Understanding voluntary program performance : Introducing the diffusion network perspective
Heijden, Jeroen van der - \ 2020
Regulation & Governance 14 (2020)1. - ISSN 1748-5983 - p. 44 - 62.
built environment - club theory - qualitative comparative analysis - urban climate governance - voluntary program
Voluntary programs have rapidly become a means for the public, private, and third sectors to regulate and govern complex societal problems. Following the rapid and widespread emergence of these programs, scholars have been active in mapping, exploring, and interrogating their design and performance. Considerable advances have been made in describing program design and context conditions, and the actors involved in the voluntary program that relate to program performance. Less is known, however, about how these conditions affect program performance. Starting with one of the dominant theories on voluntary programs, the club theory perspective, this article seeks to understand how different program design conditions interact to affect the performance of 26 voluntary programs for low carbon building and city development in Australia, the Netherlands, and the United States. Applying qualitative comparative analysis, the study finds that the club theory perspective has limited explanatory power for this specific set of cases. Iterative rounds of analysis indicate that a diffusion network perspective is the best complementary perspective for explaining the performance of this set of programs. The article concludes that, in situations of a non-homogeneous market of voluntary program participants, a focus on the programs’ diffusion networks helps to explain their performance. This has implications for the design and implementation of such programs.
Voluntary urban climate programmes: should city governments be involved and, if so, how?
Heijden, Jeroen van der - \ 2019
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 62 (2019)3. - ISSN 0964-0568 - p. 446 - 465.
built environment - climate action - qualitative comparative analysis - urban climate governance - voluntary programmes
It has been proposed that voluntary urban climate programmes overcome shortfalls in mandatory, top-down, state-led government interventions to address climate change risks. Such programmes seek commitments from households and firms to improve their environmental sustainability, but do not have the force of law. City governments are actively developing and implementing such programmes, seeking improved and accelerated urban climate action. There is little evidence, however, of whether their involvement positively affects voluntary programme performance. This article presents qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) of 26 voluntary programmes from Australia, the Netherlands and the US, seeking to understand whether, and if so how, city governments affect the performance of voluntary urban climate programmes. The results will help to inform city governments about the roles they may play in urban climate governance.
|Stadsklimaat en de woonomgeving
Lenzholzer, Sanda - \ 2018
urban climate - built environment
lecture at the headquarters of housing corporation portaal
Pedestrian Safety and the Built Environment : A Review of the Risk Factors
Stoker, Philip ; Garfinkel-Castro, Andrea ; Khayesi, Meleckidzedeck ; Odero, Wilson ; Mwangi, M.N. ; Peden, Margie ; Ewing, Reid - \ 2015
Journal of Planning Literature 30 (2015)4. - ISSN 0885-4122 - p. 377 - 392.
built environment - pedestrian safety - risk factors
Urban and regional planning has a contribution to make toward improving pedestrian safety, particularly in view of the fact that about 273,000 pedestrians were killed in road traffic crashes in 2010. The road is a built environments that should enhance safety and security for pedestrians, but this ideal is not always the case. This article presents an overview of the evidence on the risks that pedestrians face in the built environment. This article shows that design of the roadway and development of different land uses can either increase or reduce pedestrian road traffic injury. Planners need to design or modify the built environment to minimize risk for pedestrians.
Public participation in energy saving retrofitting of residential buildings in China
Liu Wenling, Wenling ; Zhang, J. ; Bluemling, B. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Wang, C. - \ 2015
Applied Energy 147 (2015). - ISSN 0306-2619 - p. 287 - 296.
northern heating region - efficiency retrofit - built environment - policy
Retrofitting existing residential buildings has been claimed as one crucial way to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions within the Chinese residential sector. In China’s government-dominated retrofitting projects, the participation of residents is often neglected. The objective of this paper is to assess the influence level of public participation (before, during and after retrofit) on energy saving by comparing three Beijing neighborhoods with different retrofitting models: a central government-led model, a local government-led model, and an old neighborhood retrofit model. In the three cases data were collected through interviews with neighborhood workers and residents. The results show that residents’ involvement in pre-retrofit activities, in technology selection and in the use of technology differs greatly among the three cases. This study concludes that in order to improve the effectiveness of energy saving interventions, the motives, intentions and living habits of residents need to be given more consideration when designing and implementing retrofitting. By highlighting the importance of public participation this paper contributes to energy saving policy development in China.
Climate-responsive landscape architecture design education
Lenzholzer, S. ; Brown, R.D. - \ 2013
Journal of Cleaner Production 61 (2013). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 89 - 99.
urban climate - built environment - knowledge
There is compelling evidence that Earth’s climate is changing, in most cases becoming warmer. This effect is exacerbated in urban environments by the growth of urban heat islands. These two processes can have far-reaching effects on human thermal comfort and health. Landscape architecture is well positioned to ameliorate these effects through planning and site design, but only if the designer un- derstands how an urban environment creates microclimates. In order to prepare our students for the climate challenges they will face in future urban planning and design practice, we have introduced climate-responsive design classes into the curricula of two schools of landscape architecture, one in Wageningen, The Netherlands and the other in Guelph, Canada. In this article we describe the methods that we used to teach climate-responsive design by integrating scienti¿c information into the creative design process. The method consisted of three main steps. First students accumulated and summarized climate knowledge at the appropriate scales. This information was used to analyze a study site and identify climate-related problems. The ¿nal step was to use this knowledge as a basis for generating design solutions and testing them for their climate-appropriateness. These courses prepare future professionals to ameliorate the effects of climate change and urban heat island intensi¿cation and create living environments that are thermally comfortable and healthy.
