Quick scan of implementation actions for sustainable forest management in The Netherlands
Hendriks, C.M.A. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research - 33
forest administration - international cooperation - government policy - forest policy - sustainable development - biobased economy - bosbeheer - internationale samenwerking - overheidsbeleid - bosbeleid - duurzame ontwikkeling - biobased economy
Duurzaam bosbeheer (Sustainable Forest Management: SFM) is van groot belang voor de duurzame instandhouding van het bosareaal met de bijbehorende biodiversiteit en ecosysteem diensten zoals hout productie, opslag van koolstof en recreatie. Voor de bescherming van bossen en functies zijn in diverse internationale fora afspraken gemaakt over SFM. Nederlandse regering heeft de afspraken om SFM te stimuleren in het kader van deze fora onderschreven en uitgewerkt in het beleid. Vanwege de vele verdragen, programma’s en afspraken ontbreekt momenteel een overzicht van acties die in Nederland daadwerkelijk invulling geven aan (internationale) afspraken over SFM . Om te kunnen verantwoorden hoe Nederland zijn internationale afspraken heeft geïmplementeerd hebben beleidsmakers bij de rijksoverheid behoefte aan meer inzicht in het aantal en het soort implementatieacties met betrekking tot SFM van de Nederlandse bossen . In deze studie wordt met een quick scan een globaal overzicht gegeven van implementatie acties waarmee de Nederlandse Rijksoverheid invulling geeft aan de internationale afspraken voor SFM in het Forest Europe - proces met betrekking tot bossen en bosbeheer in Nederland .
Optimising land use in Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia : modelling ecosystem benefits and land use dynamics
Suwarno, Aritta - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans; Lars Hein, co-promotor(en): Hans-Peter Weikard. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578739 - 156
land use - deforestation - decentralization - ecosystem services - ecosystems - forest policy - forests - modeling - kalimantan - indonesia - landgebruik - ontbossing - decentralisatie - ecosysteemdiensten - ecosystemen - bosbeleid - bossen - modelleren - kalimantan - indonesië
The rising global population has increased the demand for food, renewable energy and other materials. Yet at the same time to meet this demand requires land and the amount of available land is finite. Considering the importance of land and ecosystems in providing benefits for human, I conducted four independent research on the socio-economic and biophysical aspects of ecosystem service, in Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. The first three independent studies were used to understand ecosystem management under decentralised forest governance in Indonesia and its influence on ecosystems, ESs and the benefits that different beneficiaries receive. The fourth study combines the outcomes from the previous three studies to assess and select the most appropriate areas for conservation and community development. As the results, I show the applicability of the ecosystem services concept and land-use modelling in optimising land-use under certain decentralised forest governance systems. My thesis’ results were obtained through the application of methods and steps that integrated a comprehensive set of qualitative and quantitative analyses to support land-use optimisation in the Kapuas Protected Forest Management Unit. My results can inform decision makers on the options of land-use optimisation and the consequences of their management decisions regarding land-use intensification, nature conservation and local economic conditions. I show how land-use optimisation provides an important step in preventing further land degradation and ecosystem loss.
Carbonizing forest governance: analyzing the consequences of REDD+ for multilevel forest governance
Vijge, M.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Aarti Gupta. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576445 - 178
forest policy - governance - deforestation - environmental degradation - forests - carbon - bosbeleid - governance - ontbossing - milieuafbraak - bossen - koolstof
Carbonizing forest governance:
Analyzing the consequences of REDD+ for multilevel forest governance
Marjanneke J. Vijge
Despite the fifty years of global action to combat deforestation and forest degradation, the world is still losing its forests at great scale. A recent governance initiative that has raised high expectations to address global deforestation is Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+), negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The idea of REDD+ is to compensate developing countries for their forest-related carbon emission reductions. Through REDD+, forests are governed for their carbon content. I therefore see REDD+ as the embodiment of what I call a “carbonization” of forest governance. This thesis analyzes the consequences of carbonization for multilevel forest governance. It studies whether carbonization leads to 1) a simplification of forest governance through a prime focus on carbon, or a focus on multiple carbon and non-carbon benefits; 2) a centralization or dispersion of authority; 3) a privileging of scientific knowledge—what I call a technicalization—or a diversity in the production and use of knowledge; and 4) a primary reliance on market instruments—what I refer to as marketization—or reliance on a mix of market and non-market instruments. I discuss whether REDD+ can be seen as a case of increased homogenization of environmental governance through simplification, centralization, technicalization, and/or marketization.
The research questions are as follows:
1. How does the carbonization of forest governance manifest itself at different levels, and with what consequences for multilevel forest governance?
2. What does this analysis of the consequences of carbonization reveal about the prospects of a homogenization of environmental governance?
