Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Cold Induced Depot-Specific Browning in Ferret Aortic Perivascular Adipose Tissue
Reynés, Bàrbara ; Schothorst, Evert M. van; Keijer, Jaap ; Ceresi, Enzo ; Oliver, Paula ; Palou, Andreu - \ 2019
Frontiers in Physiology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-042X
adipose tissue - browning - cardiovascular disease - cold exposure - inflammation - thermogenesis

Brown adipose tissue is responsible for facultative thermogenesis to produce heat and increase energy expenditure in response to proper stimuli, e.g., cold. Acquisition of brown-like features (browning) in perivascular white adipose tissue (PVAT) may protect against obesity/cardiovascular disease. Most browning studies are performed in rodents, but translation to humans would benefit from a closer animal model. Therefore, we studied the browning response of ferret thoracic aortic PVAT (tPVAT) to cold. We performed global transcriptome analysis of tPVAT of 3-month-old ferrets acclimatized 1 week to 22 or 4°C, and compared the results with those of inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue. Immunohistochemistry was used to visualize browning. Transcriptome data revealed a stronger cold exposure response of tPVAT, including increased expression of key brown/brite markers, compared to subcutaneous fat. This translated into a clear white-to-brown remodeling of tPVAT, with the appearance of multilocular highly UCP1-stained adipocytes. The pathway most affected by cold exposure in tPVAT was immune response, characterized by down-regulation of immune-related genes, with cardio protective implications. On the other hand, subcutaneous fat responded to cold by increasing energy metabolism based on increased expression of fatty acid oxidation and tricarboxylic acid cycle genes, concordant with lower inguinal adipose tissue weight in cold-exposed animals. Thus, ferret tPVAT responds to cold acclimation with a strong induction of browning and immunosuppression compared to subcutaneous fat. Our results present ferrets as an accessible translational animal model displaying functional responses relevant for obesity and cardiovascular disease prevention.

