Onderzoek naar brandveiligheid voor dieren in veestallen = Study regarding fire safety of barns for farm animals
Bokma-Bakker, M.H. ; Hagen, R.R. ; Bokma, S. ; Bremmer, B. ; Ellen, H.H. ; Hopster, H. ; Neijenhuis, F. ; Vermeij, I. ; Weges, J. - \ 2012
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 641) - 93
veehouderij - brandgevaar - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - huisvesting, dieren - stallen - branden - voorkomen van branden - veiligheid - wetgeving - Nederland - livestock farming - fire danger - animal welfare - animal production - animal health - animal housing - stalls - fires - fire prevention - safety - legislation - Netherlands
Study regarding bottle necks in fire safety of barns for farm animals and possible improvements, inter alia in legislation.
Fire effects on soil and hydrology
Stoof, C.R. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Coen Ritsema; A.J.D. Ferreira. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789085859154 - 182
brandgevolgen - branden - bodem - hydrologie - grondverwarming - as - fysische bodemeigenschappen - bodemwaterretentie - bodemtemperatuur - landdegradatie - erosie - fire effects - fires - soil - hydrology - soil heating - ash - soil physical properties - soil water retention - soil temperature - land degradation - erosion
Fire can significantly increase a landscape’s vulnerability to flooding and erosion events. By removing vegetation, changing soil properties and inducing soil water repellency, fire can increase the risk and erosivity of overland flow. Mitigation of land degradation and flooding events after fire can help safeguard natural resources and prevent further economical and ecological havoc, but can benefit from an improved understanding of its drivers.
Wereldwijde houding ten aanzien van ingrepen
Niekerk, T.G.C.M. - \ 2009
V-focus 6 (2009)5. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 12 - 13.
pluimveehouderij - pluimvee - hennen - snavelkappen - sporen (pluimvee) - branden - tenen - scharen (knippen) - dierenwelzijn - onderzoek - wetgeving - Nederland - poultry farming - poultry - hens - debeaking - spurs (poultry) - fires - digits - shears - animal welfare - research - legislation - Netherlands
Ingrepen zoals snavelbehandelen, sporen branden en tenen knippen worden gezien als een ongewenste aantasting van de integriteit van het dier. Ze staan daarom in Nederland sterk ter discussie, maar ook wereldwijd heeft het de aandacht. Er wordt getracht het aantal en de mate van ingrepen terug te dringen via wetgeving (met name in Europa) en onderzoek
Changing forest-woodland-savanna mosaics in Uganda: with implications for conservation
Nangendo, G. - \ 2005
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Bongers; A. de Gier, co-promotor(en): H. ter Steege. - Enschede : ITC - ISBN 9789085042006 - 139
bosgebieden - bossen - savannen - savannebossen - ruimtelijke variatie - variatie in de tijd - branden - verbranden - conservering - bedrijfsvoering - uganda - vegetatie - woodlands - forests - savannas - savanna woodlands - spatial variation - temporal variation - fires - burning - conservation - management - uganda - vegetation
Forest-Woodland-Savanna (FWS) mosaics are complex, highly varied and dynamic landscapes.Until recently, they were considered poor in terms of biodiversity. Consequently, only few scientific studies have been done on them and little attention has been paid to their conservation. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the spatial and temporal variation in the FWS vegetation. Budongo Forest Reserve, located in northwestern
Five vegetation cover classes (VCC) and a burnt area cover class were identified and were best classified using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) combined with an Expert System (overall accuracy was 94.6%). The VCC were well distinguishable in terms of species composition and vegetation structure. Many tree species, however, occurred in more than one VCC and the vegetation showed a gradient in species composition. Fire was identified as the major factor influencing woody plant variation. Along a succession gradient, adults and juveniles of some of the species were found at different locations.
Between 1985 and 2002, the woodland-savanna vegetation increased in 15.1% of the area and decreased in another 14.3%. Three VCC subjected to a similar fire regime for over 46 years also showed a convergence in woody plant composition.
The observed variation along the FWS gradient indicates that each part of the FWS mosaic is essential for the maintenance of the overall diversity within the mosaic. To conserve mosaics, the existing vegetation variation and their spatial and temporal interrelationships need to be conserved. Purposeful fire management is an essential element of this variation.
Dipterocarpaceae: forest fires and forest recovery
Priadjati, A. - \ 2002
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.A.A. Oldeman; J. Soedarsono; S.B.J. Menken. - Wageningen : Tropenbos International - ISBN 9789058087539 - 214
dipterocarpaceae - bosbranden - verjonging - effecten - branden - shorea leprosula - milieufactoren - indonesië - dipterocarpaceae - forest fires - regeneration - effects - fires - shorea leprosula - environmental factors - indonesia
One of the serious problems Indonesia is facing today is deforestation. Forests have been playing a very important role in Indonesia as the main natural resources for the economic growth of the country. Large areas of tropical forests, worldwide considered to be among the richest in plant diversity, have been lost in recent years mainly due to inappropriate logging, illegal logging, shifting cultivation, and forest fires. The negative repercussions of these activities are felt from an economical as well as from an ecological point of view.
