Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Effect of mineral and vitamin C mix on growth performance and blood corticosterone concentrations in heat-stressed broilers
    Saiz del Barrio, A. ; Mansilla, W.D. ; Navarro-Villa, A. ; Mica, J.H. ; Smeets, J.H. ; Hartog, L.A. den; García-Ruiz, A.I. - \ 2020
    Journal of Applied Poultry Research 29 (2020)1. - ISSN 1056-6171 - p. 23 - 33.
    broilers - heat stress - mineral - nutrition - vitamin-C

    Heat stress is a major problem in the poultry industry, especially during summer months and when birds are raised under high-density conditions. Previous studies have reported that vitamin C or electrolyte supplementation could palliate the effects of heat stress in broiler chickens. The present study evaluated the effect of a mineral and vitamin mix (AHS) added to drinking water on the performance of broiler chickens. In total, 1,824 one-day-old birds were randomly allocated to 48 pens. Maximum animal density was 26.5 kg/m2. The control group received no additive; AHS-1 and -2 groups received the AHS mix at a concentration of 1 and 2 kg/1,000 L in drinking water, respectively; and the Vit-C group received vitamin C in drinking water at 200 g/1,000 L. All birds were fed the same diets based on a 3-phase feeding program; feed and water were given on ad libitum basis. To mimic heat stress conditions, temperature in the barn was raised to 35 C from 08:00 to 14:00 h each day. For the overall growing period (0 to 35 D), adding AHS to drinking water increased final BW, ADG, and ADFI linearly (PLinear < 0.05); FCR was decreased linearly with AHS supplementation (PLinear < 0.05). Final BW, ADG, and FCR for the Vit-C group were intermediate between AHS-2 and the control groups (P > 0.10). No significant effect on mortality were found (8.77%; P > 0.10). Relative to control, all the treatments tested reduced (P < 0.05) corticosterone concentration in blood serum. In conclusion, the combined use of supplementary levels of minerals and vitamins could alleviate the effects of heat stress on broilers chickens.

    Effects of three major protein sources on performance, gut morphology and fermentation characteristics in broilers
    Qaisrani, S.N. ; Krimpen, M.M. Van; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Kwakkel, R.P. - \ 2020
    British Poultry Science 61 (2020)1. - ISSN 0007-1668
    (in-)digestible protein - broilers - caecal fermentation - gut morphology - performance

    1. This study determined the effects of three protein sources (PS), each at two digestibility crude protein (DCP) levels, on performance, gut morphology and fermentation characteristics in the hindgut of broilers. 2. It was hypothesised that broilers fed ingredients high in indigestible CP, i.e. rapeseed meal (RSM) or maize gluten (MG), could potentially cause reduced growth, impaired gut health, and more protein fermentation products in caecal digesta. Increasing the DCP level in each of the indigestible CP diets may compensate for these detrimental effects. 3. In total, 288 one-d-old male Ross 308 broilers were used in a completely randomised 3 × 2 factorial design, with six replicate pens per treatment. Three PS: soybean meal (SBM), rapeseed meal (RSM) or maize gluten (MG), and two DCP levels: 15.8 and 17.2% were used. 4. Broilers fed SBM had increased feed intake and BWG and improved FCR compared with those fed RSM and MG diets. Broilers fed high DCP had better performance compared with those on low DCP. No significant effects of PS or DCP level were found on gastrointestinal tract development, caecal ammonia or volatile fatty acid concentrations. 5. Broilers fed SBM had longer villi, smaller crypts and increased villus height to crypt depth ratio compared with those fed RSM and MG diets. Broilers fed RSM diet had a lower caecal pH, and had 16.5% and 14.9% more branched chain fatty acid contents in caecal digesta compared with those fed SBM and MG diets, respectively, indicating more proteolytic fermentation. 6. Replacing SBM by RSM and MG negatively affected growth performance and gut morphology. Hindgut protein fermentation was substantially increased in RSM fed birds. 7. To a certain extent, retarded growth performance in RSM and MG fed birds could be counterbalanced by increasing the dietary level of digestible CP.

