Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Data from: Positive shrub-tree interactions facilitate woody encroachment in boreal peatlands
    Holmgren, M. ; Lin, C.Y. ; Murillo, J.E. ; Nieuwenhuis, A. ; Penninkhof, J.M. ; Sanders, N. ; Bart, T. van; Veen, H. van; Vasander, H. ; Vollebregt, M.E. ; Limpens, J. - \ 2015
    Wageningen UR
    boreal forests - climate change - competition - critical transition - ecosystem shift - peatbog - positive interactions - resilience - tree seedling establishment
    Boreal ecosystems are warming roughly twice as fast as the global average, resulting in woody expansion that could further speed up the climate warming. Boreal peatbogs are waterlogged systems that store more than 30% of the global soil carbon. Facilitative effects of shrubs and trees on the establishment of new individuals could increase tree cover with profound consequences for the structure and functioning of boreal peatbogs, carbon sequestration and climate. We conducted two field experiments in boreal peatbogs to assess the mechanisms that explain tree seedling recruitment and to estimate the strength of positive feedbacks between shrubs and trees. We planted seeds and seedlings of Pinus sylvestris in microsites with contrasting water-tables and woody cover and manipulated both shrub canopy and root competition. We monitored seedling emergence, growth and survival for up to four growing seasons and assessed how seedling responses related to abiotic and biotic conditions. We found that tree recruitment is more successful in drier topographical microsites with deeper water-tables. On these hummocks, shrubs have both positive and negative effects on tree seedling establishment. Shrub cover improved tree seedling condition, growth and survival during the warmest growing season. In turn, higher tree basal area correlates positively with soil nutrient availability, shrub biomass and abundance of tree juveniles. Synthesis. Our results suggest that shrubs facilitate tree colonization of peatbogs which further increases shrub growth. These facilitative effects seem to be stronger under warmer conditions suggesting that a higher frequency of warmer and dry summers may lead to stronger positive interactions between shrubs and trees that could eventually facilitate a shift from moss to tree-dominated systems.
    The danger of mycorrhizal traps?
    Kuyper, T.W. ; Kiers, E.T. - \ 2014
    New Phytologist 203 (2014)2. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 352 - 354.
    ectomycorrhizal fungi - nitrogen limitation - boreal forests - mutualism - plants - competition - symbiosis - patterns - partners - markets
    The impact of dynamic processes on chemistry in atmospheric boundary layers over tropical and boreal forest
    Ouwersloot, H.G. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Maarten Krol; J. Lelieveld, co-promotor(en): J. Vila -Guerau de Arellano; Laurens Ganzeveld. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736611 - 208
    tropische bossen - boreale bossen - atmosferische grenslaag - atmosfeer - grenslaagmeteorologie - chemie - luchtkwaliteit - tropical forests - boreal forests - atmospheric boundary-layer - atmosphere - boundary-layer meteorology - chemistry - air quality

    Improving our knowledge of the atmospheric processes that drive climate and air quality is very relevant for society. The application of this knowledge enables us to predict and mitigate the effects of human induced perturbations to our environment. Key factors in the current and future climate evolution are related to the emissions and atmospheric presence of carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrocarbons. The latter group of chemical species, on which special emphasis is placed in this dissertation, control the capacity of the atmosphere to oxidize other reactants. In this way, hydrocarbons influence the residence time of many compounds in the atmosphere. It should be realized that the influence of mixing and transport cannot be ignored in studies of atmospheric chemistry. In this thesis, numerical models are used to investigate the influence of air flows on atmospheric chemistry in the lowest atmospheric layer (the so-called planetary boundary layer). Supported by observational data, we systematically study how the concentrations of chemical species like ozone depend on the time evolution of the planetary boundary-layer height. This analysis is extended by investigating how non-uniform distributions within the planetary boundary layer and transport by fair weather clouds influence the temporal evolution of chemical compounds.

    The contribution of nitrogen deposition to the photosynthetic capacity of forests.