Time and again, Indonesia has experienced severe droughts often resulting in large forest fires. The fires used to occur only sporadically but now occur regularly every approx. 4 years in the area, with the largest and most destructive ones so far taking place in 1997-98. This climatic phenomenon was linked to a particularly pronounced El Niño Southern-Oscillation (ENSO), combined with numerous fires closely connected with human activities.
'Dipterocarpaceae: Forest fires and forest recovery' discusses a comprehensive ecological understanding of fires, an overview of forest dynamics after fires, and the restoration strategies of the forest. Planting materials are reviewed in terms of their genetic diversity and their growth in different soil substrates, with various mycorrhizal inoculations and levels of light. The present publication is the last in a series adding information to the earlier projects conducted by Smits (1994), Yasman (1995), Hatta (1999) and Omon (2002).
Microclimatic conditions change considerably after forest fires. The burned forest was characterized by elevated levels of light intensity and heat, and significantly reduced levels of humidity. After the fires, the natural dynamics of forest, in terms of regeneration of plants and butterfly communities, was set back to an earlier development phase where there were no more trees, only 2.5% of saplings survived and all saplings shorter than 5 m died. The butterfly community in the burned area had high densities of pioneer species associated with disturbed habitats. Burning caused a significant shift in the forest butterfly community. There was a highly significant variation in sapling and seedling density, diameter, and species richness between burned and unburned forest. Even though sapling height was significantly greater in burned than in unburned forest, there was no significant difference between their growth in both forests. The growth of both saplings and seedlings was completely unaffected by any edge effect in both forest types. The species richness, density and height of seedlings were significantly greater in unburned forest but their growth was significantly greater in burned forest. The diverse seedling community of unburned forest was replaced by a species-poor community of pioneers dominated by Euphorbiaceae.
Dipterocarp forests can recover from fire impact if the damage is not too extensive and the fires are not recurrent, but their natural recovery is too slow to make it economically interesting, and therefore foresters try to restore the desired state of high forest as soon as possible. Their measures are based on the fact that similar microclimatic conditions in both forest types were reached within two years, so assisted recovery can be implemented soon in the burned area by introducing valuable climax tree species i.e dipterocarp species, before they would arrive spontaneously.
Such operations require seedlings. Key issues for the management of dipterocarp stock plants in the nurseries included genetic diversity of the seedlings, choice and preparation of appropriate potting mixes, species-soil original matching, nursery hygiene and mycorrhizal inoculation. Cuttings grown in sandy loam showed a stronger and faster growth than the cuttings in sandy clay loam and loam. The higher sand fraction in the soil provided a good aeration for mycorrhizae and plants roots. Pasteurised soil media increased the growth of seedlings in the nursery. It is assumed that composition, acidity, moisture content and heat of the rooting media can be combined in a treatment optimising the conditions for both root development and root colonisation by fungi, thus increasing the quality and quantity of seedlings produced. It was found that interactions between so many factors lead to a highly complex situation, far from easy to control.
S. leprosulaproved to be very homogeneous as expressed from the similarities in frequencies of the band patterns. The similarity was relatively high between eastern, central and western Kalimantan populations but the nearer the geographic distance the more similar the populations.
The initial inoculation supported S. leprosula to start growing in the greenhouse. In the established dipterocarp nursery, the spores of mycorrhizal fungi inoculated seedlings easily and freely. In 15 months in the greenhouse, all seedlings were colonised by these mycorrhizal weed fungi. Laccaria sp. was the most common one, followed by Thelephora sp. , Riessiella sp. and Inocybe sp . After 12 months in the field, the species composition of mycorrhizal fungi involved in root colonisation changed again. Inocybe sp . was still there, with two new other species being most abundant, namely Amanita sp. and Scleroderma sp. Even though the growth of S. leprosula seedlings in the nursery was supported by initial inoculation, in the field, no initial inoculation seedlings showed a stronger growth because they benefited more from the late stage fungi infecting the plants at the planting location.
When dipterocarps are used, the key to success for a dipterocarp planting is species choice and light control. Selecting species suited to the local soil and site conditions is essential. Light control should correspond to the light requirements of a species during its growing stages, so planting methods should reflect site conditions and growth characteristics of the species. S. leprosula is a light-demanding species at the early stage, 60 to 73% (relative light intensity) for seedlings and 74 to 100% for saplings.
The assisted recovery of pure Imperata cylindrica areas after fires is accelerated using mixed plantations composed of indigenous fast-growing pioneer tree species, i.e Peronema canescens that offer suitable conditions for the establishment of indigenous dipterocarp species. In circumstances without stress by fire, a young P. canescens tree has a well-developed monopodial trunk with a light canopy so that the light intensity under this species is very high or not much lower than in the open site. This shade condition (semi-closed) is not very suitable for S. leprosula seedlings when under-planted under this species. The capacity of P. canescens after fires to reiterate abundantly ('traumatic reiteration') and converge architecturally from Scarrone's model to a physiognomy resembling Leeuwenberg's model provided more favourable environmental conditions for S. leprosula to grow under the canopy of these trees (closed stand). Within almost three years, S. leprosula saplings in a closed stand and in a semi-open area reached a height of 281 to 283 cm and a diameter of 33 to 34 mm, whereas in the open area and under the semi-closed canopy of. P. canescens they were only 165 to 193 cm high and 22 to 27 mm in diameter.
