Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Inauguratie Koen Kramer
    Kramer, K. - \ 2015
    Wageningen UR
    adaptatie - genetische diversiteit - bossen - modelleren - klimaatverandering - bosbescherming - bosproducten - bosecologie - adaptation - genetic diversity - forests - modeling - climatic change - protection of forests - forest products - forest ecology
    Nieuwe en bestaande bossen kunnen door gebruik te maken van de genetische diversiteit van bomen hun functionaliteit behouden bij klimaatverandering. Dat stelt prof. dr. Koen Kramer bij zijn oratie als buitengewoon hoogleraar Kwantitatieve bosgenetica aan Wageningen University op donderdag 8 oktober
    RED versus REDD: Biofuel Policy versus Forest Conservation
    Dixon, P. ; Meijl, H. van; Rimmer, M. ; Shutes, L.J. ; Tabeau, A.A. - \ 2013
    Brussel : CEPS (Factor markets working papers / Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS) no. 41) - ISBN 9789461383082 - 22
    biobrandstoffen - bosbescherming - europese unie - richtlijnen (directives) - beleid - agrarische economie - biobased economy - biofuels - protection of forests - european union - directives - policy - agricultural economics - biobased economy
    This paper assesses the complex interplay between global Renewable Energy Directives (RED) and the United Nations programme to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD). The interaction of the two policies is examined using a scenario approach with a recursive-dynamic global Computable General Equilibrium model. The consequences of a global biofuel directive on worldwide land use, agricultural production, international trade flows, food prices and food security out to 2030 are evaluated with and without a strict global REDD policy.
    Dynamics of conflict in participatory forest management in Benin : a framing perspective
    Idrissou Aboubacary, L. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis; Noelle Aarts, co-promotor(en): Annemarie van Paassen; S. Voudouhe`. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731890 - 213
    communicatie - conflict - communicatietheorie - bosbedrijfsvoering - hulpbronnenbeheer - participatie - bosbescherming - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - belangengroepen - stereotypen - participatief management - benin - west-afrika - communication - conflict - communication theory - forest management - resource management - participation - protection of forests - natural resources - interest groups - stereotypes - participative management - benin - west africa

    Benin’s protected areas were created during the colonial period between 1940 and 1960. The colonial administration established them by confiscating rural land and putting it under government control without the consent of the local communities, who considered that their land had been expropriated. From the time that they were created until the early 1990s, these protected areas were managed solely by government officials. Local communities were considered as undesirable in the management of these resources and were kept away from them by force and repression. Many conflicts set the forest rangers and local communities in opposition to each other in relation to access to, and use of, the resources in the protected areas. This management system also proved to be inefficient in terms of conservation of these protected areas, where degradation increased over time.Participatory management of protected areas was enacted in Beninin 1993. After a seemingly promising start of participatory management efforts, conflicts have re-emerged in many protected areas. This makes it relevant to gain a better understanding of why and how such conflicts emerge. Three cases of conflict in participatory management of protected areas were investigated. A framing perspective was used in order to develop a better understanding of conflict in such settings.

    The various cases studied show that the idea that conflicts in natural resources management occur when there are disagreements and disputes regarding access to, and management of, the natural resources is only one side of the story. The thesis indicates that conflict about natural resources management are not only about bio-physical resources; symbolic resources, including social status, moral values, trust and other identity-related issues, play decisive roles as well. In this line of thought, the thesis shows that the co-construction and the dynamics of the social identities of the stakeholders involved in natural resources management tended to reinforce conflicts in the different cases. In addition, the thesis demonstrates that trust is an important variable in the participatory management of natural resources. It makes clear that trust is not a static state or a given characteristic of a relationship, but must be regarded as highly dynamic and constantly negotiated over time. The thesis also makes clear that formal institutions provide the initial framework for legitimate action and become intertwined with informal institutions that become decisive in the achievement of the objectives of the process. However, although formal and informal institutions are both important and can reinforce each other, the intertwining of formal and informal institutions may result in problems and conflict, especially when there is discontinuity and turn-over with regard to participants. A final cross-cutting conclusion is that conflicts are gradually co-constructed by stakeholders in discourse. In everyday conversation, people create realities that become a source of conflict.

