Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Physical exercise prepartum to support metabolic adaptation in the transition period of dairy cattle : A proof of concept
    Goselink, Roselinde M.A. ; Schonewille, Jan Thomas ; Duinkerken, Gert van; Hendriks, Wouter H. - \ 2020
    Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 104 (2020)3. - ISSN 0931-2439 - p. 790 - 801.
    body condition - calving - dairy cow - energy metabolism - exercise physiology - fat metabolism - hepatic lipidosis - lipoprotein

    In dairy cattle, the hormonal changes around calving induce large metabolic changes to support milk production. Mobilization of adipose reserves is one of the changes involved, imposing a metabolic load on the liver. We hypothesized that the risk for excessive lipolysis and hepatic lipidosis postpartum can be reduced by starting fat mobilization and processing during the prepartum period by physical exercise, especially in cows with a high body condition score (BCS). As a proof of concept, 32 pregnant Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were selected for a 2 × 2 experimental design. Sixteen cows had a BCS < 3.25 (group LOW) and 16 cows a BCS ≥ 3.25 (group HIGH). Cows within each group were randomly allocated to one of two treatments: group STEP was walked twice daily for 45 min during the dry period while group CON remained indoors. Treatment was stopped at calving and cows were monitored until 6 weeks after calving. Liver biopsies were taken in a subset of 16 cows to determine liver triglyceride (TG) concentration. We found that calculated energy balance was more negative for group STEP prepartum, resulting in higher plasma non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. During the first 6 weeks postpartum, neither dry matter intake nor milk yield was affected by exercise. As expected, the cows in group HIGH had increased liver TG concentrations postpartum relative to group LOW with increased plasma non-esterified fatty acids directly after calving. Exercise during the dry period mitigated postpartal liver TG accumulation, but this did not seem to be related to increased plasma lipoprotein transport. We conclude that substantial physical activity prepartum can induce lipolysis and lipid utilization, thereby starting an early adaptation to lactation. This may be instrumental to reduce the risk for excessive liver TG accumulation postpartum, especially in cows with a high BCS at dry-off.

    The utility of sensor technology to support reproductive management on dairy farms
    Rutten, C.J. - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H. Hogeveen; M. Nielen, co-promotor(en): W. Steeneveld. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431934 - 232
    dairy cattle - dairy farms - sensors - reproduction - reproductive behaviour - animal health - calving - activity - management - dairy farming - technology - agricultural economics - melkvee - melkveebedrijven - sensors - voortplanting - voortplantingsgedrag - diergezondheid - kalven - activiteit - bedrijfsvoering - melkveehouderij - technologie - agrarische economie

    Since the 1980s, efforts have been made to develop sensors that measure a parameter from an individual cow. The development started with individual cow recognition and was followed by sensors that measure the electrical conductivity of milk and pedometers that measure activity. Some sensors like activity meters, electrical conductivity, weight floors and somatic cell count sensors are commercially available. Adoption has in general been low and mainly driven by the AMS, with a clear exception for estrus detection. In practice, the economic benefits of using sensor systems has not been proven. So, to make sensors live up to their full potential there is a need for research to shift from technical development towards practical applications and integration with operational farm management. Estrus detection sensors can have a good detection performance and are currently applied by farmers in practice, therefore this thesis focusses on sensors that support reproductive management. The main objective of this thesis is to study the utility of sensor technology to support reproductive management on dairy farms. This main objective was split in five sub objectives that each study a part of the main objective and were discussed in the separate chapters of this thesis.

    We demonstrated that utility of sensors for reproductive management can be found in economic benefits (estrus and calving detection), reduction of labor (calving and estrus detection) and more detailed management information (prognosis of insemination success). So, automated estrus detection aids reproductive management.

    From this thesis the following conclusions can be drawn:

    The developed theoretical framework describes four levels of sensor development, which should all be included in proper development of sensor systems. The literature review showed that no studies developed sensor systems with regard to management and decision support.

    It was possible to improve the prediction of the start of calving compared to a model that only uses the expected calving date. However, predicting the start of calving within an hour was not possible with a high sensitivity and specificity.

    There was financial merit in the use of calving detection, because the sensor system enables more timely intervention by the farmer. The uncertainty about the positive effects was large, which caused a wide range in the simulated financial benefits.

    Investment in a sensor for estrus detection was on average profitable with a return on investment of 11%. Profitability was influenced most by the heuristic culling rules and the expected increase of the estrus detection rate between detection by visual observation and the sensor.