    Fleischer, K. ; Rebel, T. ; Molen, M.K. van der; Erisman, J.W. ; Wassen, M.J. ; Loon, E.E. ; Montagnani, L. ; Gough, C.M. ; Herbst, M. - \ 2013
    Global Biogeochemical Cycles 27 (2013)1. - ISSN 0886-6236 - p. 187 - 199.
    net primary productivity - terrestrial carbon sink - leaf-area index - ecosystem respiration - boreal forests - temperate - co2 - sequestration - biosphere - trends
    [1] Global terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration has increased over the last few decades. The drivers of carbon sequestration, the geographical spread and magnitude of this sink are however hotly debated. Photosynthesis determines the total C uptake of terrestrial ecosystems and is a major flux of the global C balance. We contribute to the discussion on enhanced C sequestration by analyzing the influence of nitrogen (N) deposition on photosynthetic capacity (Amax) of forest canopies. Eddy covariance measurements of net exchange of carbon provide estimates of gross primary production, from which Amax is derived with a novel approach. Canopy Amax is combined with modeled N deposition, environmental variables and stand characteristics to study the relative effects on Amax for a unique global data set of 80 forest FLUXNET sites. Canopy Amax relates positively to N deposition for evergreen needleleaf forests below an observed critical load of¿~¿8¿kg¿N ha–1¿yr–1, with a slope of 2.0¿±¿0.4 (S.E.) µmol CO2 m–2¿s–1 per 1¿kg¿N ha–1¿yr–1. Above this threshold canopy Amax levels off, exhibiting a saturating response in line with the N saturation hypothesis. Climate effects on canopy Amax cannot be separated from the effect of N deposition due to considerable covariation. For deciduous broadleaf forests and forests in the temperate (-continental) climate zones, the analysis shows the N deposition effect to be either small or absent. Leaf area index and foliar N concentration are positively but weakly related to Amax. We conclude that flux tower measurements of C fluxes provide valuable data to study physiological processes at the canopy scale. Future efforts need to be directed toward standardizing measures N cycling and pools within C monitoring networks to gain a better understanding of C and N interactions, and to disentangle the role of climate and N deposition in forest ecosystems.
    Reconstructed forest age structure in Europe 1950-2010
    Vilén, T. ; Gunia, K. ; Verkerk, P.J. ; Seidl, R. ; Schelhaas, M.J. ; Lindner, M. ; Bellassen, V. - \ 2012
    Forest Ecology and Management 286 (2012). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 203 - 218.
    disturbance regimes - boreal forests - carbon sink - management - resources - climate - wood
    Forest age structure is an important factor for understanding the history of forests, their current functioning and their future development. It is, for instance, crucial information to be able to assess sustainable harvesting potentials. Furthermore, since the development of growing stock and increment, and thus the patterns of net carbon exchange, are strongly affected by the age of the forest, information about the age structure is needed to understand the temporal variability of the greenhouse gas budgets and potential contributions of forest management (i.e. their additionality) to long-term removal of carbon from the atmosphere. European forests have changed drastically in recent decades, but to date no European level compilation of historical forest age structure data is available. In this study, country level historical age-class data was combined with a backcasting method to reconstruct the age-class structure for 25 European countries from 1950 to 2010 (total forest area in 2010: 118.3 million ha). Based on the results, dynamic maps of forest age-class distributions on 0.25° × 0.25° grid were generated, and the change in the forest age structure was analysed. Results show that the share of old forests (>100 years) has decreased from 26% in 1950 to 17% in 2010, and the mean age over the studied area decreased from 67 to 60 years. However, when looking at the change of the mean age from 1950 to 2010 at country level, there is a large variation between the countries. We discuss implications of the results and argue that the development of forest age structure contributed less than previously thought to the carbon sink in European forests from 1950 onwards.
    Intercomparison of modis albedo retievals and in situ measurements across the global fluxnet network
    Cescatti, A. ; Marcolla, B. ; Santhana Vannan, S.K. ; Roman, J.Y. ; Moors, E.J. - \ 2012
    Remote Sensing of Environment 121 (2012). - ISSN 0034-4257 - p. 323 - 334.
    reflectance distribution function - broad-band albedo - surface albedo - boreal forests - climate-change - vegetation - products - feedbacks - validation - instrument
    Surface albedo is a key parameter in the Earth's energy balance since it affects the amount of solar radiation directly absorbed at the planet surface. Its variability in time and space can be globally retrieved through the use of remote sensing products. To evaluate and improve the quality of satellite retrievals, careful intercomparisons with in situ measurements of surface albedo are crucial. For this purpose we compared MODIS albedo retrievals with surface measurements taken at 53 FLUXNET sites that met strict conditions of land cover homogeneity. A good agreement between mean yearly values of satellite retrievals and in situ measurements was found (r2 = 0.82). The mismatch is correlated with the spatial heterogeneity of surface albedo, stressing the relevance of land cover homogeneity when comparing point to pixel data. When the seasonal patterns of MODIS albedo are considered for different plant functional types, the match with surface observations is extremely good at all forest sites. On the contrary, satellite retrievals at non-forested sites (grasslands, savannas, croplands) underestimate in situ measurements across the seasonal cycle. The mismatch observed at grassland and cropland sites is likely due to the extreme fragmentation of these landscapes, as confirmed by geostatistical attributes derived from high resolution scenes.