This thesis uses discourses as proxies for how and with what consequences the carbonization of forest governance manifests itself. The thesis analyzes how REDD+ is being framed by policy actors and practitioners, and operationalized in policy, institutional and project developments and design. Triangulation of data is established through reliance on qualitative and quantitative research methods, including semi-structured interviews, surveys, reviews of primary and secondary literature, and direct and participant observation during field visits, project meetings and conferences.
Chapter 2 analyzes how carbonization manifests itself in UNFCCC policy debates and developments surrounding measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) systems that are centrally implicated in REDD+. This chapter shows that at the global level, REDD+ is framed as a mechanism to facilitate results-based compensation for carbon emission reductions, to be measured through national, state-based, expert-led MRV systems. The chapter argues that this may well induce a simplified focus on carbon, a technicalization of forest governance, and a centralization of authority in national state agencies responsible for measuring and accounting for forest carbon units. This might marginalize non-carbon forest services and empower certain groups of actors such as technical experts at the cost of, for example, local communities. Who will be empowered through REDD+, however, ultimately depends on the context-specific operationalization and implementation of REDD+ at the national and local level.
Chapter 3 contains an in-depth case study of how carbonization manifests itself in the Green India Mission (GIM), the cornerstone of India’s national REDD+ strategy. The chapter shows that the GIM frames REDD+ as an opportunity to synergistically generate carbon and non-carbon benefits, and promote a further devolution of authority in Indian forest governance to local communities. Chapter 3 nevertheless concludes that this is not likely to be realized without significant investments in benefit-sharing mechanisms and biodiversity and community-based monitoring systems in India.
Chapter 4 presents the in-depth case study of the first REDD+ pilot project in India. The chapter analyzes the prominence of REDD+-related discourses among stakeholders and in project design. The chapter shows that the manifestation of carbonization at project level can be very different from the dominant framing of REDD+ at the global level as a carbon-centric, centralized and technocratic mechanism. The project case study shows how the carbonization of forest governance might become a vehicle to generate multiple carbon and non-carbon benefits, diversify the production and use of knowledge and the types of actors involved therein, disperse authority among actors involved in forest governance, and diversify reliance on both market- and fund-based finances.
Chapter 5 contains a cross-country comparative analysis of the prominence of REDD+-related discourses among national policy actors and in national REDD+ policy documents of seven countries: Cameroon, Indonesia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Vietnam, Peru and Tanzania. The chapter shows that though REDD+ is mostly framed as a mechanism to generate carbon and non-carbon benefits, most countries pay very little attention to non-carbon monitoring. Almost all countries lay out detailed plans to diversify the production and use of knowledge through the involvement of local communities in REDD+ MRV systems, but currently lack the institutional capacity to implement such plans. Almost all REDD+ policy documents plan for a national state agency to account for and distribute REDD+ payments. There is, however, strikingly little discussion of how to finance REDD+. The chapter argues that a simplification, a centralization and, to a lesser extent, a technicalization of national forest governance are possible consequences of carbonization.
The concluding chapter shows that carbonization of forest governance manifests itself differently at different levels of governance, with varying consequences for multilevel forest governance. Though homogenization does not yet occur, it may happen in the long run due to the centralization of authority that countries envision in accounting for and distributing REDD+ payments, as well as countries’ capacity gaps in non-carbon and community-based monitoring, which make a simplification and technicalization of national forest governance possible consequences of REDD+. In answering the second research question regarding the prospects of a homogenization of environmental governance, the case of REDD+ shows that developing countries retain authority to design policies, but in diversified ways. I argue that though diversity in policies and practices exist, this goes hand in hand with—and sometimes even flows from—efforts to homogenize in order to measure and regulate environmental outcomes at central (global and/or national) levels. As such, the challenges facing global environmental governance lie not only in measuring and controlling environmental outcomes, but also in managing the diversity and fragmentation that arise from these efforts.