Warmer and browner waters decrease fish biomass production
Dorst, Renee M. Van; Gårdmark, Anna ; Svanbäck, Richard ; Beier, Ulrika ; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A. ; Huss, Magnus - \ 2019
Global Change Biology 25 (2019)4. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 1395 - 1408.
biomass production - browning - Climate change - Eurasian perch - fish - individual body grwoth - lakes - length distribution - ontogeny - warming
Climate change studies have long focused on effects of increasing temperatures,
often without considering other simultaneously occurring environmental changes, such as browning of waters. Resolving how the combination of warming and browning of aquatic ecosystems affects fish biomass production is essential for future ecosystem functioning, fisheries, and food security. In this study, we analyzed individual‐ and population‐level fish data from 52 temperate and boreal lakes in Northern Europe, covering large gradients in water temperature and color (absorbance, 420 nm). We show that fish (Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis) biomass production decreased with both high water temperatures and brown water color, being lowest in warm and brown lakes. However, while both high temperature and brown water decreased fish biomass production, the mechanisms behind the decrease differed: temperature affected the fish biomass production mainly through a decrease in population standing stock biomass, and through shifts in size‐ and age‐distributions toward a higher proportion of young and small individuals in warm lakes; brown water color, on the other hand, mainly influenced fish biomass production through negative effects on individual body growth and length‐at‐ age. In addition to these
findings, we observed that the effects of temperature and brown water color on
individual‐level processes varied over ontogeny. Body growth only responded positively to higher temperatures among young perch, and brown water color had a stronger negative effect on body growth of old than on young individuals. Thus, to better understand and predict future fish biomass production, it is necessary to integrate both individual‐ and population‐level responses and to acknowledge within species variation. Our results suggest that global climate change, leading to browner and warmer waters, may negatively affect fish biomass production, and this effect may be stronger than caused by increased temperature or water color alone
Long-Term Cold Adaptation Does Not Require FGF21 or UCP1
Keipert, Susanne ; Kutschke, Maria ; Ost, Mario ; Schwarzmayr, Thomas ; Schothorst, Evert M. van; Lamp, Daniel ; Brachthäuser, Laura ; Hamp, Isabel ; Mazibuko, Sithandiwe E. ; Hartwig, Sonja ; Lehr, Stefan ; Graf, Elisabeth ; Plettenburg, Oliver ; Neff, Frauke ; Tschöp, Matthias H. ; Jastroch, Martin - \ 2017
Cell Metabolism 26 (2017)2. - ISSN 1550-4131 - p. 437 - 446.e5.
adaptive thermogenesis - beige adipose tissue - browning - cold exposure - endocrine cross talk - energy metabolism - mitochondrial respiration - Pm20d1 - uncoupling protein
Brown adipose tissue (BAT)-dependent thermogenesis and its suggested augmenting hormone, FGF21, are potential therapeutic targets in current obesity and diabetes research. Here, we studied the role of UCP1 and FGF21 for metabolic homeostasis in the cold and dissected underlying molecular mechanisms using UCP1-FGF21 double-knockout mice. We report that neither UCP1 nor FGF21, nor even compensatory increases of FGF21 serum levels in UCP1 knockout mice, are required for defense of body temperature or for maintenance of energy metabolism and body weight. Remarkably, cold-induced browning of inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) is FGF21 independent. Global RNA sequencing reveals major changes in response to UCP1- but not FGF21-ablation in BAT, iWAT, and muscle. Markers of mitochondrial failure and inflammation are observed in BAT, but in particular the enhanced metabolic reprogramming in iWAT supports the thermogenic role of UCP1 and excludes an important thermogenic role of endogenous FGF21 in normal cold acclimation.
Leaf phenolics and seaweed tannins : analysis, enzymatic oxidation and non-covalent protein binding
Vissers, Anne M. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H. Gruppen; W.H. Hendriks, co-promotor(en): J.P. Vincken. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432023 - 154
phenols - leaves - seaweeds - tannins - beta vulgaris - laminaria - proteins - catechol oxidase - nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy - in vitro - mass spectrometry - browning - fermentation - animal feeding - fenolen - bladeren - zeewieren - tanninen - beta vulgaris - laminaria - eiwitten - catechol oxidase - kernmagnetische resonantiespectroscopie - in vitro - massaspectrometrie - bruinkleuring - fermentatie - diervoedering

Upon extraction of proteins from sugar beet leaves (Beta vulgaris L.) and oarweed (Laminaria digitata) for animal food and feed purposes, endogenous phenolics and proteins can interact with each other, which might affect the protein’s applicability. Sugar beet leaf proteins might become covalently modified by phenolics through polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. Oligomeric phenolics from seaweed (so-called phlorotannins (PhT)) might bind non-covalently to protein. The first aim of this thesis was to study factors involved in protein modification by phenolics. The second aim was to investigate the effect of PhT supplementation to feed on in vitro ruminal fermentation.

Besides PPO activity and the amount of low molecular weight phenolic substrates present, brown colour formation in sugar beet leaves was dependent on the amount of phenolics, which do not serve as a substrate of PPO. These non-substrate phenolics can engage in browning reactions by oxidative coupling and subsequent coupled oxidation of the products formed. Similar reactions might also be involved in covalent protein modification by phenolics, and therewith protein properties.
High molecular weight PhT from L. digitata could potentially modify protein properties by non‑covalent interactions. L. digitata contained PhT with subunits mainly connected via C‑O-C linkages, as determined using NMR spectroscopy. Further mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of a wide range of oligomers with degrees of polymerisation between 3 and 27. The interaction between PhT and proteins (b-casein and bovine serum albumin) was studied using model systems with different pH values, representing the various environments throughout the ruminants digestive tract. Phlorotannins bound to protein independent of pH, and broadened the pH range of protein precipitation from 0.5 to ~1.5 pH unit around the protein’s pI. At the pH of the abomasum of 2-3, the proteins re-solubilised again, presumably by increase in their net charge. Due to their ability to form water insoluble complexes, PhT could improve ruminal fermentation in vitro in a dose dependent manner, resulting in lower methane production and ammonia (NH3) concentration. The decreased NH3 concentration reflected decreased dietary protein breakdown in the rumen, which is considered a nutritional and environmental benefit.

