Exploring the Influence of Alcohol Industry Funding in Observational Studies on Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Health
Vos, Moniek ; Soest, Annick P.M. van; Wingerden, Tim Van; Janse, Marion L. ; Dijk, Rick M. ; Brouwer, Rutger J. ; Koning, Iris De; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Sierksma, Aafje - \ 2020
Advances in Nutrition 11 (2020)5. - ISSN 2161-8313 - p. 1384 - 1391.
alcohol industry funding - all-cause mortality - cancer - cardiovascular disease - sponsorship bias - type 2 diabetes
Funding of research by industry in general can lead to sponsorship bias. The aim of the current study was to conduct an initial exploration of the impact of sponsorship bias in observational alcohol research by focusing on a broad spectrum of health outcomes. The purpose was to determine whether the outcome depended on funding source. We focused on moderate alcohol consumption and used meta-analyses that are the basis of several international alcohol guidelines. These meta-analyses included observational studies that investigated the association of alcohol consumption with 14 different health outcomes, including all-cause mortality, several cardiovascular diseases and cancers, dementia, and type 2 diabetes. Subgroup analyses and metaregressions were conducted to investigate the association between moderate alcohol consumption and the risk of different health outcomes, comparing findings of studies funded by the alcohol industry, ones not funded by the alcohol industry, and studies with an unknown funding source. A total of 386 observational studies were included. Twenty-one studies (5.4%) were funded by the alcohol industry, 309 studies (80.1%) were not funded by the alcohol industry, and for the remaining 56 studies (14.5%) the funding source was unknown. Subgroup analyses and metaregressions did not show an effect of funding source on the association between moderate alcohol intake and different health outcomes. In conclusion, only a small proportion of observational studies in meta-analyses, referred to by several international alcohol guidelines, are funded by the alcohol industry. Based on this selection of observational studies the association between moderate alcohol consumption and different health outcomes does not seem to be related to funding source.
Modulation of immune responses using adjuvants to facilitate therapeutic vaccination
Schijns, Virgil ; Fernández-Tejada, Alberto ; Barjaktarović, Žarko ; Bouzalas, Ilias ; Brimnes, Jens ; Chernysh, Sergey ; Gizurarson, Sveinbjorn ; Gursel, Ihsan ; Jakopin, Žiga ; Lawrenz, Maria ; Nativi, Cristina ; Paul, Stephane ; Pedersen, Gabriel Kristian ; Rosano, Camillo ; Ruiz-de-Angulo, Ane ; Slütter, Bram ; Thakur, Aneesh ; Christensen, Dennis ; Lavelle, Ed C. - \ 2020
Immunological reviews 296 (2020)1. - ISSN 0105-2896 - p. 169 - 190.
adjuvant - autoimmunity - cancer - cellular immunity - therapeutic - vaccine
Therapeutic vaccination offers great promise as an intervention for a diversity of infectious and non-infectious conditions. Given that most chronic health conditions are thought to have an immune component, vaccination can at least in principle be proposed as a therapeutic strategy. Understanding the nature of protective immunity is of vital importance, and the progress made in recent years in defining the nature of pathological and protective immunity for a range of diseases has provided an impetus to devise strategies to promote such responses in a targeted manner. However, in many cases, limited progress has been made in clinical adoption of such approaches. This in part results from a lack of safe and effective vaccine adjuvants that can be used to promote protective immunity and/or reduce deleterious immune responses. Although somewhat simplistic, it is possible to divide therapeutic vaccine approaches into those targeting conditions where antibody responses can mediate protection and those where the principal focus is the promotion of effector and memory cellular immunity or the reduction of damaging cellular immune responses as in the case of autoimmune diseases. Clearly, in all cases of antigen-specific immunotherapy, the identification of protective antigens is a vital first step. There are many challenges to developing therapeutic vaccines beyond those associated with prophylactic diseases including the ongoing immune responses in patients, patient heterogeneity, and diversity in the type and stage of disease. If reproducible biomarkers can be defined, these could allow earlier diagnosis and intervention and likely increase therapeutic vaccine efficacy. Current immunomodulatory approaches related to adoptive cell transfers or passive antibody therapy are showing great promise, but these are outside the scope of this review which will focus on the potential for adjuvanted therapeutic active vaccination strategies.
The Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors May Increase Symptoms of Muscle Function Loss in Patients with Chronic Illnesses
Vinke, Paulien ; Wesselink, Evertine ; Orten-Luiten, Wout van; Norren, Klaske van - \ 2020
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21 (2020)1. - ISSN 1661-6596
cachexia - cancer - COPD - heart failure - inflammation - magnesium - microbiota - proton pump inhibitors - sarcopenic obesity - vitamin D
Long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is common in patients with muscle wasting-related chronic diseases. We explored the hypothesis that the use of PPIs may contribute to a reduction in muscle mass and function in these patients. Literature indicates that a PPI-induced reduction in acidity of the gastrointestinal tract can decrease the absorption of, amongst others, magnesium. Low levels of magnesium are associated with impaired muscle function. This unwanted side-effect of PPIs on muscle function has been described in different disease backgrounds. Furthermore, magnesium is necessary for activation of vitamin D. Low vitamin D and magnesium levels together can lead to increased inflammation involved in muscle wasting. In addition, PPI use has been described to alter the microbiota's composition in the gut, which might lead to increased inflammation. However, PPIs are often provided together with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are anti-inflammatory. In the presence of obesity, additional mechanisms could further contribute to muscle alterations. In conclusion, use of PPIs has been reported to contribute to muscle function loss. Whether this will add to the risk factor for development of muscle function loss in patients with chronic disease needs further investigation.