Harvesting urban resources towards more resilient cities
Agudelo Vera, C.M. ; Leduc, W.R.W.A. ; Mels, A.R. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. - \ 2012
Resources, Conservation and Recycling 64 (2012). - ISSN 0921-3449 - p. 3 - 12.
built environment - water - metabolism - sustainability - management - infrastructure - ecology - design - energy - city
With accelerating global changes, cities have to cope with growing pressures, especially for resource supply. Cities may be considered as resources reservoirs and producers of secondary resources. This paper introduces the concept of urban harvesting as a management tool to change inefficient linear urban resource usage and waste production into sustainable urban metabolism. The Urban Harvest concept includes urban metabolism and closing urban cycles by harvesting urban resources. The purpose of this study was to quantify the potentials to harvest water and energy at different scales. We investigated potentials for the Netherlands. Results show that at national scale, potentials can cover up to 100% of electricity demand, 55% of heat demand and 52% of tap water demand. At neighborhood level, similar percentages were found for energy. Only 43% of water demand was achieved, due to fact that treatment measures were not considered. These results indicate the large potential of cities as providers of their own resources. Therefore urban resources management is a key element of future city design towards more resilient cities.
Linking green space to health: a comparative study of two urban neighbourhoods in Ghent, Belgium
Herzele, A. Van; Vries, S. de - \ 2012
Population and Environment 34 (2012)2. - ISSN 0199-0039 - p. 171 - 193.
self-rated health - quality-of-life - physical-activity - multilevel analysis - older-adults - inner-city - possible mechanism - built environment - common spaces - mental-health
This paper investigates the nature of the relationship between the greenness of the local environment and the health and well-being of its inhabitants by looking at a number of possible mediators within the same study: physical activity, perceived stress, ability to concentrate, social cohesion and neighbourhood satisfaction. Data were collected through a survey of residents in two neighbourhoods that differ objectively in green space provision, but which are largely similar in demographics, socio-economic factors, housing conditions and other environmental characteristics, apart from green space. Of the three dependent variables of interest: self-reported general health, bodily functioning and general well-being (happiness), it was self-reported happiness that differed significantly between the two neighbourhoods, with greater happiness in the greener neighbourhood. Amongst the possible mediators, people’s satisfaction with their neighbourhood differed significantly: those living in the greener neighbourhood were more satisfied. Mediation analysis indicated that neighbourhood satisfaction fully mediates the relationship between neighbourhood greenness and happiness. Among the specific (environmental and social) neighbourhood qualities asked about, perception of neighbourhood greenness was found to be the most important predictor of neighbourhood satisfaction. Additional analysis showed that the view from the living room—green or not green—fully mediates the relationship between neighbourhood greenness and neighbourhood satisfaction. This study underscores the importance of nearby green space for people’s overall well-being and suggests the need for green space to be evaluated in terms of visual proximity, that is, whether and how it is experienced from the street and the home
Exergy landscapes: Exploration of second-law thinking towards sustainable landscape design
Stremke, S. ; Dobbelsteen, A. van den; Koh, J. - \ 2011
International Journal of Exergy 8 (2011)2. - ISSN 1742-8297 - p. 148 - 174.
ecosystem development - built environment - energy - systems - thermodynamics - optimization - indicator - strategy - ecology - law
Depletion of fossil fuels and climate change necessitate a transition to sustainable energy systems that make efficient use of renewable energy sources. During recent decades, the Second Law of Thermodynamics has helped to increase energy efficiencies. More recently, the disciplines of building engineering, architecture and urban planning have begun embracing this ‘second-law thinking’ in order to reduce energy consumption in the built environment. Second-law thinking, however, is not yet a part of spatial planning and landscape design. This is especially problematic because the concepts of exergy and entropy are imperative to sustainable development. This paper explores the Laws of Thermodynamics and related concepts in order to advance the planning and design of sustainable landscapes. The discussion in this paper is based on ‘research by design’ – a research approach that includes literature and case-study research, as well as the design of several sustainable energy landscapes in the Netherlands. From our studies, we conclude that second-law thinking should be embraced in spatial planning and landscape design practice. To facilitate this integration, we propose a number of exergy-conscious design principles, each one supporting sustainable energy transition.
Is green space in the living environment associated with people's feelings of social safety?
Maas, J. ; Spreeuwenberg, P. ; Winsum-Westra, M. van; Verheij, R.A. ; Vries, S. de; Groenewegen, P.P. - \ 2009
Environment and Planning A 41 (2009)7. - ISSN 0308-518X - p. 1763 - 1777.
inner-city - built environment - perceived danger - womens fear - crime - urban - health - preference - settings - areas
The authors investigate whether the percentage of green space in people’s living environment affects their feelings of social safety positively or negatively. More specifically they investigate the extent to which this relationship varies between urban and rural areas, between groups in the community that can be identified as more or less vulnerable, and the extent to which different types of green space exert different influences. The study includes 83 736 Dutch citizens who were interviewed about their feelings of social safety. The percentage of green space in the living environment of each respondent was calculated, and data analysed by use of a three-level latent variable model, controlled for individual and environmental background characteristics. The analyses suggest that more green space in people’s living environment is associated with enhanced feelings of social safety—except in very strongly urban areas, where enclosed green spaces are associated with reduced feelings of social safety. Contrary to the common image of green space as a dangerous hiding place for criminal activity which causes feelings of insecurity, the results suggest that green space generally enhances feelings of social safety. The results also suggest, however, that green space in the most urban areas is a matter of concern with respect to social safety