High-Pressure-High-Temperature Processing Reduces Maillard Reaction and Viscosity in Whey Protein-Sugar Solutions
Avila Ruiz, Geraldine ; Xi, Bingyan ; Minor, Marcel ; Sala, Guido ; Boekel, Tiny van; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Stieger, Markus - \ 2016
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 64 (2016)38. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 7208 - 7215.
browning - high-pressure-high-temperature processing - Maillard reactions - protein aggregation - whey protein

The aim of the study was to determine the influence of pressure in high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) processing on Maillard reactions and protein aggregation of whey protein-sugar solutions. Solutions of whey protein isolate containing either glucose or trehalose at pH 6, 7, and 9 were treated by HPHT processing or conventional high-temperature (HT) treatments. Browning was reduced, and early and advanced Maillard reactions were retarded under HPHT processing at all pH values compared to HT treatment. HPHT induced a larger pH drop than HT treatments, especially at pH 9, which was not associated with Maillard reactions. After HPHT processing at pH 7, protein aggregation and viscosity of whey protein isolate-glucose/trehalose solutions remained unchanged. It was concluded that HPHT processing can potentially improve the quality of protein-sugar-containing foods, for which browning and high viscosities are undesired, such as high-protein beverages.

Inhibition of tyrosinase-mediated enzymatic browning by sulfite and natural alternatives
Kuijpers, T.F.M. ; Vincken, J.P. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Harry Gruppen, co-promotor(en): Jean-Paul Vincken. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736680 - 124
bruinkleuring - natriumsulfiet - catechol oxidase - monofenol monooxygenase - enzymremmers - browning - sodium sulfite - catechol oxidase - monophenol monooxygenase - enzyme inhibitors

Although sulfite is widely used to counteract enzymatic browning, its mechanism has remained largely unknown. We describe a double inhibitory mechanism of sulfite on enzymatic browning, affecting both the enzymatic oxidation of phenols into o‑quinones, as well as the non‑enzymatic reactions of these o‑quinones into brown pigments. The non‑enzymatic step is inhibited by formation of addition products of sulfite and o‑quinones, sulfophenolics. Sulfonated derivatives of chlorogenic acid were found in sulfite‑treated potato juice, and their structure was confirmed by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sulfonation of chlorogenic acid was demonstrated to occur via tyrosinase‑catalyzed o‑quinone formation. Tyrosinase activity was also irreversibly inactivated, in a relative slow time‑dependent way. Simultaneous treatment of tyrosinase with sulfite and competitive inhibitors of tyrosinase did not result in irreversible inactivation, indicating that sulfite acts in the active site of tyrosinase. LC‑MS analysis of protease digests of sulfite‑treated tyrosinase indicated that inactivation occurred via covalent modification of a single amino acid residue in the active site, most likely a copper‑coordinating histidine residue, which is conserved in all PPOs.

As the use of sulfite is controversial, we investigated the effect of potential natural inhibitors of enzymatic browning. Two different polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) were used to screen 60 plant extracts for potential inhibitors. PPOs were found to respond differently to these extracts: an extract that inhibited one PPO could activate the other. This suggests that natural alternatives to replace more generic anti‑browning agents, such as sulfite, are PPO specific.