    Routinely collected farm data can be used to estimate a prognosis on insemination success and be used to determine whether an individual cow has a higher or lower than average likelihood of insemination success. Integration of this prognostic model with an estrus detection sensor has potential.

    Currently farmers only adopt sensors for estrus detection or because they were standard with an AMS. A reason for this is that sensor systems do not produce clear information for farmers. Sensor technology should be focused on management support of applications. Labor benefits of sensors are important for adoption of sensors by farmers, farmers value flexibility, increased family time and less physical workload as benefits. However, economic evaluations of technical solutions are unable to quantify these benefits. Sensor research should consider the preference of farmers regarding labor. For the appraisal of sensor technology new methods to value labor benefits of sensor are needed. Furthermore, in sensor development societal acceptance should be an important consideration. Animal rights activists may frame the use of sensors as a form of industrialized farming. Only using technical arguments and considerations to explain the benefits of sensors will hamper the societal acceptance of modern dairy farming. Application of sensors on dairy farms should be communicated smartly to society in terms that relate the values of citizens.

    Pijnsignalen, wat doen we ermee?
    Driesse, M. ; Kluivers-Poodt, M. - \ 2010
    Veehouder en Dierenarts 24 (2010)1. - ISSN 1381-8007 - p. 22 - 23.
    melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - vaarzen - kalven - pijnstillende middelen - dierenartsen - pijn - dierenwelzijn - dairy farming - dairy cows - heifers - calving - analgesics - veterinarians - pain - animal welfare
    Dieren, dus ook koeien, laten niet snel merken dat ze pijn hebben. Want daarmee laten ze zien dat ze verzwakt zijn en dus een gemakkelijke prooi vormen. Hoogleraar veterinaire anesthesiologie prof. dr. Ludo Hellebrekers zei het vorig jaar tijdens een voordracht voor dierenartsen over pijn als volgt: “De grootste valkuil is: ik zie geen abnormaal gedrag, dus het dier heeft geen pijn.”
    'De koe in de watten leggen' : Maria Verduin verzorgt droogstaande en verse koeien in kraamhotel'
    Hulst, M. van der - \ 2009
    Nieuwe Oogst / Magazine Veehouderij 5 (2009)21. - ISSN 1871-0948 - p. 4 - 4.
    rundveehouderij - gustperiode - tussenkalftijd - lactatie - kalven - afkalfpercentage - cattle husbandry - dry period - calving interval - lactation - calving - calving rate
    Maria Verduin, veehouder in Koudum runt sinds 2008 een kraamhotel
    Sensor signaleert naderende geboorte
    Ipema, A.H. ; Hogewerf, P.H. ; Bleumer, E.J.B. - \ 2009
    V-focus 2009 (2009)12. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 24 - 25.
    melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - sensors - geboorte - kalven - dairy farming - dairy cows - sensors - birth - calving
    Met de nieuwe generatie draadloze sensoren, die momenteel in ontwikkeling is en langzaam voor de praktijk beschikbaar komt, kunnen steeds meer signalen van het individuele dier automatisch worden vastgelegd, zoals een naderende geboorte
    Laag celgetal bij eerste afkalving betaalt zich terug
    Smolders, E.A.A. ; Wagenaar, J.P. - \ 2008
    V-focus 5 (2008)5. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 20 - 21.
    melkveehouderij - vaarzen - melkproductie - uiers - diergezondheid - biologische landbouw - celgetal - kalven - dairy farming - heifers - milk production - udders - animal health - organic farming - somatic cell count - calving
    De uiergezondheid van meer dan 7.500 vaarzen van ruim 100 biologische melkveebedrijven zijn beoordeeld op basis van MPR-gegevens (MelkProductieRegistratie 2003-2007). Het celgetal in de eerste MPR na afkalven was gemiddeld 82.000 en was het laagst bij dieren die afkalfden in het begin van de stalperiode. Afkalven op oudere leeftijd had geen gunstige invloed op het celgetal. Vaarzen die afkalfden met een laag celgetal hielden een lager celgetal tijdens de lactatie en werden minder snel afgevoerd
    Belangrijke bekkenmaten : grote variatie bekkenmaten Belgisch witblauw maakt selectie op natuurlijk kalven mogelijk
    Kolkman, I. - \ 2007
    Veeteelt 6 (2007)3. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 30 - 32.
    rundveehouderij - vleesvee - rundvleesproductie - belgisch witblauw - kalven - bekken - afmetingen - lichaamsafmetingen - dierveredeling - selectie - keizersnede - cattle husbandry - beef cattle - beef production - belgian blue - calving - pelvis - dimensions - body measurements - animal breeding - selection - caesarean section