    Modelling the impact of nitrogen deposition, climate change and nutrient limitations on tree carbon sequestration in Europe for the period 1900–2050
    Vries, W. de; Posch, M. - \ 2011
    Environmental Pollution 159 (2011)10. - ISSN 0269-7491 - p. 2289 - 2299.
    forest ecosystems - elevated co2 - terrestrial ecosystems - primary productivity - tropospheric ozone - temperate forests - projected changes - acid deposition - boreal forests - douglas-fir
    We modelled the combined effects of past and expected future changes in climate and nitrogen deposition on tree carbon sequestration by European forests for the period 1900–2050. Two scenarios for deposition (current legislation and maximum technically feasible reductions) and two climate scenarios (no change and SRES A1 scenario) were used. Furthermore, the possible limitation of forest growth by calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus is investigated. The area and age structure of the forests was assumed to stay constant to observations during the period 1970–1990. Under these assumptions, the simulations show that the change in forest growth and carbon sequestration in the past is dominated by changes in nitrogen deposition, while climate change is the major driver for future carbon sequestration. However, its impact is reduced by nitrogen availability. Furthermore, limitations in base cations, especially magnesium, and in phosphorus may significantly affect predicted growth in the future. A modelling exercise indicates that nitrogen deposition mainly enhanced tree carbon sequestration in Europe in the past, while climate change will do so in the future
    The trait contribution to wood decomposition rates of 15 neotropical tree species
    Geffen, K.G. van; Poorter, L. ; Sass-Klaassen, U. ; Logtestijn, R.S.P. ; Cornelissen, J.H.C. - \ 2010
    Ecology 91 (2010)12. - ISSN 0012-9658 - p. 3686 - 3697.
    leaf-litter decomposition - life-history variation - tropical forests - climate-change - silvicultural treatments - terrestrial ecosystems - economics spectrum - boreal forests - carbon balance - central amazon
    The decomposition of dead wood is a critical uncertainty in models of the global carbon cycle. Despite this, relatively few studies have focused on dead wood decomposition, with a strong bias to higher latitudes. Especially the effect of inter-specific variation in species traits on differences wood decomposition rates remains unknown. In order to fill these gaps, we applied a novel method to study long-term wood decomposition of 15 tree species in a Bolivian semi-evergreen tropical moist forest, and hypothesized that inter-specific differences in species traits are important drivers of variation in wood decomposition rates. Wood decomposition rates (fractional mass loss) varied between 0.01 and 0.31 yr-1. We measured 10 different chemical, anatomical and morphological traits for all species. The species' average traits were useful predictors of wood decomposition rates, particularly the average diameter (DBH) of the tree species (R2=0.41). Lignin concentration further increased the proportion of explained inter-specific variation in wood decomposition (both negative relations, cumulative R2=0.55), although it did not significantly explain variation in wood decomposition rates if considered alone. When DBH values of the actual dead trees sampled for decomposition rate determination were used as a predictor variable, the final model (including dead tree DBH and lignin concentration) explained even more variation in wood decomposition rates (R2=0.71), underlining the importance of DBH in wood decomposition. Other traits, including wood density, wood anatomical traits, macronutrient concentrations and the amount of phenolic extractives could not significantly explain the variation in wood decomposition rates. The surprising results of this multi-species study, in which for the
    Biodiversity Differences between Managed and Unmanaged Forests: Meta-Analysis of Species Richness in Europe
    Paillet, Y. ; Bergès, L. ; Hjältén, J. ; Ódor, P. ; Avon, C. ; Bernhardt-Römermann, M. ; Bijlsma, R.J. ; Bruyn, L. de; Fuhr, M. ; Grandin, U. ; Kanka, R. ; Lundin, L. ; Luque, S. ; Magura, T. ; Matesanz, S. ; Mészáros, I. ; Sebastià, M.T. ; Schmidt, W. ; Standovár, T. ; Tóthmérész, B. ; Uotila, A. ; Valladares, F. ; Vellak, K. ; Virtanen, R. - \ 2010
    Conservation Biology 24 (2010)1. - ISSN 0888-8892 - p. 101 - 112.
