|Dispersal and functional response of Uscana lariophaga in two different habitats: stored cowpea pods and seeds
Alebeek, F.A.N. van; Antwi, K.K. ; Huis, A. van; Lenteren, J.C. van - \ 2007
Bulletin of Insectology 60 (2007)1. - ISSN 1721-8861 - p. 63 - 70.
maculatus f coleoptera - callosobruchus-chinensis l - predator prey interactions - azuki-bean weevil - vigna-unguiculata - vertical dispersion - egg distribution - host location - body size - bruchidae
The effect of two different habitats, stored cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers] pods and seeds, on the dispersal and functional response of Uscana lariophaga Steffan (Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae) was investigated, with Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera Bruchidae) eggs as hosts. In the presence of directional light from the top, parasitoids moved faster through columns filled with pods than through columns (either filled with pods or seeds) in darkness. The different habitats, seed or pods, did not have a significant effect on dispersal. The maximal dispersal rate of colonising U. lariophaga females may be up to several meter per day, and median net displacement rates are around 0.5 - 0.8 m per 24 h. The functional response of U. lariophaga could be described by Rogers (1972) random parasitoid equation as a Holling Type II curve and resembles the ones found in earlier experiments. At host densities below 40 eggs per cluster, U. lariophaga was more efficient at finding host eggs in a seed habitat than in a pod habitat, probably due to area restricted searching behaviour after oviposition. At higher host densities, U. lariophaga becomes egg limited, and neither walking behaviour nor the habitat structure significantly influence her foraging success.
Host finding by Uscana lariophaga (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in stored cowpea : the effect of distance, time interval, host patch size and spatial orientation
Stolk, C. ; Ghimire, M.N. ; Souquié, S. ; Werf, W. van der; Huis, A. van - \ 2005
Bulletin of Entomological Research 95 (2005)3. - ISSN 0007-4853 - p. 231 - 241.
callosobruchus-maculatus populations - west-africa - functional-response - storage pests - life-history - coleoptera - bruchidae - model - wheat - hym
Host finding and parasitization by Uscana lariophaga Steffan, a potential biocontrol agent of the storage pest Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), were investigated in stored cowpea. Host finding was shown to be a function of distance, time, host patch size and the spatial position of U. lariophaga relative to the host patch. Uscana lariophaga females were able to find hosts up to 75 cm horizontal distance from the host patch, which was the largest distance tested. The probability that a host patch was found when an individual U. lariophaga female was released at 2.5 cm horizontal distance from the host patch ranged from 0.6 after 2 h foraging time to 0.9 after 8 h foraging time. At 10 cm from the host patch, host finding probability ranged from 0.2 to 0.45 at these respective foraging times. Finding probabilities doubled compared to horizontal distances when U. lariophaga was released below the host patch, and halved when it was released above the host patch. The negative geotaxic response was shown not to be an artefact of the release method. The median net displacement rate in the direction of the host patch was two beans per hour (1.4 cm h-1). The results suggest that U. lariophaga females start searching for hosts regardless of the quality of the olfactory information they receive. Additional observations indicated that U. lariophaga is adapted to a host with a patchy distribution, which implies that host finding over larger distances is relevant for U. lariophaga
Host preference of Callosobruchus maculatus: a comparison of life history characteristics for three strains of beetles on two varieties of cowpea
Boeke, S.J. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Huis, A. van; Dicke, M. - \ 2004
Journal of Applied Entomology 128 (2004)6. - ISSN 0931-2048 - p. 390 - 396.
f coleoptera - fabricius coleoptera - egg-production - seed beetle - bruchidae - oviposition - susceptibility - resistance - fecundity - size
The reproductive success of Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius, the main insect pest of stored cowpea, may vary between strains of this beetle and between varieties of the host seeds. Life history parameters of beetle strains from three different origins in West Africa were compared on two susceptible varieties of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. All beetle strains were assayed in a no-choice and a two-choice test. No major differences were found between the beetle strains. In a no-choice situation, the developmental period from egg to adult was prolonged on the bean variety Kpodjiguegue. In a two-choice situation, the beetles showed a strong preference for the Californian blackeyed bean variety to oviposit on. Here again the development took longer on Kpodjiguegue beans and the intrinsic rate of increase of the beetle population was lower. Using either equal numbers of beans of the same size or equal weights of beans of undetermined size of the two bean varieties did not affect the outcome of the test.
Toxicity and repellence of African plants traditionally used for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus
Boeke, S.J. ; Baumgart, I.R. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Huis, A. van; Dicke, M. ; Kossou, D.K. - \ 2004
Journal of Stored Products Research 40 (2004)4. - ISSN 0022-474X - p. 423 - 438.
fabricius coleoptera - bruchidae - seeds
In a search for botanical products to control the main insect pest of stored cowpea, Callosobruchus maculatus, 33 traditionally used African plants were tested in the laboratory for their toxic and repellent effects against this beetle. Toxicity was evaluated measuring life history parameters in a no-choice situation. Powders of Nicotiana tabacum, Tephrosia vogelii and Securidaca longepedunculata significantly reduced the number of progeny. Repellence was evaluated by observing the behaviour of female beetles exposed to treated and untreated beans in a linear olfactometer. Clausena anisata, Dracaena arborea, T. vogelii, Momordica charantia and Blumea aurita were repellent to the beetle, whereas Chamaecrista nigricans, Azadirachta indica and Hyptis suaveolens were attractive. Our results indicate that botanical products may provide effective control of C. maculatus in cowpea.