Long-term survival of a species depends on its ability to adapt to environmental change. Adaptability is a two-sided process. It rests on the optimal match between a genotype (organism) and its direct environment (ecosystem patch or 'eco-unit'). It is important to understand the reaction of the plants, so as to select genotypes adapted and adaptable to environmental stress in new environments. For this reason, next to the taxonomical data of S. leprosula , the architectural model and its reiteration are also described in this book.
In Chapter 7 an overview is provided of the fire and forest regeneration issues with special reference to the Dipterocarpaceae and Shorea leprosula . Much practical information is provided on conditions for a successful regeneration of Dipterocarpaceae. It is concluded that the Dipterocarpaceae have become a threatened plant family and that safeguarding the genetic diversity of Shorea leprosula is highly urgent. If Dipterocarpaceae are to survive, the issue of fires must be resolved and dealt with.
|Advies over mogelijke activiteiten na de grote brand van juli 2000 : missie naar Samos, Griekenland 08-13 januari 2001
Hillegers, P.J.M. - \ 2001
Wageningen : Alterra - 16
branden - bosbranden - voorkomen van branden - herstel - kennis - bosbedrijfsvoering - griekenland - bosbrand - landschapsecologie - multifunctioneel landgebruik - toerisme - Samos - fires - forest fires - fire prevention - rehabilitation - knowledge - forest management - greece - Samos
Op Samos woedde zomer 2000 een grote brand, die een grote omvang kreeg door een droge tijd, een optredende hittegolf en een krachtige wind. Nederland was negatief betrokken bij deze brand, omdat het het enige land was, dat een negatief reisadvies afgaf voor toeristen. Diplomatieke bemiddeling resulteerde in een behulpzame missie om aanleiding en methodologie bij bosbranden en de voorkoming ervan aan een nader onderzoek te onderwerpen. Multifunctioneel landgebruik is een optie, de combinatie van recreatie, landbouw, veeteelt en bosbouw evenzo. Daarnaast is voor plattelandsontwikkeling locale participatie en samenwerking van belang
Landscape forming processes and diversity of forested landscapes : description and application of the model FORSPACE
Kramer, K. ; Baveco, J.M. ; Bijlsma, R.J. ; Clerkx, A.P.P.M. ; Dam, J. ; Groen, T.A. ; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A. ; Jorritsma, I.T.M. ; Kalkhoven, J. ; Kuiters, A.T. ; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Prins, H.H.T. ; Sanders, M. ; Wegman, R. ; Wieren, S.E. van; Wijdeven, S. ; Wijngaart, R. van der - \ 2001
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 216) - 168
landschapsecologie - biodiversiteit - vegetatie - begrazing - branden - hoefdieren - herbivoren - populatiedynamica - ruimtelijke variatie - methodologie - modellen - bosecologie - nederland - verstoring - landscape ecology - biodiversity - vegetation - grazing - fires - ungulates - herbivores - population dynamics - spatial variation - methodology - models - forest ecology - netherlands - disturbance
In the project "Landschapsvormende processen en biodiversiteit" ("Landscape forming processes and bioversity") the spatial interactions between autonomous development of a vegetation and landscape forming processes were investigated and their implications for (bio)diversity at the landscape level were evaluated. For this purpose the model FORSPACE was developed which is a spatial explicit process model that describes vegetation dynamics and the impacts of landscape forming processes. In this study emphasis was paid to the effects of grazing by large herbivores and fire on the vegetation. Two approaches to analyse diversity at the landscape scale were developed: 1) a spatial analysis evaluating the time-evolution of dominant vegetation types, and 2) a metapopulation approach that describes the population dynamics of indicator species at the landscape scale depending on the availability of habitat. This report focuses on the methodological aspects of the study and thus acts as a reference for future applied studies. The model structure is described in detail, as well as the approach of spatial analysis and of the metapopulation dynamics of an indicator species. Much emphasis is paid on the validation of the driving processes for trees, herbs and grasses by evaluating controlled simulation experiments. In a case-study on the 200 ha of the Imbos, an area in the centre of the Netherlands, the impacts of grazing by herbivores and its interaction with different fire frequencies were evaluated.
|Brandbaarheid van textiel
Cate, G.J.H. ten - \ 1984
In: NITHOO : nieuwe inventarisatie toegepaste huishoudwetenschappen, onderzoek en onderwijs / van Leeuwen, H., Ruiter, C., Guenther, H., Den Haag : NITHOO-VUGA - p. B91 - 7.
kleding - brandgevaar - voorkomen van branden - branden - textielindustrie - textiel - clothing - fire danger - fire prevention - fires - textile industry - textiles