Hydroxycinnamoyl conjugates in potato tubers : diversity and reactivity upon processing
Narváez-Cuenca, C.E. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Harry Gruppen, co-promotor(en): Jean-Paul Vincken. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734914 - 150
aardappelen - cumarinezuren - natriumsulfiet - bruinkleuring - potatoes - coumaric acids - sodium sulfite - browning

Despite the large amount of reports on the content of the hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) caffeic acid and its conjugates (HCAcs; chlorogenic acid (ChA, 5-O-caffeoyl quinic acid), crypto-ChA (4-O-caffeoyl quinic acid) and neo-ChA (3-O-caffeoyl quinic acid)), other HCAcs/dihydroxicinnamic acid conjugates (DHCAcs) are rarely described in potato tubers. Furthermore, scarce information has been provided on the fate of phenolic acids when no anti-browning agents, or when the anti-browning agents ascorbic acid and NaHSO3, are used during the preparation of potato juice. This thesis presents a method for the analysis of HCAs/HCAcs/DHCAcs based on RP-UHPLC-DAD-(H)ESI-MSn. This analytical method revealed a total of 78 compounds tentatively identified as HCAs/HCAcs/DHCAcs when several Colombian potato cultivars and a single Dutch cultivar were analysed. The contribution of the less documented HCAcs/DHCAcs ranged from 7.1 to 20.1 % (w/w) of the total HCAs/HCAcs/DHCAcs in whole tuber. We provide for the first time molecular evidence on the formation of sulfonic acid derivatives when potato extracts are prepared in the presence of NaHSO3. In that scenario, no ChA isomers were found but their sulfonic acid conjugates, with 2’-sulfo-ChA being found as the most abundant, followed by 2’-sulfo-crypto-ChA. Based on model experiments it was found that NaHSO3 has a dual anti-browning effect: it reacts with ChA quinone, generated upon oxidation catalysed by polyphenol oxidase (PPO), to produce sulfo-ChA, and it inactivates PPO in a time-dependant way. When no anti-browning agent was used during the preparation of potato juice, the majority of the free ChA present in potato tubers was found to be associated with proteins. These results might explain why potato proteins, used as food ingredient, can turn brown in applications, when the protein is not isolated from potato tubers employing appropriate processing methodology.

