Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Perspectief zonnestroom in de agrarische sector
Spruijt, J. ; Terbijhe, A. - \ 2016
Lelystad : ACRRES - Wageningen UR (Rapport / PPO-AGV 690) - 35
akkerbouw - zonne-energie - collectoren - zonnecollectoren - investering - eu regelingen - gebouwen - daken - glastuinbouw - opslag - elektrische energie - landbouwwerktuigen - boerderij uitrusting - energieproductie in de landbouw - melkveehouderij - arable farming - solar energy - collectors - solar collectors - investment - eu regulations - buildings - roofs - greenhouse horticulture - storage - electrical energy - farm machinery - farm equipment - agricultural energy production - dairy farming
Het aantal agrarische bedrijven dat zonnestroom (PV) produceert is de afgelopen jaren snel toegenomen. De huidige salderingsregeling (voor kleine PV systemen) of de Stimuleringsregeling Duurzame Energieproductie (SDE; voor grote PV systemen) en fiscale regelingen maakten het voor veel agrarische ondernemers aantrekkelijk om te investeren in zonnepanelen. Verwacht wordt dat deze groei verder zal doorzetten. Het plaatsingspotentieel op agrarische daken is enorm. Mede door het asbestverbod in 2024 zullen de komende jaren veel daken op schuren en loodsen vervangen moeten worden. Dit zal een toename van PV geïntegreerde daken betekenen. Voor de glastuinbouw zijn er nieuwe technologieën in ontwikkeling voor de opwekking van zonnestroom, die niet of nauwelijks ten koste gaan van de groei van het gewas. Teruglevering aan het net wordt op den duur onaantrekkelijk. Na 2020 dreigt de huidige salderingsregeling te verdwijnen en vanaf 2016 wordt niet langer SDE subsidie gegeven als de prijs van elektriciteit zes uur of langer negatief is. Ondernemers zullen hun verbruik dan zoveel mogelijk gaan afstemmen op de productiepieken van zonnestroom. De mogelijkheden verschillen per sector. Zo kan men in de melkveehouderij het overdag opwarmen van elektrische boilers en verder koelen van de melk (tot ± 2°C) zoveel mogelijk naar de dag verplaatsen. Bij de bewaring van o.a. aardappelen, groenten en fruit kan men met Demand Side Management (DSM) ofwel het aansturen van energieverbruikers in functie van het aanbod nog veel bereiken. Er zijn ook verschillende mogelijkheden om juist de productiepieken af te vlakken, bijvoorbeeld Oost-West opstellingen en/of het gebruik van kleinere omvormers. Vooralsnog is de opslag van zonnestroom in accu’s onrendabel. Maar bij verlaging van de terugleververgoedingen en de verwachte prijsdalingen voor opslagsystemen zal dit in de toekomst omslaan. Er zijn al een paar innovatieve agrarische ondernemers die een grote accu op hun bedrijf hebben voor tijdelijke opslag van zonnestroom. Voor de open teelten is het nu nog lastig om het gebruik van zonnestroom af te stemmen op de productie, doordat een groot deel van de stroom verbruikt wordt voor bewaring in de donkere maanden. Batterijen zijn tot op heden nog niet geschikt voor opslag gedurende het seizoen. Een groot deel van het energieverbruik in de open teelten bestaat uit dieselverbruik. Net als in de autoindustrie is ook voor de landbouw de verwachting dat er in de toekomst meer gebruik gemaakt gaat worden van elektriciteit. Elektrisch beregenen is nu al mogelijk en er zijn diverse nieuwe technologische ontwikkelingen in de landbouw gaande waarbij diesel vervangen wordt door stroom. Bijvoorbeeld de Multi Tool Trac, nu nog een hybride, maar in de toekomst mogelijk volledig elektrische trekker die met GPS besturing op vaste rijpaden kan werken. Andere voorbeelden zijn het Lasting Fields concept waarbij alle bewerkingen met ultra lichte en volledig zelfstandig werkende elektrische machines worden uitgevoerd en de Farmertronics onbemande cleantech trekker, met een motor die geschikt is voor waterstof, afkomstig uit elektriciteit van wind- en zonne-installaties.