Approaches to the conservation of forest genetic resources in Europe in the context of climate change
Kelleher, Colin T. ; Vries, S.M.G. de; Baliuckas, Virgilijus - \ 2015
Rome : Biodiversity International - ISBN 9789292550325 - 46
forest trees - genetic diversity - genetic resources - plant genetic resources - forest resources - climatic change - forest policy - bosbomen - genetische diversiteit - genetische bronnen - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - bosbestanden - klimaatverandering - bosbeleid
In Europe, forests have been expanding in terms of area and timber stock over the past 50 years and subsequently they have acted as a carbon sink while they have been recovering from previous eras of deforestation. National adaptation strategies to climate change and other policies have been formulated in many European countries to harness the potential of forests and the forestry sector for mitigating climate change. However, the impacts of climate change on forests, and especially on their genetic diversity have not been given a proper consideration in these policies. For these reasons, the EUFORGEN Steering Committee established a working group on climate change and the conservation of forest genetic resources that made several recommendations for action presented in this report
Governing Congo Basin forests in a changing climate: actors, discourses and institutions for adaptation and mitigation
Somorin, O.A. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts, co-promotor(en): Ingrid Visseren-Hamakers; D.J. Sonwa. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571280 - 250
bossen - klimaatverandering - adaptatie - mitigatie - beleid - bosbouw - bosbeleid - congo - forests - climatic change - adaptation - mitigation - policy - forestry - forest policy - congo
Governing Congo Basin Forests in a Changing Climate: Actors, Discourses and Institutions for Adaptation and Mitigation
The thesis deals with the central question of the governance processes of making tropical forests deliver climate change adaptation and mitigation outcomes of sustainable livelihoods, biodiversity conservation and enhanced carbon stocks. Using the case of the Congo Basin forests, it analyzes the nexus between forest and climate change, particularly on the governance processes of using the forests to respond to climate change. The thesis questions the dominant frames and discourses shaping the policymaking processes of adaptation and mitigation strategies in the Congo Basin. The research is informed by past (and still current) debates among different actors on the forms of institutional and policy frameworks required for policy making on adaptation and mitigation in the Congo, given the region’s context of weak human and governance capacities.
Drawing from the theoretical perspective of discursive institutionalism which takes into account the institutional context in which discourses emerge and the way in which they are institutionalized in social practices. Conceptually, the thesis employs the analytical elements of discursive institutionalism: discourses, actors and institutions in terms of their consequences for governance process analysis. The focus is to understand the types of actors involved along with their capacity and competence to contribute to the policy processes; the overarching global to local discourses on the issues; and the institutional structures considered relevant for adaptation and mitigation in the Congo Basin.
Despite the framing of adaptation as a priority for the Congo Basin region due to the high vulnerability (and low adaptive capacity) of the population to climate risks, the thesis finds more significant policy attention is rather given to mitigation. The dominance of the mitigation discourses is largely due to elements of financial resources, knowledge and influence employed by their actor coalitions to advance the policymaking process. While mitigation policy debates among state and non-state actors on institutional and governance frameworks exist at the national level, adaptation strategies including sustaining food security, income generation and livelihood diversification, are already in practice at the local levels. Ultimately, policy actors’ interest to match the multiple opportunities that mitigation offers with the priorities of adaptation underlines the deliberate actions towards fostering synergy. The thesis concludes that the future of the Congo Basin forests under a changing climate lies in how the actors are able to develop policy frameworks and governance arrangements to foster mitigative adaptation and adaptive mitigation.
Color green for dollars: constraints and limitations for establising Chamaedorea palm firms in Veracruz, Mexico
Musalem Castillejos, N. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Gerard Verschoor. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570207 - 200
bosproducten anders dan hout - marketing - vercommercialisering - firma's - chamaedorea - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - plattelandsontwikkeling - bosbeleid - mexico - non-wood forest products - marketing - commercialization - firms - chamaedorea - sustainability - rural development - forest policy - mexico
Interest in Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) has grown with increasing awareness of tropical forest deforestation and amplified recognition for the need to add value to forest resources. However, NTFPs continue to be regarded by many as marginal goods incapable of competing with timber as a viable economic alternative use of tropical and subtropical forests. In Mexico, several NTFPs are exploited in various ecosystems helping conserve forested areas, providing “the poor” access to cash in moments of uncertainty and relieving pressure on timber resources. Nonetheless, the benefit for conservation is highly debated and remains undecided as yet. NTFP proponents suggest that the development of commercial enterprises can be of significant benefit for forest users by providing a direct link between producers and markets, organizing markets as well as the development of infrastructure. This thesis explores actors’ practices to understand the different forms of organization, processes of interaction and negotiation between actors involved in the use and commercialization of NTFPs. The analysis of these practices seen through observation and accounts of the actors’ life-histories, everyday practices, the arrangement of individual actions within different production and commercial activities, serve to elucidate the multiple facets/aspects of different actors in the market for NTFPs in diverse commercial, social, economic and political arenas. By doing so, this thesis captures the experiences of actors in the Chamaedorea market; an important NTFP product marketed worldwide. These experiences are fundamental in answering the main research question: How are Chamaedorea palm commercial initiatives built in Veracruz, Mexico, and what are the main limitations for their consolidation and access to the markets? Focusing primarily on the analysis of key actors in the Mexican market, from production up until the export market, this thesis offers a detailed account of how diverse efforts to access markets are constructed and argues that it is important to focus on organizing practices and problem-solving capabilities of actors, needed to circumvent bottle-necks in the design and development of NTFP firms, a point often ignored or taken for granted in the literature on NTFPs. Taking on an actor-oriented perspective, detailed ethnographies and actor’s life-stories introduce actors’ struggles and various arrangements/strategies in establishing firms, yielding an interesting insight that would be unnoticeable if these processes developed smoothly. The contribution of this thesis to the debate on how NTFPs firms are constructed and maintained, proposes a reconsideration of NTFPs policy initiatives in developing markets and enhancing benefits to forest users, a major nuisance of current NTFPs policies worldwide.