    Gezond drinkwater voor vleeskuikens
    Ellen, H.H. - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research - 2 p.
    animal welfare - animal production - poultry - broilers - animal behaviour - animal health - drinking water - animal nutrition
    TerraSea energiezuinig stalconcept voor vleeskuikens
    Ellen, H.H. - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research - 2 p.
    animal welfare - animal production - poultry - broilers - climate - energy - animal health
    Verbetering brandveiligheid oudere veestallen
    Bokma-Bakker, M.H. - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research - 2 p.
    animal welfare - animal production - poultry - broilers - animal behaviour - animal health - animal housing - animal nutrition
    Broiler welfare under scrutiny
    Jong, I.C. de - \ 2018
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research - 2 p.
    animal welfare - animal production - poultry - broilers - animal behaviour - animal health - animal housing - animal nutrition
    Is de ‘nieuwe’ supermarktkip gelukkiger dan de omstreden ‘plofkip’?
    Jong, I.C. de - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Livestock Stories blog, Wageningen University & Research
    animal welfare - animal production - poultry - broilers - animal behaviour - animal health - animal housing
    Losse bijlage bij rapport 'Onderzoek naar kritische succesfactoren voor een laag antibioticumgebruik bij vleeskuikens'
    Wiegel, J. ; Holstege, M.M.C. ; Bouwstra, R.J. ; Lauwere, C.C. de; Kluivers-Poodt, M. ; Bokma-Bakker, M.H. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1065B) - 115
    dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - vleeskuikens - pluimvee - diergezondheid - animal welfare - animal production - broilers - poultry - animal health
    Onderzoek naar kritische succesfactoren voor een laag antibioticumgebruik bij vleeskuikens: rapport van het project Kritische Succesfactoren Pluimvee (KSF Pluimvee)
    Bokma-Bakker, M.H. ; Wiegel, J. ; Holstege, M.M.C. ; Lauwere, C.C. de; Kluivers-Poodt, M. ; Bouwstra, R.J. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1065A) - 78
    dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - pluimvee - vleeskuikens - animal welfare - animal production - animal health - poultry - broilers
    Commissioned by AVINED and the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, research is carried out to identify critical success factors for low antibiotic use in broilers. By analysis of sectoral databases, associations between farm and flock characteristics and antibiotics use are determined. With the results of an additional survey, differences in technical and social factors between structural low and high users of antibiotics are examined.
    Stalboekje Pluimvee 2017 : Handboek voor natuurlijke pluimveegezondheidzorg met kruiden en andere natuurproducten
    Groot, Maria ; Puls-van der Kamp, Ineke ; Asseldonk, Tedje van - \ 2017
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT uitgave 2017.701) - 107
    pluimveehouderij - pluimvee - diergezondheid - dierenwelzijn - medicinale planten - geneeskrachtige kruiden - dierziektepreventie - dierlijke productie - biologische landbouw - handboeken - vleeskuikens - hennen - poultry farming - poultry - animal health - animal welfare - medicinal plants - herbal drugs - animal disease prevention - animal production - organic farming - handbooks - broilers - hens
    De stalboekjes zijn oorspronkelijk gemaakt voor de biologische veehouderij (versies 2009 en 2011) in het kader van onderzoek voor Biokennis. Deze uitgave is in 2014 en 2015 aangevuld met nieuwe middelen en inzichten en aangepast voor toepassing in de gangbare pluimveehouderij. Dit betekent o.a. dat een hoofdstuk over vleeskuikens is toegevoegd en het leghennen stuk is uitgebreid. Het streven om het gebruik van antibiotica terug te dringen vraagt om een ander management. Goede voeding, huisvesting en hygiëne zijn hierbij belangrijk. In dit boekje worden aanwijzingen gegeven om met natuurlijke middelen de gezondheid van de dieren te bevorderen en zo ziektes te voorkomen. Tevens kunnen middelen worden ingezet om de ernst van de ziekte te reduceren. Doel is tevens om de dierenartsen te informeren over de mogelijkheden van natuurproducten en de wetenschappelijke onderbouwing hiervan inzichtelijk te maken.
    Het effect van een verhoogde rustplaats op het gebruik en het gedrag bij opfok vleeskuikenouderdieren
    Emous, R.A. van; Gunnink, H. ; Binnendijk, G.P. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1047) - 19
    dierlijke productie - pluimvee - vleeskuikens - vleeskuikenouderdieren - huisvesting, dieren - diergedrag - animal production - poultry - broilers - broiler breeders - animal housing - animal behaviour
    Broiler chicken stocking density affects use of environmental enrichment objects
    Jong, I.C. de; Goertz, M. - \ 2017
    In: Xth European Symposium on Poultry Welfare. - - 2 p.
    broilers - Environmental enrichment - behaviour - stocking density - broilers - environmental enrichment - behaviour - stocking density
    Bringing eggs and bones to light : affecting leg bone development in broiler chickens through perinatal lighting schedules
    Pol, Carla W. van der - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B. Kemp, co-promotor(en): H. van den Brand; I.A.M. Roovert-Reijrink. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431422 - 214
    broilers - limb bones - biological development - embryonic development - eggs - light regime - incubation - hatching - circadian rhythm - animal pathology - animal health - poultry farming - vleeskuikens - beenderen van ledematen - biologische ontwikkeling - embryonale ontwikkeling - eieren - lichtregiem - broeden - uitbroeden - circadiaan ritme - dierpathologie - diergezondheid - pluimveehouderij