    old-growth forests - broadleaved temperate forests - saproxylic beetles - dead wood - layer vegetation - boreal forests - windstorm disturbance - landscape scale - natural forests - land-use
    Past and present pressures on forest resources have led to a drastic decrease in the surface area of unmanaged forests in Europe. Changes in forest structure, composition, and dynamics inevitably lead to changes in the biodiversity of forest-dwelling species. The possible biodiversity gains and losses due to forest management (i.e., anthropogenic pressures related to direct forest resource use), however, have never been assessed at a pan-European scale. We used meta-analysis to review 49 published papers containing 120 individual comparisons of species richness between unmanaged and managed forests throughout Europe. We explored the response of different taxonomic groups and the variability of their response with respect to time since abandonment and intensity of forest management. Species richness was slightly higher in unmanaged than in managed forests. Species dependent on forest cover continuity, deadwood, and large trees (bryophytes, lichens, fungi, saproxylic beetles) and carabids were negatively affected by forest management. In contrast, vascular plant species were favored. The response for birds was heterogeneous and probably depended more on factors such as landscape patterns. The global difference in species richness between unmanaged and managed forests increased with time since abandonment and indicated a gradual recovery of biodiversity. Clearcut forests in which the composition of tree species changed had the strongest effect on species richness, but the effects of different types of management on taxa could not be assessed in a robust way because of low numbers of replications in the management-intensity classes. Our results show that some taxa are more affected by forestry than others, but there is a need for research into poorly studied species groups in Europe and in particular locations. Our meta-analysis supports the need for a coordinated European research network to study and monitor the biodiversity of different taxa in managed and unmanaged forests
    Leaf Area Index derivation from hyperspectral vegetation indices and the red edge position
    Darvishzadeh, R. ; Atzberger, C. ; Skidmore, A.K. ; Abkar, A. - \ 2009
    International Journal of Remote Sensing 30 (2009)23. - ISSN 0143-1161 - p. 6199 - 6218.
    canopy chlorophyll density - spectral reflectance - biophysical variables - imaging spectrometer - boreal forests - winter-wheat - broad-band - lai - photosynthesis - information
    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of various narrowband vegetation indices in estimating Leaf Area Index (LAI) of structurally different plant species having different soil backgrounds and leaf optical properties. The study uses a dataset collected during a controlled laboratory experiment. Leaf area indices were destructively acquired for four species with different leaf size and shape. Six widely used vegetation indices were investigated. Narrowband vegetation indices involved all possible two band combinations which were used for calculating RVI, NDVI, PVI, TSAVI and SAVI2. The red edge inflection point (REIP) was computed using three different techniques. Linear regression models as well as an exponential model were used to establish relationships. REIP determined using any of the three methods was generally not sensitive to variations in LAI (R-2 <0.1). However, LAI was estimated with reasonable accuracy from red/near-infrared based narrowband indices. We observed a significant relationship between LAI and SAVI2 (R-2 = 0.77, RMSE = 0.59 (cross validated)). Our results confirmed that bands from the SWIR region contain relevant information for LAI estimation. The study verified that within the range of LAI studied (0.3
    Comparison of two canopy reflectance models inversion for mapping forest crown closure using imaging spectroscopy
    Zeng, Y. ; Schaepman, M.E. ; Huang, H.A. ; Bruin, S. de; Clevers, J.G.P.W. - \ 2008
    Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 34 (2008)3. - ISSN 1712-7971 - p. 235 - 244.