The governance capacity of forest land allocation policy in Vietnam
Thi Kim Phung, D. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts, co-promotor(en): Ingrid Visseren-Hamakers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570740 - 201
bosbeleid - bosbouw - governance - overheidsbeleid - toewijzing - vietnam - forest policy - forestry - governance - government policy - allocation - vietnam
The issue of what drives and sustains collective action is pertinent to natural resource management, given the continuing depletion of public goods around the world. The issue is especially important for forestry. Since the early 1980s, forest devolution has become a major trend in forestry reforms in the developing world. It is held that involving local people in forestry and enabling them to benefit from forests will generate sustainable forest management. However, the devolution of forest rights from the central state to local actors has had varied effects. This disparity has inspired a great volume of literature on factors behind the effects of forest devolution. However, there is still a lack of knowledge of various governance aspects in forest devolution processes, and particularly of how actors define the collective goals, how they interact and what their strategies in forest devolution are.
The research presented in this thesis contributes to filling these knowledge gaps by studying a specific forest devolution policy, namely the policy of forest land allocation (FLA) in Vietnam. By involving local people in forestry, the policy is expected to improve both forest condition and local livelihoods. Although a considerable number of studies have provided insights into the effects of FLA, they were mainly carried out in the central highlands and northwest uplands of Vietnam and focused on forest-related factors. Not much attention has been paid to governance in the FLA policy. Although studies have paid attention to local people in the policy, local perspectives on the policy have not been thoroughly examined.
The overall aim of the present study was to gain in-depth knowledge of the effects of the FLA policy by assessing its governance capacity in different regions of Vietnam. Since what constitutes governance capacity is still under discussion in the governance literature, the secondary aim was to develop a framework for assessing the governance capacity of the policy. The first research aim was operationalized into the following three research questions:How did the FLA policy in Vietnam come about, and to what extent did national forestry discourses influence the policy?To what extent has the FLA policy had the capacity to involve actors, particularly local people, in different regions of Vietnam; and what factors have determined this capacity?What has been the performance of the FLA policy in different regions of Vietnam, and what factors have determined this performance?
To achieve the second research aim, a framework was developed to guide the assessment of governance capacity.
The research employed the nested approach to case studies, which situates the FLA policy under the general case of Vietnam’s forestry reforms, which in the past 20 years have been characterized by changing forestry discourses. The case of the FLA policy includes three nested cases in three regions of Vietnam (southeast lowlands, central highlands and northwest uplands). Fieldwork was carried out in three provinces (Tay Ninh, Dak Lak and Lao Cai). Data collection included a literature review, document analysis, semi-structured interviews, a questionnaire survey and personal observations. In total, 152 key informants were selected by snowball and saturation sampling. These informants were policy and decision makers, officials in forestry and land management sectors, representatives of provincial governments and local authorities, forest owners and forestry contractors, and local villagers. The survey involved 288 forestry contractors or forest owners. Data from different sources was triangulated before processing. The method of Miles and Huberman (1984) was applied to analyze qualitative data. Simple statistics with frequencies and cross tabulation were employed to analyze data from the questionnaires.