Facility management in Dutch higher education
Kok, H.B. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Mark Mobach. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573499 - 133
facilitaire diensten - gebouwen - onderwijs - hoger onderwijs - universiteiten - kwaliteit - ontwerp - voorzieningen - bedrijfsvoering - nederland - facility management - buildings - education - higher education - universities - quality - design - facilities - management - netherlands
This book discusses whether, and if so, how facility management can contribute to educational achievements at Dutch higher education institutions.
Evaluation of a dry filter and an electrostatic precipitator for exhaust air cleaning at commercial non-cage laying hen houses
Winkel, A. ; Mosquera Losada, J. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2015
Biosystems Engineering 129 (2015). - ISSN 1537-5110 - p. 212 - 225.
particulate matter - poultry houses - emissions - buildings - impaction - pm10
The removal performance of two exhaust air cleaning systems for abatement of particulate matter (PM) emission in poultry houses were investigated: a commercially available dry filter (DF) and a full-scale prototype electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Each system was connected to two commercial, non-cage laying hen houses: one with aviary housing, the other with floor housing. At each house, six to nine 24-h measurements were carried out, spread over the year and the laying cycle. Upstream and downstream of the systems, we measured PM10, PM2.5, and carbon dioxide concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity. Additional measurements of particle size distribution only were carried out at the DF of another poultry house. The latter showed that removal of PM by the DF increased with increasing particle diameter. Mean removal efficiency of the DF for PM10 was 40.1%, whereas PM2.5 was not significantly removed. The ESP reduced concentrations of PM10 by an average of 57.0% and concentrations of PM2.5 by an average of 45.3%. For neither of the two systems an effect of upstream PM concentration on removal performance was found. Results of this study are compared with the available literature and possibilities to improve removal performance are discussed. The mean (SD between houses) untreated emissions rate from the non-cage layer houses was 7.81 (4.12) mg PM10 h-1 bird-1 and 0.44 (0.28) mg PM2.5 h-1 bird-1. In conclusion, the evaluated systems show potential to reduce PM emissions from poultry houses.
Assessing the impact of changes in the electricity price structure on dairy farm energy costs
Upton, J.R. ; Murphy, M. ; Shalloo, L. ; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G. ; Boer, I.J.M. de - \ 2015
Applied Energy 137 (2015). - ISSN 0306-2619 - p. 1 - 8.
demand-side management - once-daily milking - consumption - buildings - yield - model - cows
This study aims to provide information on the changes in electricity consumption and costs on dairy farms, through the simulation of various electricity tariffs that may exist in the future and how these tariffs interact with changes in farm management (i.e. shifting the milking operation to an earlier or later time of the day). A previously developed model capable of simulating electricity consumption and costs on dairy farms (MECD) was used to simulate five different electricity tariffs (Flat, Day&Night, Time of Use Tariff 1 (TOU1), TOU2 and Real Time Pricing (RTP)) on three representative Irish dairy farms: a small farm (SF), a medium farm (MF) and a large farm (LF). The Flat tariff consisted of one electricity price for all time periods, the Day&Night tariff consisted of two electricity prices, a high rate from 09:00 to 00:00 h and a low rate thereafter. The TOU tariff structure was similar to that of the Day&Night tariff except that a peak price band was introduced between 17:00 and 19:00 h. The RTP tariff varied dynamically according to the electricity demand on the national grid. The model used in these simulations was a mechanistic mathematical representation of the electricity consumption that simulated farm equipment under the following headings; milk cooling system, water heating system, milking machine system, lighting systems, water pump systems and the winter housing facilities. The effect of milking start time was simulated to determine the effect on electricity consumption and costs at farm level. The earliest AM milking start time and the latest PM milking start time resulted in the lowest energy consumption. The difference between the lowest and highest electricity consumption within a farm was 7% for SF, 5% for MF and 5% for LF. This difference was accounted for by the variation in the milk cooling system coefficient of performance. The greatest scope to reduce total annual electricity costs by adjusting milking start times was on TOU2 (39%, 34% and 33% of total annual electricity costs on the SF, MF and LF) and the least scope for reductions using this method was on the Flat tariff (7%, 5% and 7% of total annual electricity costs). The potential for reduction of annual electricity consumption and related costs per litre of milk produced by adjusting milking times was higher for the LF than the SF or MF across all electricity tariffs. It is anticipated that these results and the use of the MECD will help support the decision-making process at farm level around increasing energy efficiency and electricity cost forecasts in future electricity pricing tariff structures
Optimization and spatial pattern of large-scale aquifer thermal energy storage
Sommer, W.T. ; Valstar, J. ; Leusbrock, I. ; Grotenhuis, J.T.C. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. - \ 2015
Applied Energy 137 (2015). - ISSN 0306-2619 - p. 322 - 337.