    Kunnen Belgische witblauwen afkalven zonder keizersnede? De Katholieke Hogeschool te St-Niklaas onderzoekt in samenwerking met de faculteit Diergeneeskunde van de Universiteit Gent de mogelijkheden van natuurlijk kalven bij Belgische witblauwen aan de hand van de bekkenmaten
    Natuurlijk versus keizersnede : pijnindicatoren licht verhoogd bij kalven via keizersnede
    Look, J. van de; Kolkman, I. ; Vervaecke, H. ; Vicca, J. ; Lips, D. ; Aerts, S. - \ 2007
    Veeteelt 6 (2007)2. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 30 - 31.
    rundveeteelt - belgisch witblauw - kalven - keizersnede - pijn - belgië - vergelijkend onderzoek - cattle farming - belgian blue - calving - caesarean section - pain - belgium - comparative research
    De vraag is in hoeverre het welzijn van het dier door een keizersnede aangetast wordt. Onderzoek aan de Katholieke Hogeschool van Sint-Niklaas vergeleek de pijnindicatoren bij natuurlijk bevallen met het kalven via keizersnede bij Belgisch witblauwe runderen
    Wel vleesvee, minder keizersneden : werkgroepen buigen zich over natuurlijke kalvingen
    Booij, A. - \ 2007
    Veeteelt 6 (2007)3. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 16 - 17.
    rundveehouderij - vleesvee - vleesproductie - kalven - keizersnede - cattle husbandry - beef cattle - meat production - calving - caesarean section
    Vleesveehouders met verbeterd roodbonten en Belgische witblauwen buigen zich in de zomer van 2007 over de keizersnede: is het mogelijk om rijk bespierd vleesvee te fokken, dat natuurlijk geboren wordt? De projectleider, Jan ten Napel van ASG, is positief gestemd
    Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle
    Albera, A. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk, co-promotor(en): Ab Groen; P. Carnier. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044796 - 175
    vleesvee - vleesveerassen - selectief fokken - genetische verbetering - prestatiekenmerken - kalven - worpresultaten - vleesopbrengst - genetische correlatie - beef cattle - beef breeds - selective breeding - genetic improvement - performance traits - calving - litter performance - meat yield - genetic correlation
    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and consumers' perception of products is particularly relevant for specialized beef cattle breeds. The aim of this thesis was the development of a programme for the improvement of calving performance and beef traits through selection in the Italian Piemontese cattle population. The breeding goal has been defined using both economic and biological approaches. The effect of production circumstances on the estimated economic and biological values has been discussed. Genetic parameters for calving performance have been estimated using animal models including direct and maternal additive genetic effects. Estimated heritabilities ranged from 0.05 for maternal effect in cows to 0.19 for direct effect in heifers. Direct and maternal effects showed strong negative genetic correlations. Estimated genetic relationships between calving performance and beef production traits were generally unfavourable, requiring the development of a specific selection strategy. Alternative breeding programmes have been implemented and compared in term of response to selection. Genetic improvement of beef traits and direct calving performance was obtained while maintaining the current genetic level of the population for maternal calving performance. The improvement of phenotypic expression of calving performance could only be achieved by including direct and maternal effects both in the breeding goal and in the index. Strategies allowing a reduction of generation interval proved to be crucial to allow genetic gain for beef traits. The selection of specialized paternal and maternal lines to be crossed increased the overall economic response of 20%. This scheme was the recommended strategy to select beef traits and calving performance, when allowed by the social structure of farms.
    Diermanagement op biologische melkveebedrijven
    Smolders, G. - \ 2001
    Rundvee praktijkonderzoek 14 (2001)4. - ISSN 1569-805X - p. 31 - 36.
    biologische landbouw - melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - rundveehouderij - diergezondheid - bedrijfsvoering - inseminatie - kalven - vruchtbaarheid - dierveredeling - melkproductie - lactatie - huisvesting, dieren - huisvesting van rundvee - diergeneeskunde - veestapelstructuur - melkveestapel - melkveebedrijven - organic farming - dairy farming - dairy cows - farm management - cattle husbandry - animal health - management - insemination - calving - fertility - animal breeding - milk production - lactation - animal housing - cattle housing - veterinary science - herd structure - dairy herds - dairy farms
    Een aantal ervaringen betreffende het diermanagement op de in het project betrokken bedrijven zijn in dit artikel weergegeven.
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