    radiative-transfer model - high-resolution imagery - thematic mapper data - vegetation canopy - bidirectional reflectance - biophysical variables - coniferous forests - hyperspectral data - boreal forests - etm+ data
    We compare the inversion of two canopy reflectance models to estimate forest crown closure (CC) using an EO-1 Hyperion image: the Kuusk¿Nilson forest reflectance and transmittance (FRT) model, and the Li¿Strahler geometric¿optical model. For predicting CC on a per-pixel basis, the FRT model inversion is carried out by minimizing a merit function that provides a measure of the difference between the reflectance simulated by the FRT model and the reflectance originating from optimal band selection of Hyperion data. The inversion of the Li¿Strahler model mainly depends on the relationship between the scene component ¿sunlit background¿ and forest structural parameters. We complement prediction deficiencies of the inverted Li¿Strahler model CC using a spatial interpolation algorithm (regression kriging) in infeasible regions. Field-measured CCs of 40 sample sites are used to validate the inversion quality of both models. The results indicate that the Li¿Strahler model inversion (R2 = 0.67, RMSE = 0.043) performs better than the FRT model inversion (R2 = 0.53, RMSE = 0.072) for CC retrieval. Estimated CC using the Li¿Strahler model inversion combined with spatial interpolation yield a final, continuous CC map for the Longmenhe forest nature reserve in China, which is used as a study area for this work. The advantages and disadvantages of these two models inversion combined with imaging spectrometer data for mapping forest CC are discussed
    Carbon accumulation in European forests
    Ciais, P. ; Schelhaas, M.J. ; Zaehle, S. ; Piao, S.L. ; Cescatti, A. ; Liski, J. ; Luyssaert, S. ; Le-Maire, G. ; Schulze, E.D. ; Bouriaud, O. ; Freibauer, A. ; Valentini, R. ; Nabuurs, G.J. - \ 2008
    Nature Geoscience 1 (2008). - ISSN 1752-0894 - p. 425 - 429.
    boreal forests - pinus-cembra - land-use - temperate - dynamics - ecosystems - database - climate - turnover - biomass
    European forests are intensively exploited for wood products, yet they also form a sink for carbon. European forest inventories, available for the past 50 years, can be combined with timber harvest statistics to assess changes in this carbon sink. Analysis of these data sets between 1950 and 2000 from the EU-15 countries excluding Luxembourg, plus Norway and Switzerland, reveals that there is a tight relationship between increases in forest biomass and forest ecosystem productivity but timber harvests grew more slowly. Encouragingly, the environmental conditions in combination with the type of silviculture that has been developed over the past 50 years can efficiently sequester carbon on timescales of decades, while maintaining forests that meet the demand for wood. However, a return to using wood as biofuel and hence shorter rotations in forestry could cancel out the benefits of carbon storage over the past five decades
    Vascular plant response to windthrow severity in Norwy spruce-dominated Myrtillus siie type forests in Estonia
    Ilisson, T. ; Metslaid, M. ; Vodde, F. ; Jogiste, K. ; Kurm, M. - \ 2006
    Ecoscience 13 (2006)2. - ISSN 1195-6860 - p. 193 - 202.
    catastrophic windthrow - interspecific variation - experimental hurricane - deciduous forest - soil compaction - boreal forests - fir forests - disturbance - vegetation - tree
    Species composition and number of species in ground vegetation after windthrow varies depending on damage severity and management actions after a storm event. In this paper we seek to determine the changes in species composition depending on the severity of storm damage. The vegetation response was studied by comparing areas with different levels of windthrow damage (undamaged, partly damaged, totally damaged, and totally damaged and harvested) in Norway spruce¿dominated forests in Estonia. A total of 108 herbal and shrub species were found in all areas. Species number was lowest in the control areas and highest in the harvested plots. The number of species that responded to disturbance severity, when compared to the control plots, increased during the second year of the two-year survey period. The groups of species responding to different degrees of storm severity and silvicultural treatments were identified. Early invasion after a storm was observed in the case of several species, such as Epilobium angustifolium, Rubus idaeus, and Ranunculus repens. All the ferns that responded to damage extent seemed to be most favoured in totally damaged areas. Rubus saxatilis showed the clearest response trend, with higher coverage in response to increasing wind severity
    Ectomycorrhizal Fungi and Biogeochemical Cycles of Boreal Forests
    Smits, M.M. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): N. van Breemen, co-promotor(en): Ellis Hoffland. - Wageningen : s.n. - ISBN 9789085042907 - 122
    ectomycorrhiza - schimmels - boreale bossen - biogeochemie - aluminium - podzolisatie - verwering - podzolen - ectomycorrhizas - fungi - boreal forests - biogeochemistry - aluminium - podzolization - weathering - podzols
    Inpodzolsin Europe and North America tunnels in weatherable mineral grains were found, presumably created by ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi. This finding was the incentive for a research program on rock-eating mycorrhizas, of which this project is part of. The focus of this thesis is on the role of EcM fungi in mineral weathering and upward transport of aluminium in podzols of boreal forests. I studied fungal tunnelling in a soil chronosequence in Michigan because mineral weathering is a slow process. Tunnelling accounted for less than 0.5% of total feldspar weathering over 5000 yr of soil formation. Tunnelling is only one part of EcM weathering; processes on the surface were hypothesised to be more important. To study EcM weathering on the mineral surface I modelled the effect of oxalate exudation by EcM on feldspar weathering. The model estimated that the maximum contribution of oxalate produced by EcM fungi to total weathering is 14.5% for K-feldspar and 13.1% for Na/Ca-feldspar. Furthermore I did a pot experiment with Scots pine seedlings and three different EcM fungi and muscovite as only K-source or hornblende as only Mg-source. Only Paxillus involutus enhanced muscovite weathering compared to the non-mycorrhizal control. None of the EcM fungi increased hornblende weathering. The second part of the research was about upward aluminium transport in podzols. Budgets studies indicate a considerable unexplained upward transport of Al from the mineral horizons to the organic top layer. A possible mechanism could be transport through EcM hyphae, attached to root tips in the organic soil layer, and extending into the mineral soil. An in vitro test showed transport of Al by two of the five fungal isolates tested. Subsequently, tree seedlings were grown in an artificial podzol. I used gallium as a proxy for Al transport. A previous in vitro test with P. involutus and Suillus bovinus confirmed the use of Ga as proxy for Al. Gallium was transported from the mineral soil to the organic soil, also if onlyEcMfungi had access to it. This suggests a role forEcMfungi in upward Ga and, possibly, Al transport.