This thesis consists of six chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the thesis. Chapter 2 analyzes the discursive background against which the FLA policy has been developed. The framework that was developed to guide the assessment of the governance capacity of the FLA policy is presented in Chapter 3. The framework is based on the theoretical perspectives of the policy arrangement approach. Governance capacity consists of institutional capacity – namely the degree to which rules and procedures enable actors to work together in order to solve collective problems – and governance performance, that is, whether a policy arrangement actually achieves collective goals. The framework consists of three elements: enabling rules of the game, converging discourses and facilitating resource mobilization. These elements are further operationalized as relevant aspects and criteria for the assessment of the governance capacity of the FLA policy. Institutional capacity is assessed in terms of four criteria: codification of rights, venues, open attitudes and resource availability. Governance performance is evaluated according to four criteria: the practising of property rights, social learning, forest condition and contribution of the policy to local people’s income. Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 apply the framework to assess the governance capacity of the FLA policy. Chapter 6 synthesizes the study’s findings and presents theoretical and methodological reflections on forest devolution and governance capacity
The thesis yields in the three key conclusions on the governance capacity of the FLA policy in Vietnam. First, the two national forestry discourses, namely forestry socialization and sustainable forest management, under Vietnam’s forestry reforms since 1991, have shaped the development of the FLA policy over the past 20 years. By maintaining the leading role state actors in forest land allocation, they advocate the restricted access to forest lands and limited property rights of non-state actors involved in the policy. Second, the institutional capacity of the FLA policy is low because of the limited codification of rights, rather symbolic venues for actors’ deliberation, local people’s low interest in forest rehabilitation, and the limited availability of forests, funding and information for forest rehabilitation. Third, trade-offs between the achievement of the two policy goals (improving the forest condition and local incomes from forests) have shaped the low governance performance of the FLA policy. These trade-offs result from the combined influences of social learning and property rights on actors’ cooperation in the policy. On the basis of these conclusions, the thesis goes on to discuss the key factors that determine the effects of forest devolution (property rights, social learning and external factors), and the interlinkage between the institutional capacity and governance performance of FLA policy. The thesis then evaluates the strengths, shortcomings, and applicability the governance capacity framework. After reflecting on the research methods used in the study, the thesis draws out policy implications for the FLA policy and forest devolution. Besides the improvements of property rights, clear shared responsibilities of actors involved are crucial to promote more active involvement of non-state actors, particularly local people. Local meetings should facilitate a true deliberation that allow actors to reach some reconciliation concerning the collective goals. Other technical and policy measures to improve the values of forests (such as NTFPs and environmental services) are of special importance to sustain and increase actors’ income from forests. Macro policy planning should pay more attention to the possible trade-offs among different land uses and frequent reviews and revisions of the policy are necessary to keep up with changes in both the broader socioeconomic contexts and the local conditions. For forest devolution, the institutional design of forest devolution should take into consideration not only property rights but also other governance issues, and encompass both substantive and organizational aspects of forest devolution. More attention should be paid to the combined impacts of property rights and social learning on resource uses and resource conservation. Especially, the thesis shows that the changing governance in forest devolution is not a ‘hollowing out’ of the state in forestry. State actors both at the central and provincial levels still play important roles in forest devolution.
Forest governance dynamics in Ethiopia : histories, arrangements, and practices
Ayana, A.N. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts, co-promotor(en): Freerk Wiersum; A. Agrawal. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570139 - 140
bosbeleid - governance - bosdynamiek - geschiedenis - bosbedrijfsvoering - ethiopië - forest policy - governance - forest dynamics - history - forest management - ethiopia
This thesis deals with forest governance in Ethiopia. Forest governance is an important subject to study both as an emerging field of scientific analysis and as a means to understand and tackle the practical challenges facing forest resource management and conservation. Forests are one of the vital renewable resources that support the livelihoods of millions of people in Ethiopia. Despite their significance, Ethiopia is fast losing its forest resources due to intense and unsustainable human uses coupled with institutional and policy deficiencies. This study aims to provide a better understanding of how forest governance has developed and been practiced in Ethiopia over the past five decades. It analyses forest governance dynamics over several years, at multiple political-administrative levels, from multi-actor perspectives, and the effect of the new governance system on local forest management practices. The thesis thereby contributes to the scientific analysis of governance from the perspective of a country for which there is a dearth of relevant research. It also comprehensively explains the establishment process and performance of forest governance reforms in Ethiopia. It is hoped that the results will assist people who design and implement forest and related natural resource policies.
Strategische kennisagenda bos en hout - Nederland in international perspectief
Nabuurs, G.J. ; Jong, J.J. de; Clerkx, A.P.P.M. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Alterra - 24
bosbeheer - bosecologie - biomassa - bosbeleid - nederland - forest administration - forest ecology - biomass - forest policy - netherlands
Het kader van ontwikkelingen rond bos wordt steeds meer bepaald op EU niveau, of door snelle mondiale ontwikkelingen, vanuit een steeds diversere set van beleidsterreinen. Om hierop goed te anticiperen is deze agenda bos en hout internationaal opgezet, die uitdagingen en behoeften weergeeft op drie vlakken: internationaal, bio-economie en bedrijfsvoering
Transnational governance through private authority : the case of the Forest Stewardship Council certification in Russia
Tysiachniouk, M.S. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol; Gert Spaargaren. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734327 - 352
bosbouw - certificering - kwaliteitsnormen - bosbeleid - bosbedrijfsvoering - governance - internationale samenwerking - rusland - forestry - certification - quality standards - forest policy - forest management - governance - international cooperation - russia - cum laude
cum laude graduation (with distinction)
Forest-people interfaces : understanding community forestry and biocultural diversity
Arts, B.J.M. ; Bommel, S. van; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F. ; Verschoor, G.M. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086867493 - 317
bossen - bosbouw - agroforestry - sociale bosbouw - bosproducten anders dan hout - bosproducten - mensen - gemeenschapsbosbouw - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbeleid - forests - forestry - agroforestry - social forestry - non-wood forest products - forest products - people - community forestry - natural resources - resource management - forest management - forest policy
This book aims at both academics and professionals in the field of forest-people interfaces. It takes the reader on a journey through four major themes that have emerged since the initiation of 'social forestry' in the 1970s: non-timber forest products and agroforestry; community-based natural resource management; biocultural diversity; and forest governance. In so doing, the books offers a comprehensive and current review on social issues related to forests that other, more specialized publications, lack. It is also theory-rich, offering both mainstream and critical perspectives, and presents up-to-date empirical materials. Reviewing these four major research themes, the main conclusion of the book is that naïve optimism associated with forest-people interfaces should be tempered. The chapters show that economic development, political empowerment and environmental aims are not easily integrated. Hence local landscapes and communities are not as 'makeable' as is often assumed. Events that take place on other scales might intervene; local communities might not implement policies locally; and governance practices might empower governments more than communities. This all shows that we should go beyond community-based ideas and ideals, and look at practices on the ground.
