Children and vegetables: strategies to increase children’s liking and intake of vegetables
Wild, V.W.T. de - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Gerry Jager. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574953 - 157
kinderen - kindervoeding - groenten - voedselvoorkeuren - peuters en kleuters - voedselopname - borstvoeding - children - child nutrition - vegetables - food preferences - preschool children - food intake - breast feeding
Background and aim
Children’s vegetable intake is far below that recommended. Despite increased awareness of the importance of vegetable consumption for health, it remains challenging to improve children’s vegetable intake. Since food preferences are central to food intake, it is important to understand how they are shaped and which factors play a role in this. So far, research on the formation of vegetable preferences has focused mainly on infants and school age children but is not elaborately investigated in toddlers/pre-schoolers. Therefore the aim of this thesis was to investigate the underlying mechanisms and modifying factors that play a role in developing 2–5-year-old children’s acceptance of vegetables. Effects of different learning mechanisms, strategies, and modifying factors were explored by diverse studies, including four intervention studies in ecological settings (day-care centres and at home). In another study, we compared 10 intervention studies across Europe.
We conducted a series of day-care and in-home interventions. Healthy toddlers and pre-school children participated in the studies. Vegetable liking was measured by relative preference, and consumption was measured by (ad libitum) intake. First, we studied the underlying mechanisms – flavour–nutrient learning, flavour–flavour learning, and repeated exposure – involved in the development toddlers’ food preferences in the short and long term. Novel products like green vegetable soups and vegetable crisps were used as test products, using within-subject designs. The soups differed in energy density to test flavour–nutrient learning (n=28), and the crisps were offered with different dips to test flavour–flavour learning (n=39). Next, we investigated the efficacy of other strategies like taste modification (n=103) and choice-offering (n=70) on 2–5-year-old children’s vegetable liking and intake, using between-subjects designs. Children consumed different vegetable products at home at dinnertime and therefore we used more familiar vegetables as test products. Finally, we combined the results of 10 intervention studies across Europe to explore the influence of individual child characteristics such as breastfeeding history and breastfeeding duration, age, gender, and food neophobia on 2– 6-year-old children’s (n=750) actual vegetable intake.
We found a clear and persistent effect of repeatedly offering novel and/or disliked vegetables on 2–5-year-old children’s intake. Results for preferences were inconsistent across the studies. We found no strong evidence that strategies such as flavour–flavour learning, flavour–nutrient learning, diluting/hiding a vegetable were more effective in changing vegetable preference than repeated exposure alone. We observed a small positive effect of choice-offering; this strategy could possibly be effective in somewhat older children who already like vegetables, to increase their consumption volume. Factors like breastfeeding duration, vegetable liking, and food neophobia were important for children’s vegetable intake. Children who were more reluctant to try novel food had lower vegetable intake and were not responsive to strategies like repeated exposure, blending, mixing, or hiding vegetables. Longer breastfeeding duration was positively associated with a higher vegetable intake by 2–6-year-old children across three European countries. Gender and age had no influence.
This thesis demonstrates that repeatedly offering a novel or disliked vegetable in a trusted positive environment is highly effective in promoting toddlers’ and pre-school children’s vegetable intake. Repeated exposure seems to be the way to teach young children to accept novel or disliked foods. Other strategies such as flavouring, adding energy, or taste modification may be helpful in promoting young children’s willingness to try and taste vegetables. Additional strategies such as choice-offering are needed to promote intake of already liked/familiar vegetables when children get older. Individual differences in child characteristics such as food neophobia, breastfeeding duration, and age play a role in shaping food preferences and therefore should get more attention in strategies to promote children’s vegetable acceptance. These results can be used by parents, caregivers, and public health organizations to stimulate children’s vegetable consumption to maintain a more balanced diet.
Gastrointestinal-active oligosaccharides from human milk and functional foods
Albrecht, S.A. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Harry Gruppen; Fons Voragen, co-promotor(en): Henk Schols. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859871 - 200
oligosacchariden - moedermelk - spijsverteringskanaal - zuigelingen - borstvoeding - koolhydraatmetabolisme - oligosaccharides - human milk - digestive tract - infants - breast feeding - carbohydrate metabolism
Keywords: human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), konjac glucomannan (KGM), breast milk, baby feces, gastrointestinal metabolization, blood-group specific conjugates, CE-LIF-MSn
Oligosaccharides, as present in human milk or supplemented to food, are renowned for their biological activity in the gastrointestinal tract. So far, little is known about the implication of oligosaccharide structures on their gastrointestinal fate. The influence of diet-related oligosaccharides on the postnatal gastrointestinal development and on the establishment of a balanced microflora is of special interest. Therefore, the present research aimed at an advanced understanding of the gastrointestinal metabolization of diet-related oligosaccharides, focusing on infant nutrition.
Capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) was introduced as a sensitive, qualitative and quantitative method for the analysis of individual galactooligosaccharides (GOS) from complex food matrices. The method also showed to be useful for the monitoring and characterization of complex konjac glucomannan (KGM) oligosaccharides, resulting from enzymatic digestion of the KGM polysaccharide andin vitro fermentation with human gut flora. The analysis and identification of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in breast milk and the characterization of oligosaccharides as present in the feces of breast-, formula- and mixed-fed babies was performed by CE-LIF coupled to a mass spectrometer (CE-LIF-MSn). The type of feeding determines the presence of diet-related oligosaccharides in baby feces. For breast-fed babies a gradual change in fecal oligosaccharide profile was found during the first six months postpartum. Three continuous stages of fecal oligosaccharide profiles were defined, comprising the presence of the genetically determined HMO-profile of the breast milk consumed (stage 1), the presence of HMO-units conjugated to blood group determinants from gastrointestinal mucins (stage 2) and predominantly oligosaccharides characteristic for follow-up feeding when solid food is introduced (stage 3). In total, sixteen fecal oligosaccharides, which pointed to the degradation and gastrointestinal metabolization of diet-related oligosaccharides and which were not present in human milk or infant formula, were identified in this research.
Monitoring the gastrointestinal fate of diet-related oligosaccharides pointed to an individual-dependent gastrointestinal adaptation to enteral food during the postnatal period.
Baren op Beveland : vruchtbaarheid en zuigelingensterfte in Goes en omliggende dorpen gedurende de 19e eeuw
Hoogerhuis, O.W. - \ 2003
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.M. van der Woude. - Wageningen : S.n. - ISBN 9789058088581 - 333
demografie - geschiedenis - geboorte - zuigelingensterfte - bevolkingsstatistieken - borstvoeding - zuigelingenvoedsel - nederland - menselijke vruchtbaarheid - zeeland - demography - history - birth - infant mortality - vital statistics - breast feeding - human fertility - infant foods - netherlands - zeeland
This study deals with the high infant mortality on Zuid-Beveland, a region which is situated in the middle of the province of Zeeland in the south western part of the Netherlands. The study describes on a micro-level the development of infant mortality during the period 1811-1900 in Goes, a small market town, and four neighbouring villages. This research is based on family reconstitution data. The analyses show that infant-feeding practices were the most important determinants of fertility and mortality levels, followed by the season in which children were born. This study shows that women were likely to cease breastfeeding during the months betweenJulyto October. The increasing demand for women's time by agricultural activities, especially during the harvest season and in the summer-months, caused the absence of the mother in the family.Which led to inferior food for the infants and to an increase of infant mortality rate.High temperatures in hot summers also raised the mortality rate. Exploration of the relationship between fertility and mortality at the micro-level further showed that the probability of conception during the first year following giving birth was greater when the infant died than when the infant survived. The evidence of 'replacing' children who had died, casts new light on this apparent change in the balance between fertility and infant mortality in the middle of the nineteenth century.
|Pregnancy and Lactation
Raaij, J.M.A. van; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2003
In: Nutrition & Metabolism / Gibney, M.J., Macdonald, I.A., Roche, H.M., Oxford : Blackwell Publishing (Nutrition Society textbook series ) - ISBN 9780632056255 - p. 96 - 111.
zwangerschap - lactatie - energiebehoeften - borstvoeding - zogende vrouwen - maternale voeding - pregnancy - lactation - energy requirements - breast feeding - lactating women - maternal nutrition
Food consumption data indicate that in most studies the cumulative increase in food intake over pregnancy shows enormous variation between individuals. There are good arguments against setting one specific recommendation for increased intake for all pregnant women. In well-nourished women, little relationship exists between maternal diet and milk production: mothers appear to protect breast-feeding through the depletion of their own body stores
Over moedermelk gesproken
Bindels, J.G. - \ 2000
Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - 29
borstvoeding - kindervoeding - breast feeding - child nutrition
Geboorten, zuigelingenvoeding en zuigelingensterfte in hun regionale verscheidenheid in de 19de eeuw
Hofstee, E.W. - \ 1983
Bevolking en Gezin 1983 (1983)Supplement. - ISSN 0772-764X - p. 7 - 60.
geboorte - zuigelingensterfte - demografie - zuigelingenvoeding - regio's - borstvoeding - vruchtbaarheid - birth - infant mortality - demography - infant nutrition - regions - breast feeding - fertility
Onderzoek naar de de ontwikkeling van de zuigelingen- en kindersterfte in België en Nederland in de 19de eeuw. Tevens wordt gepoogd om tot een nader inzicht te komen in de demografische betekenis van de borstvoeding in Nederland vóór de periode van de moderne geboortendaling.