    Leg bone pathologies are a common problem in broiler chickens, and they can lead to decreased welfare and poor production performance. It can be speculated that the ae­tiology of some leg bone pathologies lies, to some extent, in suboptimal early life bone development. One factor that can be speculated to affect bone development, and conse­quently leg health, in broiler chickens is application of light. Light has several properties, such as light intensity, color, duration, and schedule. The present thesis focuses on ligh­ting schedules. Aim was to investigate how lighting schedules applied during incubation and in the early post hatch period (the brooding period) affected leg bone development throughout a broiler’s life and leg health at slaughter age.

    In 4 studies, effects of eggshell temperature (EST) and lighting schedule during incuba­tion and in the brooding period on leg bone development, leg health, and production parameters were explored. The first study found that an EST of 39.4°C led to lower bone dimensions at hatch than an EST between 37.8 and 38.6°C. It was then decided that incubation experiments on bone development would best be performed at a constant EST of 37.8°C, as this is also an EST that leads to good hatchability and chick quality. In two studies, the effects of circadian lighting schedules during incubation on leg bone development and leg health were investigated. Staining of the embryonic leg bones sho­wed that applying a circadian lighting schedule of 12 hours of light, followed by 12 hours of darkness (12L:12D) resulted in an earlier onset of embryonic ossification of the tibia than continuous light (24L). Compared to 24L, 12L:12D furthermore resulted in higher tibia weight and length, and higher tibial cortical area, cortical thickness, and second moment of area around the minor axis at hatch as revealed by MicroCT scanning. It was furthermore found that 12L:12D resulted in a lower incidence of the leg pathology tibial dyschondroplasia. Continuous darkness (24D) was mostly intermediate. On the other hand, a circadian lighting schedule of 16 hours of light, followed by 8 hours of darkness (16L:8D) did not show the same stimulatory effect on leg bone development, as no dif­ferences in gene expression markers involved in embryonic ossification were found, leg bone dimensions at hatch were not increased, and bone mineral content as determined by DXA scanning was not higher for 16L:8D. It can therefore be speculated that the dark period should exceed 8 hours per day during incubation for increased bone dimensions and ossification. However, incidence and severity of the leg bone pathologies in the form of bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis and epiphyseal plate abnormalities were lowest for broilers exposed to 16L:8D during incubation, and tibial dyschondroplasia tended to be lower for 16L:8D than for 24D. Interactions between incubation and mat­ching or mismatching post hatch lighting schedules were not found. It was speculated that the endocrine factors (pineal) melatonin, growth hormone, corticosterone, and IGF- 1 were a pathway through which light affected leg bone development, but no evidence was found to support this hypothesis. Production performance was not greatly influen­ced by incubation lighting schedule, but 24L was found to result in higher body weights at slaughter age than 16L:8D and 24D. In the final experiment, lighting schedules were applied during the brooding period from day 0 to 4 after hatching and leg bone develop­ment was measured at day 4 post hatch. 24L led to increased leg bone dimensions, but lower developmental stability of the leg bones than a lighting schedule with 1 or 6 hours of darkness after every 2 hours of light.