Reshaping institutions : bricolage processes in smallholder forestry in the Amazon
Koning, J. de - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts, co-promotor(en): Freerk Wiersum. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856979 - 268
tropische bossen - bolivia - amazonia - governance - bosbezit - bosbouwkundige handelingen - besluitvorming - plattelandsgemeenschappen - niet-gouvernementele organisaties - instellingen - bosbeleid - tropical forests - bolivia - amazonia - governance - forest ownership - forestry practices - decision making - rural communities - non-governmental organizations - institutions - forest policy
This thesis aims at identifying the different kinds of institutional influences on forest practices of small farmers in the Amazon region of Ecuador and Bolivia and how small farmers respond to them. It departs from the perspective that institutions affecting forest practices are subject to processes of institutional bricolage in which small farmers construct their own institutional frameworks by aggregating, altering, or articulating elements of existing disparate institutions. This research demonstrates that institutions, whether introduced by government, NGO, or already existing, are subject to processes of institutional bricolage that can be either conscious and strategic of nature or less conscious and unintentional.
Embracing complexity in international forest governance: a way forward; Policy Brief
Rayner, J. ; Buck, A. ; Katila, P. ; Cashore, B. ; Hoogeveen, H. ; Verkooijen, P.V.J.D. ; Wood, P. ; Arts, B.J.M. ; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J. - \ 2010
Vienna, Austria : International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) - ISBN 9783902762023 - 33
forests - forest policy - governance - bossen - bosbeleid - governance
This Policy Brief summarizes the findings of a comprehensive assessment of scientific information about international forest governance carried out by an Expert Panel of over 30 of the world's leading scientists working in the areas of environmental governance and international forest law. It aims to provide policy and decision makers with essential knowledge and building blocks required for a more effective and inclusive governance of the world's forests
Destructive storms in European Forests: Past and Forthcoming Impacts. Final report to European Commission - DG Environment,
Gardiner, B. ; Blennow, K. ; Carnus, J.M. ; Fleischner, P. ; Ingemarson, F. ; Landmann, G. ; Lindner, M. ; Marzano, M. ; Nicoll, B. ; Orazio, C. ; Peyron, J.L. ; Reviron, M.P. ; Schelhaas, M. ; Schuck, A. ; Spielmann, M. ; Usbeck, T. - \ 2010
Joensuu, Finland : European Forest Institute - 138
bossen - bosschade - stormen - windschade - sociale economie - bosbeleid - herstel - europa - forests - forest damage - storms - wind damage - socioeconomics - forest policy - rehabilitation - europe
Hoe lossen we dit op? Van Grubbenvorst tot Kopenhagen
Breeman, G.E. ; Sikkema, A. - \ 2010
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 4 (2010)11. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 10 - 12.
sociale kwesties - governance - beleid - natuurbeheer - bosbeleid - social issues - governance - policy - nature management - forest policy
Beleidswetenschappers van de universiteit gaan hun onderzoek bundelen in het Wageningen Centre of Governance. Het onderzoek gaat over de sturing van complexe maatschappelijke vraagstukken, van internationale problemen tot kwesties in onze achtertuin.