source heat-pumps - geothermal systems - ground-water - transport - consumption - simulations - performance - buildings - solute
Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is a cost-effective technology that enables the reduction of energy use and CO2 emissions associated with the heating and cooling of buildings by storage and recovery of large quantities of thermal energy in the subsurface. Reducing the distance between wells in large-scale application of ATES increases the total amount of energy that can be provided by ATES in a given area. However, due to thermal interference the performance of individual systems can decrease. In this study a novel method is presented that can be used to (a) determine the impact of thermal interference on the economic and environmental performance of ATES and (b) optimize well distances in large-scale applications. The method is demonstrated using the hydrogeological conditions of Amsterdam, Netherlands. Results for this case study show that it is cost-effective to allow a limited amount of thermal interference, such that 30–40% more energy can be provided in a given area compared to the case in which all negative thermal interference is avoided. Sensitivity analysis indicates that optimal well distance is moderately insensitive to changes in hydrogeological and economic conditions. Maximum economic benefit compared to conventional heating and cooling systems on the other hand is sensitive, especially to changes in the gas price and storage temperatures.
Public Perception of Water Consumption and Its Effects on Water Conservation Behavior
Fan, L.X. ; Wang, F. ; Liu, G.B. ; Yang, X. ; Qin, W. - \ 2014
Water 6 (2014)6. - ISSN 2073-4441 - p. 1771 - 1784.
end uses - patterns - households - buildings - attitudes - recall - diary
The usual perception of consumers regarding water consumption is that their bills do not match their actual water consumption. However, this mismatch has been insufficiently studied; particularly for cases related to specific water-use patterns, water conservation practices, and user socio-demographics. In this study, a total of 776 households in 16 villages situated in the rural Wei River Basin are investigated to address the gap in the literature. Questionnaires and 3-day water diaries are used for data collection and comparison. Results show that significant relations exist between perceived water consumption and actual water consumption. Participants have different perceptions of specific water-use patterns. Participants tend to underestimate their outdoor and kitchen water consumption and overestimate their indoor water consumption. Females and elder consumers accurately estimate their water consumption, whereas consumers with high education levels and incomes underestimate their actual water consumption. The groups who can accurately estimate water consumption have better water conservation consciousness and water conservation practices than those who underestimate their water consumption. The huge disparities highlighted by the results suggest that community policies and programs to improve public water conservation consciousness or practices must be implemented to enhance consumer understanding of water consumption.
OHN : Object Hoogten Nederland, de hoogte van alles wat boven het maaiveld uitsteekt
Kramer, H. ; Clement, J. ; Mücher, C.A. - \ 2014
Geo-Info 2014 (2014)3. - ISSN 1572-5464 - p. 18 - 21.
bomen - gebouwen - meting - hoogte - gegevensbeheer - geografische informatiesystemen - trees - buildings - measurement - height - data management - geographical information systems
Op locaties waar geen hoogtemetingen beschikbaar zijn, bevat het AHN geen hoogtegegevens. Reden genoeg voor Alterra om een vlakdekkend bestand te maken met alle hoogten boven maaiveld: het bestand Object Hoogte Nederland (OHN). Met OHN is het mogelijk om de vraag te beantwoorden "hoe hoog is deze boom"
Climate proof cities : eindrapport 2010-2014
Rovers, V. ; Bosch, P. ; Albers, R. ; Hove, B. van; Heusinkveld, B.G. ; Hartogensis, O.K. ; Ronda, R.J. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Klemm, W. ; Maat, H.W. ter; Groot, A.M.E. ; Jacobs, C.M.J. - \ 2014
Kennis voor Klimaat - 128
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - stedelijke gebieden - temperatuur - gebouwen - monitoring - climatic change - climate adaptation - urban areas - temperature - buildings
Alle steden in Nederland, groot en klein, zijn kwetsbaar voor de effecten van klimaatverandering. De mate van kwetsbaarheid varieert nogal binnen het stedelijk gebied. Dat betekent dat het vergroten van de klimaatbestendigheid van steden het meest efficiënt kan gebeuren door het nemen van veel relatief kleine en lokale maatregelen. Veel daarvan kunnen tegelijkertijd met groot onderhoud of renovaties worden uitgevoerd. Daarvoor is wel samenwerking met veel en diverse partijen nodig.