    An important practical implication of the study is that those involved in facilitating community-based forest management should develop better concepts and strategies to ‘manage’ and facilitate inter-human processes. Framing analysis helps to identify inter-human processes and dynamics that are easily overlooked but are critically important in shaping the course and outcomes of participatory processes.

    Keywords: Participation, conflict, framing, interpretive approach, discourse, case-study, trust, institutions, social cohesion, social identity, protected areas, Benin.

    Kaart van de oudste bossen in Nederland : kansen op hot spots voor biodiversiteit
    Daamen, W.P. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 121) - 37
    bossen - oude bossen - biodiversiteit - bosbescherming - geografische informatiesystemen - bosecologie - nederland - historische ecologie - forests - old-growth forests - biodiversity - protection of forests - geographical information systems - forest ecology - netherlands - historical ecology
    Dit document geeft een aanzet tot een GIS-bestand ‘Hot spots biodiversiteit’ van bossen in Nederland (situatie 2003). Het ontwikkelde bestand bevat de locaties van bossen met een ontstaansperiode van vòòr1900 of van gronden die vòòr het jaar 1900 al bosgebied waren. Het werkdocument bestaat uit een verslaglegging van de gebruikte basisbestanden, de uitgevoerde bewerkingen en een uitsnede van het kaartbeeld. De resultaten kunnen worden gebruikt bij studies van het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving zoals de Natuurbalans en de Natuurverkenning, maar ook bij ruimtelijke planning. Dit laatste in het bijzonder bij bosfuncties zoals recreatie/beleving en houtproductie.
    Geïntegreerd bosbeheer; het onderzoek van 2002-2005
    Raffe, J.K. van; Jong, J.J. de; Olsthoorn, A.F.M. ; Oosterbaan, A. ; Wijdeven, S.M.J. - \ 2006
    Wageningen : Alterra - 56
    natuurbescherming - bosbeheer - bosbouw - bosbescherming - geïntegreerd bosbeheer - nature conservation - forest administration - forestry - protection of forests - integrated forest management
    Over geïntegreerd bosbeheer, wat het inhoudt en wat er bij komt kijken.
    Forests in the mist : livelihoods and responses to the natural forest protection program in China
    Liu Jinlong, - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long, co-promotor(en): S. Zhang; Alberto Arce. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085045113 - 266
    rurale sociologie - plattelandsontwikkeling - bossen - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbescherming - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bosbouw - plattelandsgemeenschappen - bosbeleid - politiek - china - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - rural sociology - rural development - forests - forest management - protection of forests - sustainability - forestry - rural communities - forest policy - politics - china - livelihood strategies

    Today, a significant part of the agricultural commodities that we find at markets in the West are cultivated in developing countries. Many of these products are shipped around the world, passing through a complex network of actors involved in production, distribution and marketing activities. Who are the actors involved in these processes? What shapes their realities? And, in turn, how do they respond to and act upon factors related to the part they play within increasing globalized commodity networks? These questions have 1ed me to analyse the social context in which local actors in the fresh produce sector operate.

    The focus of this thesis is on what I refer to as the 'field of social action' of actors involved in global commodity networks. This field of social action may be defined as the 'social space' in which actors operate and which consequently constitutes the basis for their actions, practices, relationships, struggles and local knowledge. This study aims to explore the contemporary life of actors who act local, within their own 'reality', though as part of the global pineapple domain. The research focuses on the fresh pineapple sector in Ivory Coast. The central objective of this thesis is to analyse how local actors in the Ivorian pineapple sector respond to globalization trends and developments according to their own 'reality' (i.e. their lifc-worlds and local knowledge) and how they internalize these trends and developments in their actions, practices and relationships.

    The qualitative field study which forms the basis of this thesis was conducted in the humid tropical south of Ivory Coast, from early 1998 to late 1999. The empirical data derived from this field study was further updated on the basis of more recent sources, and additional information was acquired during a brief visit to Ivory Coast in 2003. Extensive interviews held with actors in the commodity network - producers, landlords, export organizations, traders, local vendors, the sector-wide producers' and exporters' organization OCAB, the quality control agent Veritas, European importers and others - together with meetings and training sessions for producers that I attended, and observations in the field have resulted in the portrait of the fresh pineapple sector as presented in this thesis.