Effecten van Disappyr op bruinverkleuring en beworteling van stek van sierheesters
Derkx, M.P.M. - \ 2012
houtachtige planten - struiken - stekken - vermeerderingsmateriaal - fenolen - bruinkleuring - wortels - ziektebestrijding - woody plants - shrubs - cuttings - propagation materials - phenols - browning - roots - disease control
Bij het snijden van stekmateriaal wordt plantenweefsel beschadigd. Hierdoor komen chemische verbindingen vrij, zoals fenolen. Deze fenolen kunnen onder invloed van enzymen en zuurstof omgezet worden in schadelijke verbindingen en brui nige pigmenten. In stek van pruimenonderstammen was eerder gevonden dat fenolen een negatief effect hebben op de beworteling. De schadelijke verbindingen kunnen weggevangen worden door Disappyr, met daarin het actieve bestanddeel polyvinylpolypyrrolidone ( PVPP). In stek van vijf soorten sierheesters zijn effecten van Disappyr op bruinverkleuring en beworteling onderzocht.
Effecten van Disappyr op bruinverkleuring en beworteling van stek van sierheesters
Derkx, M.P.M. - \ 2012
Lisse : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Bollen en Bomen - 17
houtachtige planten - struiken - stekken - vermeerderingsmateriaal - fenolen - bruinkleuring - wortels - ziektebestrijding - woody plants - shrubs - cuttings - propagation materials - phenols - browning - roots - disease control
Bij het snijden van stekmateriaal wordt plantenweefsel beschadigd. Hierdoor komen chemische verbindingen vrij, zoals fenolen. Deze fenolen kunnen onder invloed van enzymen en zuurstof omgezet worden in schadelijke verbindingen en bruinige pigmenten. In stek van pruimenonderstammen was eerder gevonden dat fenolen een negatief effect hebben op de beworteling. De schadelijke verbindingen kunnen weggevangen worden door D isappyr,met daarin het actieve bestanddeel polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP). In stek van vijf soorten sierheesters zijn effecten van Disappyr op bruinverkleuring en beworteling onderzocht
Effect van ethanol op de ontwikkeling van champignons na de oogst
Harkema, H. ; Verschoor, J.A. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1151) - 13
paddestoelen - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - bruinkleuring - ethanol - verpakkingsmaterialen - kwaliteit na de oogst - mushrooms - keeping quality - browning - packaging materials - postharvest quality
De kwaliteit van champignons wordt beperkt door bruinverkleuring, hoedopening, steelgroei en bacterievlekken. Nagegaan is of ethanol de hoedopening en de steelgroei van geoogste witte champignons kan remmen zonder dat de andere kwaliteitsbepalende kenmerken nadelig beïnvloed worden.
Met peren in bewaring kan nog heel veel mis gaan
Schaik, A. van; Geijn, F.G. van de - \ 2009
De Fruitteelt 99 (2009)30/31. - ISSN 0016-2302 - p. 8 - 9.
fruitteelt - fruitgewassen - peren - fruitbewaarplaatsen - vocht - bruinkleuring - inwendige verbruining - fruit growing - fruit crops - pears - fruit stores - moisture - browning - internal browning
De bewaring van Conference peren heeft de laatste jaren een enorme ontwikkeling doorgemaakt voor wat betreft verbeterde bewaartechnologie en conditionering. Desondanks kan er toch nog veel misgaan bij langdurige bewaring, vooral ten aanzien van de inwendige kwaliteit
Maillard-reactie door model beheersbaar
Roost, M. van - \ 2006
Elsevier Voedingsmiddelen Industrie 2006 (2006)1. - ISSN 1570-6907 - p. 22 - 23.
voedselchemie - voedseltechnologie - maillard-reactie - bruinkleuring - simulatiemodellen - pigmenten - ph - zuurgraad - suikers - eiwitten - kwaliteit - smaak - productieprocessen - food chemistry - food technology - maillard reaction - browning - simulation models - pigments - ph - acidity - sugars - proteins - quality - taste - production processes
Gewenste en ongewenste bruinkleuring van levensmiddelen door een Maillard-reactie is vaak lastig te beheersen. Wageningse onderzoekers ontwikkelden een simulatiemodel, waarmee producentenmeer inzicht krijgen in de Maillard-reactie, en zo ook de kleur van het eindproduct beter kunnen beheersen tijdens het productieproces en de opslag. Met schematische weergave van de Maillard-reactie
Kwaliteitstoets in de champignonteelt : kwaliteitsproblematiek van de champignonteelt in beeld gebracht en “Wat kan een objectieve kwaliteitstoets met voorspellende waarde betekenen? “
Roestel, A.J.J. van; Mes, J.J. - \ 2006
Horst : PPO Paddestoelen (Rapport PPO 2006-3) - 32
eetbare paddestoelen - paddestoelen - bruinkleuring - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - kwaliteit na de oogst - opbrengst - edible fungi - mushrooms - browning - keeping quality - postharvest quality - outturn
Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat de uitval van product in het handelskanaal tot 5-10% kan oplopen. De voornaamste oorzaak is de verkleuring van champignons. Een groot deel van deze uitval had vermeden kunnen worden indien het kwaliteitsverloop van het product bekend zou zijn geweest. Uitgezonderd de slechte kwaliteit die door telers op het bedrijf al geselecteerd wordt is er in principe voor elke kwaliteit een markt. Doordat er niet direct een goede afstemming plaatsvindt tussen deze kwaliteit en wat een bepaald marktsegment vraagt ontstaat verlies door declassering en stort. Samen met additionele kosten (nalevering, administratieve kosten etc.) wordt geschat dat de jaarlijkse verliezen variëren van €10 miljoen (5% uitval/declassering) tot €20 miljoen (10% uitval/declassering). Bedrijven geven een gevarieerde respons op het nut en de kansen van kwaliteitstoetsen voor champignons.
De ontwikkeling van gevoelige testen voor virus X componenten
Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Lavrijssen, B. - \ 2005
Horst : PPO Paddestoelen (Rapport PPO 2005-23) - 18
eetbare paddestoelen - paddestoelen - dsrna-virussen - gewasbescherming - virusziekten - proeven op proefstations - bruinkleuring - virussen - testen - edible fungi - mushrooms - dsrna viruses - plant protection - viral diseases - station tests - browning - viruses - testing
Een viertal kleine dsRNAs is volledig gekoppeld aan het symptoom bruinverkleuring. Deze worden daarom de symptomatische dsRNAs genoemd. In een vorig project is een gevoelige test gemaakt voor één van de symptomatische dsRNAs. In het vervolgtraject bleek echter dat dit dsRNA toebehoort aan een virus dat erg vaak in champignons wordt aangetroffen maar niet gecorreleerd is met symtpomen. Omdat er nu een goede methode beschikbaar is zal de doelstelling van dit project zijn om voor alle dsRNAs een snelle en gevoelige test te maken. PPO zal zich in eerste instantie richten op alle dsRNAs, die in Nederland gecorreleerd zijn met het verschijnsel bruinverkleuring.
Bladpuntjes bij anjer : een proef met luchtvochtigheid, belichting, kalium, calcium en magnesium
Kreij, C. de; Esmeijer, M.H. ; Mourik, N.M. van; Broek, G.J. van den - \ 2004
Naaldwijk : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Sector Glastuinbouw (Rapport / PPO 41604811) - 36
dianthus - anjers - snijbloemen - bladeren - bruinkleuring - nederland - carnations - cut flowers - leaves - browning - netherlands
Uitval bij Dracaena marginata : een inventarisatie : onderzoek naar het voorkomen van uitval en bladpunten bij Dracaena marginata in de winterperiode
Mulderij, G.E. - \ 1999
Aalsmeer : Proefstation voor Bloemisterij en Glasgroente, Vestiging Aalsmeer (Rapport / Proefstation voor Bloemisterij en Glasgroente 210) - 19
dracaena - bladval - bladeren - bruinkleuring - gewasproductie - leaf fall - leaves - browning - crop production
Bladpunten bij palmen : de invloed van kasklimaat, bemesting en teeltseizoen op de gevoeligheid voor het ontstaan van bruine bladpunten tijdens en na de teelt van Chamaedorea en Chrysalidocarpus
Mulderij, G.E. - \ 1999
Aalsmeer : Proefstation voor Bloemisterij en Glasgroente, Vestiging Aalsmeer (Rapport / Proefstation voor Bloemisterij en Glasgroente 214) - 43
chamaedorea - chrysalidocarpus - palmen als sierplanten - bruinkleuring - palmbladeren - klimaat - plantenvoeding - glastuinbouw - ornamental palms - browning - palm leaves - climate - plant nutrition - greenhouse horticulture
Resistance to early browning in peas
Hubbeling, N. ; Kooistra, E. - \ 1964
Wageningen : [s.n.] (Mededeling / Instituut voor de veredeling van tuinbouwgewassen, Wageningen no. 208) - 4
plantenziekten - plantenplagen - gewasbescherming - plantenziektekunde - afwijkingen, planten - peulvruchten - bruinkleuring - plant diseases - plant pests - plant protection - plant pathology - plant disorders - grain legumes - browning
Pea early - browning virus and tobacco rattle virus - two different, but seriologically related viruses; verband tussen het optreden van stengelbont (ratelvirus), de besmetting van vangplanten en het voorkomen van trichodorus soorten
Maat, D.Z. ; Hoof, H.A. van - \ 1963
Wageningen : [s.n.] (Mededeling / Instituut voor plantenziektenkundig onderzoek, Wageningen no. 338-339) - 17
plantenziekten - plantenplagen - gewasbescherming - plantenziektekunde - afwijkingen, planten - plantenvirussen - peulvruchten - nicotiana - tabak - bruinkleuring - plant diseases - plant pests - plant protection - plant pathology - plant disorders - plant viruses - grain legumes - tobacco - browning
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