Aanleggen van een ecologische tuin
Spijker, Joop - \ 2013
buildings - public gardens - flora - research institutes - gelderse vallei
Geen Sedum maar kruidenrijk gras
Metselaar, K. ; Vrolijk, M. ; Kromhout, R. - \ 2013
Tuin en Landschap 2013 (2013)3. - ISSN 0165-3350 - p. 29 - 30.
groene daken - flora - vegetatietypen - proefprojecten - waterbeheer - stedelijke gebieden - gebouwen - gelderse vallei - green roofs - vegetation types - pilot projects - water management - urban areas - buildings
Veel groene daken bestaan uit gemakkelijk te onderhouden Sedum-plantjes. In dit artikel uitleg over de vegetatiekeuze bij de aanleg van het experimentendak van NIOO, aangelegd in najaar 2012. Klaas Metselaar en Stef Jansen onderzoeken het gedrag van verschillende soorten begroeiing. Het dak is daartoe opgedeeld in 45 plots van ieder acht m2. Drie zaadmengstels werden geleverd, elk samengesteld uit zo'n elf tot veertien soorten. Ook naar het watervasthoudend vermogen van de vegetatie wordt gekeken.
Deskstudie Bedrijfsverzamelgebouw voor Aquacultuur
Abbink, W. ; Ros, N.A.M. ; Blanco, A. - \ 2013
Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES C174/13) - 24
aquacultuur - visteelt - algenteelt - schaal- en schelpdierenteelt - zoutwaterlandbouw - broedinstallaties - viskwekerijen - gebouwen - aquaculture - fish culture - algae culture - shellfish culture - saline agriculture - hatcheries - fish farms - buildings
Stichting ZIGZAG heeft de indruk dat er in Zeeland behoefte is aan een bedrijfsverzamelgebouw voor aquacultuur. Het voormalige mijnendepot in Veere is als gebouw beschikbaar om deze functie te vervullen, en is qua ligging en vormgeving geschikt. Het doel van deze studie is een beeld te geven van de mogelijke inrichting en de kosten voor diverse aquacultuur teeltvormen in het gebouw. Daarnaast om aan te geven of de waterkwaliteit rondom het beoogde complex hiervoor geschikt is.
Quantification of dust-borne transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus between chickens
Spekreijse, D. ; Bouma, A. ; Koch, G. ; Stegeman, A. - \ 2013
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 7 (2013)2. - ISSN 1750-2640 - p. 132 - 138.
newcastle-disease virus - live-bird markets - airborne transmission - pekin ducks - h5n1 virus - poultry - farms - h7n7 - vaccination - buildings
BACKGROUND: Understanding the transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIv) between poultry flocks is essential to prevent and control epidemics. Dust, produced in infected chicken flocks, has been hypothesized to be an important mechanical vector for between-flock transmission of HPAIv. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to quantify the amount of virus shed by infected birds and its relation to deposition of virus in the environment and the rate of dust-borne transmission between groups of chickens. METHODS: Four replicate experiments were performed, each replicate with two groups of 14 chickens housed in two separate rooms. In one group, chickens were inoculated with HPAIv. Ventilation forced the air from that room to the second (recipient) group through a tube. Deceased birds in the inoculated group were replaced with new susceptible birds up to day 10 p.i. Dust samples were collected daily. Trachea and cloaca swabs were collected daily to determine virus shedding and virus spread to the recipient group. RESULTS: The amount of virus detected in dust samples in the recipient room was, on average, 10(3·7) EID(50) /m(3) . Virus transmission from the inoculated to the recipient group occurred in two experiments. The transmission rate parameter for dust-borne transmission was estimated at 0·08 new infections/infectious chicken/day. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study are a first step to elucidate the importance of dust-borne transmission of HPAIv between flocks and help interpret environmental samples.
