Evolution of nuclear auxin signaling : Lessons from genetic studies with basal land plants
Kato, Hirotaka ; Nishihama, Ryuichi ; Weijers, Dolf ; Kohchi, Takayuki - \ 2018
Journal of Experimental Botany 69 (2018)2. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 291 - 301.
ARF - AUX/IAA - bryophytes - charophytes - evolution - TIR1/AFB - TPL
Auxin plays critical roles in growth and development through the regulation of cell differentiation, cell expansion, and pattern formation. The auxin signal is mainly conveyed through a so-called nuclear auxin pathway involving the receptor TIR1/AFB, the transcriptional co-repressor AUX/IAA, and the transcription factor ARF with direct DNA-binding ability. Recent progress in sequence information and molecular genetics in basal plants has provided many insights into the evolutionary origin of the nuclear auxin pathway and its pleiotropic roles in land plant development. In this review, we summarize the latest knowledge of the nuclear auxin pathway gained from studies using basal plants, including charophycean green algae and two major model bryophytes, Marchantia polymorpha and Physcomitrella patens. In addition, we discuss the functional implication of the increase in genetic complexity of the nuclear auxin pathway during land plant evolution.
Unsaturated hydraulic properties of xerophilous mosses: towards implementation of moss covered soils in hydrological models
Voortman, B.R. ; Bartholomeus, R.P. ; Bodegom, P.M. van; Gooren, H.P.A. ; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Witte, J.P.M. - \ 2014
Hydrological Processes 28 (2014)26. - ISSN 0885-6087 - p. 6251 - 6264.
evaporatie - bryophyta - hydraulisch geleidingsvermogen - korstmossen - mossen - hydrologie - waterbalans - bodemwaterretentie - modelleren - evaporation - bryophyta - hydraulic conductivity - lichens - mosses - hydrology - water balance - soil water retention - modeling - sphagnum moss - water - conductivity - bryophytes - desiccation - ecosystems - tolerance
Evaporation from mosses and lichens can form a major component of the water balance, especially in ecosystems where mosses and lichens often grow abundantly, such as tundra, deserts and bogs. To facilitate moss representation in hydrological models, we parameterized the unsaturated hydraulic properties of mosses and lichens such that the capillary water flow through moss and lichen material during evaporation could be assessed. We derived the Mualem-van Genuchten parameters of the drying retention and the hydraulic conductivity functions of four xerophilous moss species and one lichen species. The shape parameters of the retention functions (2.17¿
Cell-wall polysaccharides play an important role in decay resistance of Sphagnum and actively depressed decomposition in vitro
Hajek, T. ; Ballance, S. ; Limpens, J. ; Verhoeven, J.T.A. ; Zijlstra, M.J. - \ 2011
Biogeochemistry 103 (2011)1-3. - ISSN 0168-2563 - p. 45 - 57.
mild acid-hydrolysis - carbon accumulation - oxidation-products - peat bogs - papillosum - holocellulose - bryophytes - peatlands - chemistry - residues
Sphagnum-dominated peatlands head the list of ecosystems with the largest known reservoirs of organic carbon (C). The bulk of this C is stored in decomposition-resistant litter of one bryophyte genus: Sphagnum. Understanding how Sphagnum litter chemistry controls C mineralization is essential for understanding potential interactions between environmental changes and C mineralization in peatlands. We aimed to separate the effects of phenolics from structural polysaccharides on decay of Sphagnum. Wemeasured aerobic microbial respiration of different moss litter types in a lab. We used chemical treatments to step-wise remove the chemical compounds thought to be important in decay-resistance in three taxonomically distant moss genera. We also focused on the effect of Sphagnum-specific cell-wall pectin-like polysaccharides (sphagnan) on C and N mineralization. Removing polymeric lignin-like phenolics had only negligible effects on C mineralization of Sphagnum litter, but increased mineralization of two other bryophyte genera, suggesting a minor role of these phenolics in decay resistance of Sphagnum but a major role of cell-wall polysaccharides. Carboxyl groups of pectin-like polysaccharides represented a C-source in non-Sphagnum litters but resisted decay in Sphagnum. Finally, isolated sphagnan did not serve as C-source but inhibited C and N mineralization instead, reminiscent of the effects reported for phenolics in other ecosystems. Our results emphasize the role of polysaccharides in resistance to, and active inhibition of, microbial mineralization in Sphagnum-dominated litter. As the polysaccharides displayed decay-inhibiting properties hitherto associated with phenolics (lignin, polyphenols), it raises the question if polysaccharide- dominated litter also shares similar environmental controls on decomposition, such as temperature or nutrient and water availability
Expansion of Sphagnum fallax in bogs: striking the ballance between N and P availability
Limpens, J. ; Tomassen, H.B.M. ; Berendse, F. - \ 2003
Journal of Bryology 25 (2003). - ISSN 0373-6687 - p. 83 - 90.