    The overall findings of this thesis suggest that continuous light during incubation and in the brooding period had a detrimental effect on embryonic and early post hatch leg bone development and health. The involvement of endocrine factors was not clarified from the current results. Applying a light-dark rhythm during incubation may improve embryonic leg bone development and leg health at slaughter age compared to continuous light and continuous darkness, without affecting post hatch production performance, but it appears that the dark period should last longer than 8 hours per day for optimal leg bone development.

    First week nutrition for broiler chickens : effects on growth, metabolic status, organ development, and carcass composition
    Lamot, David - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp, co-promotor(en): Henry van den Brand; Peter Wijtten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430777 - 187
    broilers - animal nutrition - poultry feeding - feeds - growth - metabolism - carcass composition - nutrition physiology - vleeskuikens - diervoeding - pluimveevoeding - voer - groei - metabolisme - karkassamenstelling - voedingsfysiologie

    During the first week of life, broiler chickens undergo various developmental changes that are already initiated during incubation. Ongoing development of organs such as the gastro- intestinal tract and the immune system may affect the nutritional requirements during this age period. Despite the residual yolk that is available at hatch and that may provide nutritional support during the first days after hatch, the growth performance may be affected by the time in between hatch and first feed intake. Furthermore, it remains largely unknown to what extend nutritional composition of a pre-starter diet, as well as feed availability directly after hatch have an effect on physiological development directly after hatch, but also at later age. The aim of this thesis was to determine the impact of feed availability and feed composition provided during the first week of life on short-term physiological development, as well as potential long-term effects on growth performance of broiler chickens. Especially early hatched chickens were suggested to benefit more from direct feed access compared to midterm and late hatched chickens, as they tended to have a higher body weight gain during the first week after hatch. A delay in feed access for 48 h resulted in lowered body weight gain and feed intake when compared to direct feed access, but so did a short (13 to 26 h) delay in feed access after hatch. In the latter case, delayed feed access resulted in a lower weight to length ratio of the jejunum and ileum at 4 d of age compared with chickens with direct feed access. Although delayed feed access after hatch resulted in lower body weight gain during the first week after hatch and thereafter, it can be discussed whether this is truly an impairment of long-term growth or just a delayed onset of growth. With respect to feed composition, the inclusion of fish oil and medium chain fatty acids in a pre-starter diet had minor effects on humoral immune function. Inclusion of medium chain fatty acids did result in higher body weight gain and lowered feed efficiency during the first week of life, but only during the period it was provided. Feeding increased diet densities during the first week of life, obtained by formulating diets with different dietary fat levels, resulted in an increased gain to feed ratio, whereas body weight gain and feed intake decreased. Despite the shift in dietary energy supply from carbohydrates to fat and the perceived lower fat digestibility in young broiler chickens, nitrogen metabolizability and fat digestibility were not affected in the current study by feeding increased diet densities. The relative crop, liver and pancreas weights decreased when feeding increased diet densities, whereas the length of the entire intestinal tract increased. This suggests that broiler chickens repartition visceral organ development in response to feeding more concentrated diets during the first week of life. Interestingly, protein and fat accretion were not affected. Continued feeding of increased diet densities after 7 d of age resulted in increased BW gain, G:F ratio and metabolizable energy intake, but mainly during the periods that these diets were provided. In summary, even short durations of delayed feed access already impact intestinal development of young broiler chickens. However, a delayed feed access up to 48 h after hatch does not result in impaired growth, but only a delayed onset of growth. Even though digestibility of fats and oils may be suboptimal in young broiler chickens, feeding of these diets does not have to result in lowered performance per se. Young broiler chickens appear to adapt themselves towards high density diets with high fat inclusion levels in the first week of life, enabling them to digest and metabolize these diet types despite a suboptimal capacity for fat digestion. High density diets result in higher growth performance, but only for the period these diets are provided and thus carry-over effects at later age appear to be limited.