    In terms of theoretical orientation, an actor-oriented perspective has been used to capture the specific situations and circumstances in which different local actors manoeuvre. The personal stories and experiences presented in this study seek to enhance our understanding of how different actors engage with and shape global commodity networks at the local level (in Ivory Coast). This helps us to understand the way these actors experience global processes and seek to create room for manoeuvre within an increasingly demanding global pineapple sector.

    A number of key elements of the globalization of agriculture have, in my opinion, shaped today's field of social action for actors operating within the fresh produce sector. These key elements include the expansion of production territories and de-territorializing of' products, technological developments, such as in the transportation and communication sectors and the increasing demand for production capacity. Furthermore, in particular in recent times, we may identify a trend towards fully coordinated supply chain activities and the related consolidation of companies, driven by cost reduction benefits (economies of scale) and a desire for control over all activities in the supply chain (mainly from a food safety and quality perspective), as well as increased market orientation and consumer awareness. This study analyses how the Ivorian pineapple sector has dealt with these key elements in the globalization of agriculture.

    The thesis describes how, during the early colonial period, French co!onizers introduced the pineapple to Ivory Coast as a commercial enterprise for the home market. The introduction of pineapple was paralled by the emergency of a large-scale plantation economy of various other commodities. This development consequently generated a flow of labour; migrants from other parts of Ivory Coast and from neighbouring countries were attracted to the southern region of Ivory Coast in search of employment. The arrival of these newcomers, and a subsequent pressure on land, transformed village organization, with a new pattern of social relations emerging from power struggles for local control over land.

    Since colonial times, the Ivorian pineapple sector has been organized through a sector-encompassing institutional framework. This administrative, production and distribution system 1ed to a dominance of the Ivorian fresh pineapple in European markets, peaking at a 95% market share in the mid 1980s. Until the early 1990s, the Ivorian pineapple sector did not face serious competition within Europe. However, this situation changed when transnational corporations such as Dole and DeI Monte penetrated the market, resulting in a severe loss of market share. Over the past 15 years, the Ivorian pineapple sector has initiated a number of activities to re-win their position in European markets, under the guidance of the overall producer and export organization, OCAB. This study presents the actions and struggles of the various actors involved in these efforts, in order to keep competing in the 'Big League'. It furthermore shows how the role of OCAB and other actors has changed over time, and how OCAB has evolved into a powerful mechanism for the coordination and control of activities in the Ivorian pineapple sector.

    In this powerful institutional framework, the large number of small-scale producers who dominate the Ivorian pineapple sector, cultivate pineapples for far-away markets in the 'Pays des Blanches\ Despite the lack of a direct link with consumers, these producers have generated ideas about the behaviour and preferences of these consumers, which has 1ed to particular ways of acting and established practices in the pineapple fields. The study demonstrates that such practices are often based upon their observation of local consumer behaviour. A number of such interpretations, which may bc held to bc attributes of local actors' versions of the 'truth' about far-away pineapple markets, are described in this thesis; analyses of the actions and practices of producers therefore provides an understanding of their life-worlds and local knowledge.

    The study uses global commodity networks associated with the production, distribution and consumption of Ivorian pineapples as a window for analysing the discourses of the global fresh produce domain. These discourses constitute an important Lmode of ordering' within the commodity network, representing trends and developments that 1ead to changes in the organizational framework and the network of the fresh fruit itself. Within the context of the Ivorian pineapple sector, the way in which such ordering takes place depends not simply on a number of key actors, but on the totality of actors' actions and realities within the pineapple network. The struggles, negotiations and discourses of these actors, as well as their interrelationships, dependencies and power positions, determine the eventual outcome of such ordering. Such processes and relations between actors are inherently dynamic in nature, and follow trends and developments which trigger important changes and reposition people, organizations and commodities. This process of constant re-ordering assumes the characteristic of an uncertain process which will never remain the same forever.

    It is through the analysis of local actors' actions, responses and related realities that insights have been obtained that will prove to be valuable for understanding the field of social action of local actors involved in the Ivorian pineapple network. It is therefore hoped that this study will add an important dimension to our critical understanding and appraisal of more 'rational' perspectives on globalization of agriculture. The insights gained through this study has provided important understanding of the ways in which ordering processes in globalized commodity networks take place, and how actions and practices of actors within such networks are socially constructed.