|Ecosystem Goods and Services from Plantation Forests
Bauhus, J. ; Meer, P.J. van der; Kanninen, M. - \ 2010
London, Great Brittain : Earthscan (Earthscan forest library ) - ISBN 9781849711685 - 254
bosplantages - bosproducten anders dan hout - meervoudig gebruik - biodiversiteit - koolstofvastlegging - waterbescherming - bosbeleid - ecosysteemdiensten - forest plantations - non-wood forest products - multiple use - biodiversity - carbon sequestration - water conservation - forest policy - ecosystem services
This is the first book to examine explicitly the non-timber goods and services provided by plantation forests, including soil, water and biodiversity conservation, as well as carbon sequestration and the provision of local livelihoods. The authors show that, if we require a higher provision of ecosystem goods and services from both temperate and tropical plantations, new approaches to their management are required. These include policies, methods for valuing the services, the practices of small landholders, landscape approaches to optimise delivery of goods and services, and technical issues about how to achieve suitable solutions at the scale of forest stands. While providing original theoretical insights, the book also gives guidance for plantation managers, policy-makers, conservation practitioners and community advocates, who seek to promote or strengthen the multiple-use of forest plantations for improved benefits for society.
The role of multiple institutions in the management of micro spring forests in Ukerewe, Tanzania
Katani, J.Z. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Freerk Wiersum; G.C. Kajembe. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856795 - 202
bossen - schermbossen - watervoorraden - putten - bosbedrijfsvoering - instellingen - sociale gebruiken - bosbeleid - tanzania - geïntegreerd bosbeheer - governance - forests - protection forests - water resources - wells - forest management - institutions - social customs - forest policy - tanzania - integrated forest management - governance
Planners of development interventions often assume that natural resource use and management problems can be addressed by applying a single model for different village communities. This perspective fails to recognize the fact that villagers are not passive recipients of interventions, but that they are actively engaged in the shaping and adaptation of external law, rules, and regulations to fit locality-specific situations. Also, most institutional studies have a sectoral approach focusing on one type of natural resources only and failing to consider the mutual dependency of different resources and their users in multiple resource systems. In order to address these issues and develop a better understanding of local dynamics and differences through time and place, we need a study that recognizes the multiple resource systems and the critical role of human agency in solving resource use problems. This PhD research focuses on the use and management of water and forest as integrated resource systems to assess the process of institutional bricolage as a result of external interventions and modernization. The study includes six cases of micro spring forests on Ukerewe main Island in Lake Victoria, Tanzania, and describes the role of resource users in negotiating, transforming and adapting the newly introduced institutions to the locally existing institutional frames. Villagers usually see the management of water sources as interrelated with the management of the micro spring forest vegetation. The study demonstrates to what extend and how changes in the institutional organisation for the use and management of water sources affect the forest vegetation. Modern resource governance is usually carried out along sector lines. Results from these cases clearly underscore the need to regard water sources and forest vegetation as integrated resource systems, and to organise structural interventions accordingly, which is along inter-sector or inter-departmental lines of intervention.
Can we learn our way to sustainable management? : adaptive collaborative management in Mafungautsi State Forest, Zimbabwe
Mutimukuru, T. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Richards; Ken Giller, co-promotor(en): Conny Almekinders. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856511 - 231
natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - participatie - participatief management - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbeleid - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - zimbabwe - duurzame ontwikkeling - natural resources - resource management - participation - participative management - sustainability - forest management - forest policy - africa south of sahara - zimbabwe - sustainable development
Following the failure of top-down centralised management approaches to natural resources, attention has shifted in the last two decades to participatory approaches. Unfortunately, participatory resource management projects have produced disappointing results. They have failed to meet the objectives of enhancing sustainable management of resources and of improving the well-being of local people.
These efforts have recently been criticized by environmental conservationists, who continue to believe that participation by local people has resulted in increased degradation and loss of biodiversity. Proponents of participation however take the option of reverting back to top-down management approaches as ‘reinventing the square wheel’ since top-down approaches have an even worse record in resource management. The proponents of participation, therefore, call for alternative approaches that combine improvements of both human well-being and the status of natural resources.
It is against this background - a conviction that community participation must be the way forward, despite a number of failed participatory initiatives - that the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) initiated in 1999 a multi-country, multi-site Adaptive Collaborative Management (ACM) project. The starting point of the ACM approach is that sustainable resource management can only be achieved if local people participate in the utilisation and management of those resources. The approach makes use of various theories and concepts from several disciplines including complex systems theory, adaptive management, social learning, cooperation and competition, and theories of human interaction.
The ACM project was implemented in Mafungautsi in Zimbabwe forest by a multi-disciplinary team of researchers from 1999 to 2003, and aimed to strengthen an on-going Resource Sharing Project that began in 1994. This thesis documents and critically analyses the interventions facilitated by the ACM team and their outcomes. It also traces these outcomes to check if they were sustained or not, and why.
Evidence presented in Chapter 4 shows some of the complexities encountered in implementing the ACM approach. Several activities and processes were initiated simultaneously in the different sites. ACM researchers facilitated stakeholders to go use Participatory Action Research (PAR) processes to deal with their problems and learn from the impacts of their actions, they, too, had to learn by doing.