Field trials with plant products to protect stored cowpea against insect damage
Boeke, S.J. ; Kossou, D.K. ; Huis, A. van; Loon, J.J.A. van; Dicke, M. - \ 2004
International Journal of Pest Management 50 (2004)1. - ISSN 0967-0874 - p. 1 - 9.
callosobruchus-maculatus-f - obtectus say coleoptera - essential oils - vigna-unguiculata - pod resistance - bruchidae - extracts - aphididae - toxicity - beetle
Plant products were evaluated under field conditions for their efficacy as insecticides against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, on stored cowpea. Seeds, mixed with finely ground clay and three volatile oils were stored in air-tight jerry-cans and canisters. Pods were treated with leaf powders of two plant species and stored in traditional palm-leaf huts. Beetle damage was evaluated before and after storage. The treatments did not prevent damage, but after treatment with oils, fewer beans showed beetle emergence holes; also, the percentage of uninfested beans and the weight of one litre of beans were each higher than for untreated beans. The percentage of germination of stored beans was highest after treatment with Ocimum basilicum oil. Leaf powder of Momordica charantia was effective against weight loss of stored seeds, whereas Ficus exasperata caused a decrease in both the percentage of infested beans and the number of emerged beetles, and more parasitoids emerged than from untreated beans. Laboratory tests on the effect of the oils on the development of the beetle and on bean germination did not reveal effects of the oils. We compare data obtained from the laboratory and with those obtained in the field.
Side-effects of cowpea treatment with botanical insecticides on two parasitoids of Callosobruchus maculatus
Boeke, S.J. ; Sinzogan, A.A.C. ; Almeida, R.P. de; Boer, P.W.M. de; Jeong, G.S. ; Kossou, D.K. ; Loon, J.J.A. van - \ 2003
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 108 (2003). - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 43 - 51.
biological-control - uscana-lariophaga - f coleoptera - west-africa - bruchidae - storage - pteromalidae - hymenoptera - pests
Studies on the protective effect of botanical products against pest insects have infrequently been extended to side-effects on natural enemies. Indirect effects of botanicals on the storability of seeds could occur through their possible negative impact on biological control agents. Four plant powders and six plant oils with a known effect on the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) were investigated for their effect on the beetles' egg parasitoid Uscana lariophaga (Steffan) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and the larval parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Rondani) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). All treatments caused a decrease in parasitisation by U. lariophaga, and developing parasitoids of this species were affected by powders of Nicotiana tabacum (L.) and Tephrosia vogelii (Hook. f). In a two-choice situation using a linear olfactometer, U. lariophaga was repelled by most of the oils. In a no-choice situation, parasitisation by D. basalis was hampered by treatment with plant powders, but eggs that were laid developed normally. In a Y-tube olfactometer, this parasitoid did not discriminate between odours of untreated and plant-powder-treated beans. The powders of N. tabacum and T. vogelii had stronger negative effects on the two parasitoids than the powders of Azadirachta indica (Juss.) or Blumea aurita (DC). In samples collected from untreated traditional storage facilities, subsequently treated with plant powders in the laboratory, none of the treatments could prevent the increase in beetle numbers. At 24 days after treatment, most beetles had emerged from beans treated with powders of N. tabacum and T. vogelii. Parasitoids were affected by the botanical insecticides tested here, but the powders of A. indica and B. aurita may be compatible with biological control by D. basalis.
The use of plant material to protect stored leguminous seeds against seed beetles: a review
Boeke, S.J. ; Loon, J.J.A. van; Huis, A. van; Kossou, D.K. ; Dicke, M. - \ 2001
Leiden : Backhuys Publishers (Wageningen University papers 2001-3) - ISBN 9789057821004 - 108
voorraadplagen - coleoptera - insecticiden bevattende planten - insectenplagen - insectenafweermiddelen - bruchidae - vigna unguiculata - fabaceae - zaden - overzichten - stored products pests - seeds - coleoptera - insecticidal plants - insect pests - insect repellents - bruchidae - vigna unguiculata - fabaceae - reviews
Levenswijze en bestrijding van de bonekever (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say) = Biology and control of the bean weevil
Franssen, C.J.H. - \ 1962
Wageningen : Centrum voor landbouwpublikaties en landbouwdokumentatie (Verslagen van landbouwkundige onderzoekingen 67.13) - 88
insecten - plantenplagen - phaseolus vulgaris - bruchidae - gewasbescherming - plagenbestrijding - ziektebestrijding - nederland - insects - plant pests - phaseolus vulgaris - bruchidae - plant protection - pest control - disease control - netherlands
De levenswijze en de bestrijding van de tuinboonkever
Franssen, C.J.H. - \ 1956
's-Gravenhage : Staatsdrukkerij en Uitgeverijbedrijf (Verslagen van landbouwkundige onderzoekingen 62.10) - 75
bruchidae - ziektebestrijding - tuinbonen - insecten - nederland - plagenbestrijding - plantenplagen - gewasbescherming - vicia faba - bruchus rufimanus - bruchidae - disease control - faba beans - insects - netherlands - pest control - plant pests - plant protection - vicia faba - bruchus rufimanus