    Een "spotted owl" in de achtertuin?
    Nabuurs, G.J. - \ 2002
    Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 74 (2002)4. - ISSN 0028-2057 - p. 30 - 30.
    houtkap - bosgebieden - oerbossen - boreale bossen - bosbescherming - natuurbescherming - bosbeheer - bossen - rusland - oude bossen - bosecologie - houtproductie - Europa - logging - woodlands - virgin forests - boreal forests - protection of forests - nature conservation - forest administration - forests - russia - old-growth forests
    Aandacht voor de houtkap in de Oeral, in de laatste oerbossen van Europa. Verminderde houtproductie in West-Europa als gevolg van ander bosbeheer en bosbeleid leidt tot een verschuiving van de houtoogst van West- naar Oost-Europa. Om de druk op de laatste Europese oerbossen te verminderen moeten we het beheerde bos in West-Europa als een natuurlijke hulpbron blijven zien
    Genetische diversiteit in natuurlijke populaties van zwarte populier (Populus nigra L.)
    Dam, B.C. van - \ 2002
    Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 74 (2002)4. - ISSN 0028-2057 - p. 24 - 29.
    populus nigra - bosbomen - bossen - genetische diversiteit - genetische variatie - populatiegenetica - populaties - genetica - differentiatie - oeverbossen - natuurbescherming - bosbescherming - rivieroeverbeplantingen - genetische analyse - bosecologie - ooibos - populatiebiologie - rivierherstel - zwarte populier - populus nigra - forest trees - forests - genetic diversity - genetic variation - population genetics - populations - genetics - differentiation - riparian forests - nature conservation - protection of forests - riverside plantations - genetic analysis - forest ecology
    Zwarte populier is een autochtone soort voor Nederland en komt voor in rivierbegeleidende ecosystemen. In Europees verband is een groot onderzoeksproject gestart (Europop) naar de genetische aspecten van natuurlijke populaties. De oorzaken voor de achteruitgang van de soort, en de resultaten van het onderzoek naar de genetische diversiteit en differentiatie, binnen en tussen populaties in Europese riviersystemen en in de enige Nederlandse natuurlijke populatie bij Gendt langs de Rijn. Mogelijke strategieën voor behoud en beheer van de zwarte populier worden besproken
    Het bos, de stad en het platteland in 2050: de bosbouwer als zoo-manager?
    Schanz, H. ; Verbij, E. ; Vliet, van, K. - \ 2002
    Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 74 (2002). - ISSN 0028-2057 - p. 1 - 5.
    bosbouw - bossen - bosbeheer - natuurbescherming - urbanisatie - plattelandsontwikkeling - beleid - bosbeleid - bosbescherming - forestry - forests - forest administration - nature conservation - urbanization - rural development - policy - forest policy - protection of forests
    Samenvatting van discussies over de toekomstige rol van de bosbouw in een verstedelijkend Europa, tijdens het symposium 'The changing role of forestry in Europe: between urbanisation and rural development' (11-14 november 2001, Wageningen). Uit een vergelijking met de taken van een moderne dierentuin komt een multifunctioneel toekomstbeeld naar voren (onderzoek, bescherming, creatie en toegankelijk maken van bos en natuur)
    Nieuws uit het onderzoek: beperkingen beleid dennenscheerder opgeheven
    Moraal, L.G. - \ 2001
    Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 73 (2001)3. - ISSN 0028-2057 - p. 33 - 33.
    tomicus piniperda - scolytidae - insectenplagen - insectenbestrijding - plagenbestrijding - wetgeving - richtlijnen (directives) - bosbeheer - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosschade - schade - bossen - bosbescherming - pinus sylvestris - pinus - schadelijke dieren - Nederland - tomicus piniperda - scolytidae - insect pests - insect control - pest control - legislation - directives - forest administration - forest management - forest damage - damage - forests - protection of forests - pinus sylvestris - pinus - noxious animals - Netherlands
    De bastkever Tomicus piniperda (dennenscheerder) wordt tegenwoordig als minder schadelijk beschouwd voor oudere dennen. Uit praktijkonderzoek van Alterra in een bosgebied bij Someren (Noord-Brabant) en literatuuronderzoek blijkt dat dit ook geldt voor jonge opstanden, zodat beperkende regels voor het bosbeheer (Verordening Bosschap Schadelijke Dieren 1973) versoepeld kunnen worden