atmospheric co2 - water level - deposition - competition - growth - vegetation - heterogeneity - decomposition - succession - bryophytes
Nitrogen deposition may cause shifts in the Sphagnum species composition of bogs, ultimately affecting the conservation value of these systems. We studied the effects of N and P on the expansion of S. fallax and S. flexuosum in bogs. We related historical census data of S. fallax, S. flexuosum, and four of their accompanying species to changes in N deposition. In addition, we conducted two fertilization experiments with N and P; one at a low deposition site with S. flexuosum and one at two high deposition sites with S. fallax. Finally, we related existing data on capitulum N and P concentrations of S. fallax to its abundance in the field. A relative increase in observed frequency of S. fallax coincided with an historical increase in N deposition in the Netherlands. There was no indication that S. fallax consistently outcompeted one of the other five Sphagnum species, the observed frequency of the Sphagnum species analysed was rather stable with time. The census data on S. flexuosum did not indicate a response to N deposition, but the species expanded at the low N deposition site when extra N was applied. In contrast, the expansion of S. fallax at the high deposition sites was limited by P. Organic nutrient concentrations suggested that when S. fallax can maintain a capitulum N concentration of 7 mg g(-1) or higher and a P concentration of 0.7 mg g(-1) or higher the species can grow to dominate. We conclude that S. fallax will gradually colonize an increasing number of new habitats in areas with a low, albeit increasing, N deposition, but will only grow to dominate when P supply is adequate. Then, the expansion of S. fallax may lead to ousting of the other Sphagnum species present.
Growth reduction of Sphagnum magellanicum subjected to high nitrogen deposition: the role of amino acid nitrogen concentration
Limpens, J. ; Berendse, F. - \ 2003
Oecologia 135 (2003)3. - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 339 - 345.
n deposition - atmospheric co2 - ammonium - nitrate - accumulation - metabolism - bogs - assimilation - vegetation - bryophytes
We tested the relationship between Sphagnum growth and the amount of nitrogen stored in free amino acids in a fertilisation experiment with intact peat monoliths in an open greenhouse in The Netherlands. Three nitrogen deposition scenarios were used: no nitrogen deposition, field conditions and a doubling of the latter, corresponding to 0, 40 and 80 kg N ham1 yearm1. Growth of Sphagnum as expressed by height increment was reduced in the 80 kg N treatment, but showed no correlation with the total nitrogen tissue concentration or with the concentration of individual or pooled free amino acids. The amount of nitrogen stored in free amino acids increased concomitantly with deposition, although it lagged more and more behind the total nitrogen concentration, the latter pointing to the accumulation of unmeasured nitrogen compounds. Asparagine clearly acted as the major storage compound for nitrogen in Sphagnum stem tissue, whereas arginine fulfilled this function to a lesser extent in the capitulum. It appears that nitrogen-induced growth inhibition of Sphagnum is related to acclimation rather than to certain threshold concentrations of amino nitrogen or total nitrogen. We propose that when Sphagnum is exposed to a step increase of nitrogen, its nitrogen metabolism does not adapt fast enough to keep up with the enhanced uptake rate. This imbalance between nitrogen uptake and assimilation may lead to an accumulation of toxic NH4+ in the cell and a subsequent reduction in growth