Impressie studiereis “Bouwen met groen en glas” van 13 en 14 oktober 2011 (interview Margareth Hop)
Hulshof, M. ; Hop, M.E.C.M. - \ 2012
YouTube
gebouwen - bouwtechnologie - daglicht - beplantingen - belevingswaarde - welzijn - bouwconstructie - natuurtechniek - duitsland - buildings - construction technology - daylight - plantations - experiential value - well-being - building construction - ecological engineering - germany
Filmpje over een studiereis naar Hannover (Duitsland) over bouwen met groen en glas, waarbij aandacht voor de meerwaarde van groen en daglicht in de gebouwde omgeving.
Sensitivity analysis on parameters and processes affecting vapor intrusion risk
Picone, S. ; Valstar, J.R. ; Gaans, P. van; Grotenhuis, J.T.C. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. - \ 2012
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 31 (2012)5. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 1042 - 1052.
unsaturated porous-media - capillary-fringe - indoor-air - organic-compounds - gas-transport - vadose zone - soil - groundwater - biodegradation - buildings
A one-dimensional numerical model was developed and used to identify the key processes controlling vapor intrusion risks by means of a sensitivity analysis. The model simulates the fate of a dissolved volatile organic compound present below the ventilated crawl space of a house. In contrast to the vast majority of previous studies, this model accounts for vertical variation of soil water saturation and includes aerobic biodegradation. The attenuation factor (ratio between concentration in the crawl space and source concentration) and the characteristic time to approach maximum concentrations were calculated and compared for a variety of scenarios. These concepts allow an understanding of controlling mechanisms and aid in the identification of critical parameters to be collected for field situations. The relative distance of the source to the nearest gas-filled pores of the unsaturated zone is the most critical parameter because diffusive contaminant transport is significantly slower in water-filled pores than in gas-filled pores. Therefore, attenuation factors decrease and characteristic times increase with increasing relative distance of the contaminant dissolved source to the nearest gas diffusion front. Aerobic biodegradation may decrease the attenuation factor by up to three orders of magnitude. Moreover, the occurrence of water table oscillations is of importance. Dynamic processes leading to a retreating water table increase the attenuation factor by two orders of magnitude because of the enhanced gas phase diffusion
Uncertainty modelling to evaluate nitrogen balances as a tool to determine N2 and N2O formation in ammonia bioscrubbers
Estelles, F. ; Calvet, S. ; Melse, R.W. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2012
Environmental Engineering Science 29 (2012)6. - ISSN 1092-8758 - p. 520 - 525.
sensitivity-analysis - biotrickling filter - ventilation rates - waste gases - air - removal - emissions - netherlands - buildings - europe
Biological scrubbers aim at reducing gaseous ammonia emissions by transferring it to a water phase followed by conversion to nitrite and nitrate. A small part of the removed nitrogen may be emitted as N2 and N2O produced as a result of denitrification processes. Due to the large greenhouse warming potential of N2O, even a small emission could be a point of concern. Determining these N losses in form of N2 and N2O via nitrogen balance is an alternative, but little is known about the uncertainty associated to this method. The main aim of this work was to develop an uncertainty model that evaluated N-balances in biological scrubbers in terms of result uncertainty. Secondary objectives were to provide a methodology to determine individual uncertainties involved, and to conduct a sensitivity analysis to identify the main contributors to the final uncertainty. For a defined scenario (biotrickling scrubber, 70% NH3 removal; 5% of inlet N-NH3 lost as N2 and N2O), the standard uncertainty expressed in relative terms of the average was 132% (released N in form of N2 and N2O). Main contributors to the final uncertainty were airflow rate and water volume in the scrubber basin. Uncertainty of the measurements of gaseous NH3 concentrations and N compounds in water had a reduced effect on the final uncertainty. Based on these results, N balances are not recommended to evaluate N2 and N2O formation in biological scrubbers, at least for the conditions considered in this work.