    Pechora River basin integrated system management PRISM; biodiversity assessment for the Pechora River basin; Cluster B: biodiversity, land use & forestry modeling
    Sluis, T. van der - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1156) - 94
    biodiversiteit - boreale bossen - toendra - bossen - landgebruik - rivieren - soortendiversiteit - bedreigde soorten - landschap - bosbouw - planten - dieren - rusland - biodiversity - boreal forests - tundra - forests - land use - rivers - species diversity - endangered species - landscape - forestry - plants - animals - russia
    This report describes the biodiversity for the Pechora River basin Integrated System Management (PRISM). The Pechora River Basin, situated just west of the Ural Mountains, Russia, consists of vast boreal forests and tundra landscapes, partly pristine and undisturbed. The concept of biodiversity is discussed and parameters are selected which are descriptive for biodiversity at both the landscape and stand level. Based on these parameters the biodiversity is assessed to describe or quantify impacts of certain forest or land use exploitation scenarios. The chosen parameters for biodiversity should therefore be meaningful for the expected or possible changes. The biodiversity is described, based on field data which was collected for vascular plants, lichens, mosses, invertebrates, birds, mammals, fishes, reptiles and amphibians and benthos. For the different taxa it is described and discussed what the biodiversity is of the Pechora River Basin, for the different land units that have been defined. The results are extrapolated to the River Basin level
    Ecological linkages between aboveground and belowground biota
    Wardle, D.A. ; Bardgett, R.D. ; Klironomos, J.N. ; Setälä, H. ; Putten, W.H. van der; Wall, D.H. - \ 2004
    Science 304 (2004)5677. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 1629 - 1633.
    arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi - plant community structure - elevated carbon-dioxide - soil biota - host-plant - ecosystem properties - species-diversity - boreal forests - nitrogen - grassland
    All terrestrial ecosystems consist of aboveground and belowground components that interact to influence community- and ecosystem-level processes and properties. Here we show how these components are closely interlinked at the community level, reinforced by a greater degree of specificity between plants and soil organisms than has been previously supposed. As such, aboveground and belowground communities can be powerful mutual drivers, with both positive and negative feedbacks. A combined aboveground-belowground approach to community and ecosystem ecology is enhancing our understanding of the regulation and functional significance of biodiversity and of the environmental impacts of human-induced global change phenomena.
    Een "spotted owl" in de achtertuin?
    Nabuurs, G.J. - \ 2002
    Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 74 (2002)4. - ISSN 0028-2057 - p. 30 - 30.
    houtkap - bosgebieden - oerbossen - boreale bossen - bosbescherming - natuurbescherming - bosbeheer - bossen - rusland - oude bossen - bosecologie - houtproductie - Europa - logging - woodlands - virgin forests - boreal forests - protection of forests - nature conservation - forest administration - forests - russia - old-growth forests
    Aandacht voor de houtkap in de Oeral, in de laatste oerbossen van Europa. Verminderde houtproductie in West-Europa als gevolg van ander bosbeheer en bosbeleid leidt tot een verschuiving van de houtoogst van West- naar Oost-Europa. Om de druk op de laatste Europese oerbossen te verminderen moeten we het beheerde bos in West-Europa als een natuurlijke hulpbron blijven zien
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