow from land to the reef is considered to be a substantial source. Groundwater is enriched with nutrients due to the e.g. leaking septic tanks. In order to reduce the input of nutrients on the reef via sewage water, a water treatment plant is being built on Bonaire.
Bonaire Natioanl Marine Park (BNMP) op weg naar werelderfgoed
Cremer, J.S.M. ; Meesters, H.W.G. - \ 2012
Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C140/12) - 21
mariene gebieden - caribisch gebied - bonaire - aquatische ecologie - cultureel erfgoed - natuurreservaten - marine areas - caribbean - bonaire - aquatic ecology - cultural heritage - nature reserves
Het Bonaire National Marine Park (BNMP) staat sinds 2011 op de Nederlandse Voorlopige lijst van het Werelderfgoed. Dit betekent dat een nominatie kan worden ingediend om als natuurlijk werelderfgoed erkend te worden. In dit rapport wordt beschreven welke stappen nodig zijn om tot een nominatie voor de status van werelderfgoed te komen.
Baseline surveys of Lac Bay benthic and fish communities, Bonaire
Debrot, A.O. ; Hylkema, A. ; Vogelaar, W. ; Meesters, H.W.G. ; Engel, M.S. ; Leon, R. ; Prud'homme van Reine, W.F. ; Nagelkerken, I. - \ 2012
Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C129/12) - 52
mariene gebieden - baaien - caribisch gebied - bonaire - aquatische ecologie - natuurreservaten - marine areas - bays - caribbean - bonaire - aquatic ecology - nature reserves
Lac Bay is a clear-water, 5 m deep shallow tropical lagoon of 7 km2 opening onto the wave and wind exposed east coast of the island of Bonaire, southern Caribbean. Over the last decades land reclamation by mangroves in Lac has been expanding the surface of turbid, saline backwaters into the bay at an average rate of 2.34 ha per year. This process threatens the future habitat quality and critical ecological function the bay fulfills as the most important fish nursery habitat for Bomaire
Baseline survey of anthropogenic pressures for the Lac Bay ecosystem, Bonaire
Debrot, A.O. - \ 2012
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C092/12) - 71
natuurbescherming - ecosysteembeheer - menselijke invloed - verontreiniging - recreatieactiviteiten - zeereservaten - bonaire - nature conservation - ecosystem management - human impact - pollution - recreational activities - marine protected areas - bonaire
Lac Bay of Bonaire is a shallow non-estuarine lagoon of about 700 hectares, separated from the open sea by a shallow coral barrier-reef. It possesses the only major concentration of seagrass beds and mangroves of the island. It is a designated Ramsar wetland of international significance, an Birdlife International IBA (Important Bird Area) and also fulfills a critical fish nursery function for the reefs of the island. The bay has consequently been designated as a protected area and is managed by Stinapa-Bonaire. The bay has been losing effective seagrass nursery habitat surface and quality as a consequence of mangrove-driven land acclamation. This in-turn is potentially being exacerbated by human-mediated eutrophication and erosion caused by agricultural and animal husbandry in the wider watershed, as well as other factors. The number of visitors to Bonaire and to Lac has been increasing dramatically over the last decades particularly from cruise ships. Yet little has been done to document and map the various types of human use that occur on and in the vicinity of the bay which might affect the ecological carrying capacity of the bay and the critical roles it plays. In this survey we do preliminary mapping and analysis of the level and distribution of human activity in and around Lac and discuss what possible threats these may entail for the environment of the bay.