Through context studies the team realised a number of issues had to be addressed at the outset. The context studies revealed a range of issues to be addressed if stakeholders were effectively to participate in the PAR process. These included numerous conflicts among stakeholders at various levels, unequal distribution of power, misunderstandings, passiveness of local community members in issues related to the management of the forest, the fact that not all stakeholders in local communities were interested in all resources in the forest, and finally weak leadership skills among stakeholders.
The ACM team therefore developed several interventions to resolve conflicts and build stakeholder capacities before the PAR process could progress. These interventions included empowerment training workshops, conflict resolution workshops, training on leadership skills and finally the formation of the resource user groups. Implementing these interventions took considerable amounts of time.
PAR processes were later initiated with various resource user groups. Stakeholders at a range of scales, including resource user groups, resource management committees, and FC officers and researchers, were included in processes to develop visions and implement action plans. The process however was not so neat in all cases and some of the action plans were never implemented. Opportunities were created for stakeholders to share experiences, and learn together.
The team also facilitated the development of a collaborative monitoring system to help stakeholders learn about the impact of their actions. The process for doing this was time consuming since several relevant stakeholders had to participate in the process. The CM system was initially not welcomed by all resource users. Follow up studies showed that stakeholders in various RMC areas did not implement all the aspects of the CM system but chose only certain aspects. The development of a plot system in Gababe to monitor the quality of the grass resource as well as resolve problems related to favouritism in allocation of resource harvesting areas was an interesting outcome. The CM system however in some cases (like in the Batanai area) collapsed due to political factors at play.
The interventions by the ACM team resulted in some positive outcomes including the empowerment of local communities, some improvement in incomes obtained through value addition and seeking alternative markets, improvement in stakeholders’ knowledge about their forest resources through their monitoring activities and the use of sustainable harvesting methods. However, a follow-up study four years after the project ended showed that these positive developments were not sustained.
The ACM team also aimed to influence resource management institutions and Chapter 5 traces how the Resource Management Committees (RMC) transformed over time. The chapter shows that the RMCs (especially the one in Gababe) over time, with capacity building on both the RMCs and local communities transformed into downwardly accountable and transparent organisations. The positive change was however short-lived, when the FC officer died. A follow up study four years later showed that, the RMCs were no longer accountable to their communities and several conflicts were now present among stakeholders. These were simply ignored.
In trying to understand why things turned out this way, I address one central question – to what extent was failure a result of misconceptualization and misapplication of the participatory approach, as distinct from being a product of the general rapidly declining socio-economic conditions in the country? Although from a superficial analysis one can conclude that wider events in the country finished off a beautiful initiative in its infancy, I argue that the initiative would have failed anyway even if the environment had not changed. I identify key factors that would have led to the failure of the project.
First, the overestimation of what the ACM team could do given the limited period and the complexity of the situation in Mafungautsi. Second, the ACM team did not address issues of power and its unequal distribution. Third, the ACM team did not facilitate the development of clear rules and their means of enforcement to support management activities. Fourth, the ACM team paid insufficient attention to the conflicting needs of local resource users, and finally, the team left the future work with an underfunded and understaffed organisation.
I conclude that if ACM and other learning-based participatory resource management initiatives are to succeed, they must empower the poor and marginalised and explicitly address issues of power and politics. Joint learning processes should not be taken as a panacea but must integrate elements from other disciplines such as political ecology. Such projects should also ensure that clear rules for management and use of resources are agreed upon as well as their means of enforcement.
Transforming sustainable development diplomacy: lessons learned from global forest governance
Hoogeveen, H. ; Verkooijen, P.V.J.D. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rudy Rabbinge, co-promotor(en): W. Moomaw; A. Najam. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085855330 - 176
bosbeleid - bosbedrijfsvoering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - milieubeleid - governance - duurzame ontwikkeling - forest policy - forest management - sustainability - environmental policy - governance - sustainable development
Sustainability of the wood chains between the Russian Federation and the Netherlands
Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Schütz, P. ; Pedroli, G.B.M. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1809) - 39
hout - houthandel - bosbouw - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - certificering - rusland - nederland - bosbeleid - houtproducten - wood - timber trade - forestry - sustainability - certification - russia - netherlands - forest policy - wood products
In this report an overview of sustainability issues in Russian forestry is given, focusing on the European part of Russia and trade with the Netherlands. The present situation and developments in Russian forestry are described, taking into account the new Forest Code and increasing export tax on round wood. Trade of wood products between the Russian Federation and the Netherlands is quantified and put into an international perspective. Further sustainability issues, both from a Russian and Dutch perspective of the wood chain are assessed, including forest certification, illegal logging and stricter Dutch procurement regulations. It contains both policy recommendations and suggestions for further research.