    Retrospectieve analyse van standaard vastgelegde data in de vleeskuikenproductieketen
    Jong, I.C. de; Riel, J.W. van - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 1013) - 32
    vleeskuikens - vleeskuikenproductie - pluimveehouderij - prestatiekenmerken - gegevens verzamelen - gegevensanalyse - nederland - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - broilers - broiler production - poultry farming - performance traits - data collection - data analysis - netherlands - animal welfare - animal production
    Risicobeoordeling waterverstrekking aan vleeskuikens en vleeskuikenouderdieren
    Jong, I.C. de; Koene, P. ; Ellen, H.H. ; Emous, R.A. van; Rommers, J.M. ; Brand, H. van den - \ 2016
    Wageningen Livestock Research - 62
    animal welfare - animal production - poultry - broilers - animal nutrition - drinking water - animal health
    This report describes the methods of water provision in the current housing and management of broilers and broiler breeders and the possible impact of these management practices on animal welfare (including animal health). It provides an overview of drinking behavior of chickens, the physiology of water intake and factors affecting water consumption in broilers and broiler breeders. Based on scientific literature and expert opinion it is estimated that the current methods of water provision to broiler chickens do not have an effect on welfare. The current methods of water provision to broiler breeders are estimated to affect broiler breeder welfare, but evidence from scientific literature is lacking. It is described which management methods can be applied to reduce the welfare impact of water provision to broilers and broiler breeders. Finally, recommendations for further research are provided
    Ontwikkeling van een rekentool om de ammoniakemissie uit vleeskuikenstallen te kunnen voorspellen
    Aarnink, Andre ; Harn, Jan van; Banken, Klaas ; Ogink, Nico - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 990) - 73
    vleeskuikens - ammoniakemissie - modellen - pluimveehouderij - broilers - ammonia emission - models - poultry farming
    Phytate degradation in broilers
    Krimpen, M.M. van; Emous, R.A. van; Spek, J.W. ; Kwakernaak, C. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research report 978) - 50
    broilers - phytic acid - digestibility - poultry feeding - vleeskuikens - fytinezuur - verteerbaarheid - pluimveevoeding
    Actualisering geuremissiefactor vleeskuikens
    Ogink, N.W.M. ; Ellen, H. ; Mosquera, J. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 960) - 25
    vleeskuikens - pluimveehouderij - stankemissie - regelingen - nederland - broilers - poultry farming - odour emission - regulations - netherlands
    The aim of this study was to advice on the update of the odour emission factor for broiler houses that is used in the national regulation to control nuisance from odour from livestock (Rgv) in the Netherlands. The update was based a statistical analysis of odour emission data from field studies carried on 28 broiler barns between 1996 en 2014. The main conclusion drawn from this analysis was that the odour emission under current management conditions is higher than the so far used odour emission factor in the Rgv-regulation. The current odour emission factor in the Rgv assigned to broiler houses without additional air cleaning techniques amounts 0.24 OUE/s per placed bird. It is advised to adjust this factor to 0.33 OUE/s per placed bird.
    Gezonde vleeskuikens - Een goede start: belang van voer en water : Kennisclip
    Ruis, M.A.W. - \ 2016
    Dierenwelzijnsweb
    dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - antibiotica - pluimvee - vleeskuikens - animal welfare - animal production - animal health - antibiotics - poultry - broilers
    Een gezond kuiken kan onder optimale omstandigheden zijn voordeel doen van directe beschikking over voer en water. Het kuiken kan de dooierrest dan beter benutten voor ontwikkeling, immuniteit en groei. De juiste temperatuur van de omgeving is hierbij een zeer belangrijke factor, want als kuikens het koud of te warm hebben eten ze niet en zal van een goede start geen sprake zijn.

    In de kuikenbroederij komen kuikens niet allemaal tegelijk uit. De kuikens die het eerst uit komen, moeten wachten totdat alle kuikens uit zijn, en dat kan nog wel een dag duren. Daarna worden de kuikens verwerkt en geteld, en worden ze naar de boerderij gebracht. Zo kan het wel 36 uur duren voordat de eerst uitgekomen kuikens voer en water krijgen.

    Innovaties in de pluimveehouderij richten zich op vroege voeding als pluspunt onder optimale omstandigheden: direct verstrekken van water en voer in de uitkomstkast, en het laten uitkomen van broedeieren in de stal.

    In opdracht van Wageningen UR Livestock Research en het Ontwikkelcentrum, project 'Naar gezonde kalveren en kippen' (BO-20-011-032). Meer informatie over diergezondheid en dierenwelzijn: www.dierenwelzijnsweb.nl
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