    Effectgerichte maatregelen in droge bossen
    Bartelink, H.H. - \ 2001
    Vakblad Natuurbeheer 40 (2001)6. - ISSN 1388-4875 - p. 115 - 118.
    bosbeheer - natuurbescherming - bosschade - eutrofiëring - verzuring - bossen - bosbescherming - maatregelen - forest administration - nature conservation - forest damage - eutrophication - acidification - forests - protection of forests - measures
    Activiteiten in het kader van het Overlevingsplan Bos en Natuur (OBN): welke maatregelen kunnen in het terrein worden genomen om de effecten van eutrofiëring en verzuring tegen te gaan. Het onderzoek was toegespitst op voedselarme dennenbossen en gaffeltand-eikenbossen
    Boswetgeving in Nederland in historisch perspectief, een overzicht [thema: Boswet]
    Laar, J.N. van; Kamp, W.J. van de - \ 2000
    Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 72 (2000)2. - ISSN 0028-2057 - p. 49 - 54.
    boswetgeving - bossen - bosbouw - recht - wetgeving - bosbescherming - bosbeleid - regering - overheidsbeleid - supervisie - regelingen - geschiedenis - nederland - forestry law - forests - forestry - law - legislation - protection of forests - forest policy - government - government policy - supervision - regulations - history - netherlands
    Ontwikkeling van de boswetgeving over de jaren 1910 - 1961, met de maatschappelijke context, waarin ze tot stand kwamen
    Het voorkomen van intersteriele groepen van de wortelzwam in Nederland
    Schuring, W. - \ 1999
    Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 71 (1999)3. - ISSN 0028-2057 - p. 144 - 147.
    heterobasidion annosum - schimmels - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - bosplagen - plantenplagen - schimmelziekten - pinopsida - naaldbossen - bossen - bosbouw - bosschade - ziektebestrijdende teeltmaatregelen - schimmelbestrijding - steriliteit - mycologie - gastheer parasiet relaties - gastheerspecificiteit - bosbescherming - heterobasidion annosum - fungi - plant pathogenic fungi - forest pests - plant pests - fungal diseases - pinopsida - coniferous forests - forests - forestry - forest damage - cultural control - fungus control - sterility - mycology - host parasite relationships - host specificity - protection of forests
    Resultaten van een enquete onder bosbeheerders naar problemen met de wortelzwam of dennemoorder (Heterobasidion annosum), en van kruisingsproeven met paddestoelen verzameld in verschillende boswachterijen. In Nederland blijkt alleen de P-groep (grove den) van de wortelzwam voor tekomen; dit betekent dat aangetaste naaldhoutopstanden in principe alleen omgevormd kunnen worden tot loofhout
    Effectiviteit regeling Functiebeloning Bos en Natuurterreinen : een stap op weg naar realisatie van het Bosbeleidsplan
    Hekhuis, H.J. ; Wijk, M.N. van; Vliet, C.J.M. van - \ 1997
    Wageningen : IBN-DLO (IBN - rapport 334) - 161
    bosbouw - bosbouweconomie - bosbeleid - bossen - milieubescherming - conservering - bosbedrijfsvoering - werkplannen - natuurbescherming - bescherming - samenleving - regering - bosbescherming - supervisie - concessies - nederland - bostypen - natuur - forestry - forest economics - forest policy - forests - environmental protection - conservation - forest management - working plans - nature conservation - protection - society - government - protection of forests - supervision - concessions - netherlands - forest types - nature
    Relationships between forest condition and natural and anthropogenic stress factors on the European scale : pilot study
    Klap, J.M. ; Vries, W. de; Erisman, J.W. - \ 1997
    Wageningen : DLO Winand Staring Centre (SC report 150) - 245
    bosbouw - bosschade - bosplagen - achteruitgang, bossen - afsterving - luchtverontreiniging - gassen - zure regen - bodemchemie - anorganische verbindingen - mineralen - meteorologie - onderzoek - europa - bosbescherming - bospathologie - menselijke invloed - forestry - forest damage - forest pests - forest decline - dieback - air pollution - gases - acid rain - soil chemistry - inorganic compounds - minerals - meteorology - research - europe - protection of forests - forest pathology - human impact