Transport and biodegradation of volatile organic compounds : influence on vapor intrusion into buildings
Picone, S. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Huub Rijnaarts, co-promotor(en): Tim Grotenhuis; P.F.M. van Gaans. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732767 - 149
vluchtige verbindingen - organische verbindingen - biodegradatie - biochemisch transport - gebouwen - grondwaterverontreiniging - binnenklimaat - volatile compounds - organic compounds - biodegradation - biochemical transport - buildings - groundwater pollution - indoor climate

Vapor intrusion occurs when volatile subsurface contaminants, migrating from the saturated zone through the unsaturated zone, accumulate in buildings. It is often the most relevant pathway for human health risks at contaminated sites, especially in urban areas; yet its assessment is controversial. Field assessment of vapor intrusion risk is complicated by two interrelated main factors that are controlled by the contaminant’s properties: transport processes in the unsaturated zone and biodegradation in the unsaturated zone. Commonly available vapor intrusion models either overlook significant properties at the field scale or, conversely, are too complex to be applicable at this scale. Specifically, moisture variation, liquid diffusion, dynamic processes such as water table variations, and biodegradation are not adequately accounted for. As a result, the soil gas and indoor air concentrations predicted by existing models frequently overestimate measured concentrations by several orders of magnitude.
This thesis addressed transport and biodegradation processes of volatile organic compounds, focusing on aerobic unsaturated zones. The main aims were to i) characterize significant transport processes influencing vapor intrusion and ii) quantify and mechanistically describe biodegradation in unsaturated soils. Field experience, numerical modeling and laboratory experiments with toluene and vinyl chloride as reference compounds were combined to separate out the relevant processes influencing vapor intrusion.
The main conclusions from this thesis indicate that soil moisture variations and aerobic biodegradation are crucial aspects to be jointly considered for the assessment of vapor intrusion. These may contribute to a significant reduction in the risk associated with dissolved volatile organic contaminants. Specific and relevant implications for modeling and monitoring vapor intrusion can be derived. With respect to vapor intrusion modeling, when including unsaturated zone biodegradation, the use of liquid phase biodegradation rates as derived from liquid mixed batches may underestimate by several orders of magnitude the liquid degradation rates in the unsaturated system. Therefore, biodegradation rates derived from unsaturated system appear more appropriate. With respect to monitoring, vertical soil moisture variations and contaminant/oxygen concentration profiles need to be measured in the field, in order to account for the above processes.

A methodology to select particle morpho-chemical characteristics to use in source apportionment of particulate matter from livestock houses
Cambra-Lopez, M. ; Hermosilla, T. ; Aarnink, A. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2012
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 81 (2012). - ISSN 0168-1699 - p. 14 - 23.
dust particles - classification - buildings - accuracy - identification - generation - poultry - area
Intensive poultry and pig houses are major point sources of particulate matter (PM) emissions. The knowledge on the contribution of individual sources to PM in different fractions is essential to improve PM reduction from livestock houses. We developed a methodology to investigate which input data (particle chemical, morphological or combined characteristics) were best to distinguish amongst specific sources of airborne PM in livestock houses. We used a validation procedure with classification rules based on decision trees and analyzed misclassification errors. The PM from two livestock species (poultry and pigs), and in two different fractions (fine and coarse) was studied. Results showed the selection of the best input data varied with the sources, which depend on livestock species. Using only particle chemical characteristics resulted in higher overall classification accuracies (62–68%) than using only morphological characteristics (40–64%) in poultry and pigs. Particle morphological characteristics can add value when sources show distinctive and well defined morphologies or differ in size. Using combined chemical and morphological resulted in the highest overall classification accuracies (average of 69% of particles correctly assigned to their source) and lowest misclassification errors. This study provides a methodological approach to assess input data and identifies the most effective characteristics to apportion PM in livestock houses. These data are promising to determine the contribution of different sources to PM in livestock houses and give insight in under- and overestimation errors in the source apportionment
Dust Reduction in Broiler Houses by Spraying Rapeseed Oil
Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Harn, J. van; Hattum, T.G. van; Zhao, Y. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2011
Transactions of the ASABE / American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers 54 (2011)4. - ISSN 2151-0032 - p. 1479 - 1489.