    Het beheer van park- en stadsbossen
    Bervaes, J.C.A.M. ; Oosterbaan, A. - \ 1997
    Groen : vakblad voor groen in stad en landschap 53 (1997)11. - ISSN 0166-3534 - p. 46 - 51.
    groene zones - publieke tuinen - bedrijfsvoering - bosbouw - bosschade - bosplagen - achteruitgang, bossen - afsterving - bosbescherming - bospathologie - utrecht - green belts - public gardens - management - forestry - forest damage - forest pests - forest decline - dieback - protection of forests - forest pathology - utrecht
    Relaties tussen vitaliteitskenmerken, groeiplaats, ziekten en herkomst bij Douglas
    Olsthoorn, A.F.M. ; Maas, G.J. - \ 1994
    Wageningen : IBN-DLO (IBN - rapport 115) - 66
    afsterving - distributie - bosschade - achteruitgang, bossen - bosplagen - bosbouw - bossen - nederland - bepaling van groeiplaatshoedanigheden - standplaatsfactoren - bomen - levensvatbaarheid - pseudotsuga menziesii - bosbescherming - bospathologie - dieback - distribution - forest damage - forest decline - forest pests - forestry - forests - netherlands - site class assessment - site factors - trees - viability - pseudotsuga menziesii - protection of forests - forest pathology
    Het toezicht op de naleving van het natuur- en milieubeschermingsrecht in de knel? : knelpunten in en coordinatie van het toezicht op de Veluwe
    Hekhuis, H.J. - \ 1993
    Wageningen : IBN-DLO (IBN - rapport 024) - 88
    ecologisch evenwicht - bosbouw - bosbescherming - concessies - overheidsbeleid - natuurbescherming - historische plaatsen - milieu - nadelige gevolgen - milieueffect - menselijke activiteit - recht - wetgeving - bossen - milieubescherming - nederland - natuur - verstoring - veluwe - ecological balance - forestry - protection of forests - concessions - government policy - nature conservation - historic sites - environment - adverse effects - environmental impact - human activity - law - legislation - forests - environmental protection - netherlands - nature - disturbance - veluwe
    Modelling the escape of Chondrostereum purpureum spores from a larch forest with biological control of Prunus serotina.
    Jong, M.D. de; Wagenmakers, P.S. ; Goudriaan, J. - \ 1991
    Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology 97 (1991). - ISSN 0028-2944 - p. 55 - 61.
    celdifferentiatie - demonstratiebossen - afsterving - ziekten - bosschade - achteruitgang, bossen - bosplagen - bosbouw - micro-organismen - modellen - natuurlijke vijanden - parasitaire planten - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - sporen - theorie - bomen - onkruiden - larix - prunus serotina - chondrostereum purpureum - bosbescherming - experimentele bossen - bospathologie - wetenschap - cell differentiation - demonstration forests - dieback - diseases - forest damage - forest decline - forest pests - forestry - microorganisms - models - natural enemies - parasitic plants - plant pathogenic fungi - spores - theory - trees - weeds - larix - prunus serotina - chondrostereum purpureum - protection of forests - experimental forests - forest pathology - science
    Risico-analyse van gebeurtenissen die leiden tot infectie van non-target planten. Middels een theoretische benadering in de vorm van gesimuleerde spore-verspreiding binnen en buiten het bos, wordt de sporefractie berekend die zou kunnen ontsnappen uit het bos
    Aanleg en beheer van bos en beplantingen
    Schuetz, P.R. ; Tol, G. van - \ 1990
    Wageningen : Pudoc - 504
    bosbouw - klimaat - houtteelt - houtkap - bosbouwtechniek - arbeidskunde - bosbouwkundige handelingen - bosschade - bosplagen - achteruitgang, bossen - afsterving - houtmeetkunde - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbouweconomie - bosproducten - bos- en houtproductenindustrieën - handel - marketing - economie - bossen - bosbescherming - bospathologie - forestry - climate - silviculture - logging - forestry engineering - work study - forestry practices - forest damage - forest pests - forest decline - dieback - mensuration - forest management - forest economics - forest products - forest products industries - trade - marketing - economics - forests - protection of forests - forest pathology
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