ammonia emissions - respiratory symptoms - particulate matter - lung-function - buildings - litter - us - pm2.5 - pm10
The effect of spraying rapeseed oil on the reduction of dust and ammonia concentrations and emissions, and on animal parameters was investigated in a dose-response study in a broiler house during three growing periods in four (round 1) or five rooms (rounds 2 and 3). The spraying rates varied per room, from 0 (control) to 24 mL oil m(-2) d(-1). Concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in incoming and outgoing air were measured. Production results (growth rate, feed intake, mortality rate) and foot-pad lesions were also determined. Regression analysis showed that a spraying rate of 6 mL oil m(-2) d(-1) reduced PM10 concentrations by 44% and PM10 emissions by 48%. At 24 mL oil m(-2) d(-1), the reduction was 82% for PM10 concentrations and 87% for PM10 emissions. For PM2.5, the lowest spraying rate of 6 mL oil m(-2) d(-1) was sufficient to reduce concentrations by 68% and emissions by 84%. The reduction achieved at higher spraying rates was not significantly greater. Emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 increased exponentially with the age of the broilers. A clear diurnal pattern was observed, with lower dust concentrations during the dark periods. Production results were unaffected by the spraying rate. A high rate of 24 mL oil m(-2) d(-1) increased the number and severity of foot-pad lesions. It is concluded that spraying rapeseed oil significantly reduces dust concentrations and emissions from broiler houses. To prevent adverse effects on broilers' foot-pad quality, it is recommended that the maximum rate should he 16 mL oil m(-2) d(-1).
Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses
Zhao, Y. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Jong, M.C.M. de; Ogink, N.W.M. ; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G. - \ 2011
Transactions of the ASABE / American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers 54 (2011)1. - ISSN 2151-0032 - p. 285 - 293.
livestock operations - bioaerosol samplers - ammonia emissions - efficiencies - microorganisms - transmission - buildings - reduction - aerosols - europe
Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in reducing emissions of airborne dust, total bacteria, ammonia, and CO2 from pig houses in winter. The three multi-stage scrubbers were one double-stage scrubber (acid stage+ bio-filter), one double-stage scrubber (acid stage + bio-scrubber), and one triple-stage scrubber (water stage + acid stage + bio-filter). Results showed that these scrubbers reduced concentrations of PM10 by 61% to 93%, concentrations of PM2.5 by 47% to 90%, concentrations of airborne total bacteria by 46% to 85%, and concentrations of ammonia by 70% to 100%. Concentrations of CO2 were not affected. Most of the airborne bacteria emitted from the pig houses were larger than 3.3 µm (73% to 95%). The multi-stage scrubbers removed 53% to 92% of them, compared with -42% to 20% removal effectiveness of the bacteria in the size range of 0.65 to 3.3 µm. The triple-stage scrubber was the most efficient in removing dust and ammonia. Compared to single-stage scrubbers, all three multi-stage scrubbers performed more consistently in reduction of PM10, PM2.5, total bacteria, and ammonia emissions from livestock houses and removed these pollutants more efficiently. It should be noted that all measurements were performed in winter at low ventilation rates, thus at low loadings of the multi-stage scrubbers
Particulate matter emitted from poultry and pig houses: source identification and quantification
Cambra-López, M. ; Hermosilla, T. ; Lai, T.L.H. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2011
Transactions of the ASABE / American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers 54 (2011)2. - ISSN 2151-0032 - p. 629 - 642.
scanning-electron-microscopy - source apportionment - size distribution - dust particles - airborne dust - classification - buildings - generation - emissions - exposure
There is need to identify and quantify the contribution of different sources to airborne particulate matter (PM) emissions from animal houses. To this end, we compared the chemical and morphological characteristics of fine and coarse PM from known sources collected from animal houses with the characteristics of on-farm fine and coarse airborne PM using two methods: classification rules based on decision trees and multiple linear regression. Fourteen different farms corresponding to seven different housing systems for poultry and pigs were sampled during winter. A total of 28 fine and 28 coarse on-farm airborne PM samples were collected, together with a representative sample of each known source per farm (56 known source samples in total). Source contributions were calculated as relative percentage contributions in particle numbers and then estimated in particle mass. Based on particle numbers, results showed that in poultry houses, most on-farm airborne PM originated from feathers (ranging from 4% to 43% in fine PM and from 6% to 35% in coarse PM) and manure (ranging from 9% to 85% in fine PM and from 30% to 94% in coarse PM). For pigs, most on-farm airborne PM originated from manure (ranging from 70% to 98% in fine PM and from 41% to 94% in coarse PM). Based on particle mass, for poultry most on-farm airborne PM still originated from feathers and manure; for pigs, however, most PM originated from skin and manure. Feed had a negligible contribution to on-farm airborne PM compared with other sources. Results presented in this study improve the understanding of sources of PM in different animal housing systems, which may be valuable when choosing optimal PM reduction techniques
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