What if you do not have a healthy weight? | WURcast
Kampman, E. - \ 2019
Wageningen : WURcast
weight - health - cancer - risk
Alcohol and the associated risk of cancer | WURcast
Kampman, E. - \ 2019
Wageningen : WURcast
alcohol intake - cancer - ethanol - acetaldehyde - smoking - public health - breast cancer
The more you drink, the higher the risk of developing certain types of cancer. Drinking alcohol may be temporarily fun, it can have permanent consequences. Just a few drinks a week are associated with an increased risk of cancer, such as breast cancer. Learn about alcohol and its relation to cancer.
What causes cancer? | WURcast
Kampman, E. - \ 2019
Wageningen : WURcast
nutrition and health - cancer - genes - lifestyle
Cancer Prevention Europe
Wild, Christopher P. ; Espina, Carolina ; Bauld, Linda ; Bonanni, Bernardo ; Brenner, Hermann ; Brown, Karen ; Dillner, Joakim ; Forman, David ; Kampman, Ellen ; Nilbert, Mef ; Steindorf, Karen ; Storm, Hans ; Vineis, Paolo ; Baumann, Michael ; Schüz, Joachim - \ 2019
Molecular Oncology 13 (2019)3. - ISSN 1574-7891 - p. 528 - 534.
cancer - Cancer Prevention Europe - Europe
The case for cancer prevention in Europe is the same as for all other parts of the world. The number of cancers is increasing, driven by demographic change and evolution in the exposure to risk factors, while the cost of treating patients is likewise spiralling. Estimations suggest that around 40% of cancers in Europe could be prevented if current understanding of risk and protective factors was translated into effective primary prevention, with further reductions in cancer incidence and mortality by screening, other approaches to early detection, and potentially medical prevention. However, the infrastructure for cancer prevention tends to be fragmented between and within different countries in Europe. This lack of a coordinated approach recently led to the foundation of Cancer Prevention Europe (Forman et al., 2018), a collaborative network with the main aims of strengthening cancer prevention in Europe by increasing awareness of the needs, the associated required resources and reducing inequalities in access to cancer prevention across Europe. This article showcases the need for strengthening cancer prevention and introduces the objectives of Cancer Prevention Europe and its foreseen future role in reducing the European cancer burden.
Healthy Living After Cancer Treatment : Considerations for Clinical and Community Practice
Bluethmann, Shirley M. ; Sciamanna, Christopher N. ; Winkels, Renate M. ; Sturgeon, Kathleen M. ; Schmitz, Kathryn H. - \ 2018
American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine 12 (2018)3. - ISSN 1559-8276 - p. 215 - 219.
cancer - energetics - healthy aging - physical activity - survivorship
As the number of US cancer survivors now reaches almost 16 million, understanding how to care for survivors after cancer treatment has demanded national attention. Increasingly, compelling benefits of lifestyle behaviors for cancer prevention and control have been demonstrated. In particular, physical activity is recommended as a central component of healthy living after cancer treatment. However, survivors struggle to achieve recommended physical activity and other behaviors for reasons that are still not well understood. Further, as greater than 60% of cancer survivors are older than 65 years, there is a unique opportunity to increase engagement of older adults in health programs and clinical trials. This article considers evidence from two reviews: a review on epidemiology studies of lifestyle and cancer and a review on different behavioral intervention strategies to achieve positive behavioral changes in cancer survivors. Both reviews offer important evidence on the role of lifestyle in life after cancer treatment. However, more investigation is needed on the practice of lifestyle medicine for cancer survivors, including ways to extend the reach of health promotion beyond cancer clinics, to primary care and community settings.
Functional vitamin B-6 status and long-term mortality in renal transplant recipients
Minović, Isidor ; Veen, Anna van der; Faassen, Martijn van; Riphagen, Ineke J. ; Berg, Else van den; Ley, Claude van der; Gomes-Neto, António W. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Eggersdorfer, Manfred ; Navis, Gerjan J. ; Kema, Ido P. ; Bakker, Stephan J.L. - \ 2017
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 106 (2017)6. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1366 - 1374.
cancer - functional vitamin B-6 status - infectious disease - long-term mortality - renal transplantation
Background: Low plasma concentrations of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) are common in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and confer increased risk of long-term mortality. To our knowledge, it is not known whether low plasma PLP concentrations have functional (i.e., intracellular) consequences and, if so, whether such consequences are associated with increased risk of mortality.Objectives: We assessed the association of plasma PLP with functional vitamin B-6 status and explored the potential association of functional vitamin B-6 status with long-term mortality in RTRs.Design: In a longitudinal cohort of 678 stable RTRs with a median follow-up of 5.3 y (IQR: 4.8-6.1 y) and 297 healthy controls, PLP, plasma 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), and xanthurenic acid (XA) were analyzed via validated assays. PLP was used as direct biomarker for vitamin B-6 status, and the 3-HK:XA ratio was used as functional biomarker of vitamin B-6 status with a higher ratio reflecting worse functional vitamin B-6 status.Results: Median PLP, 3-HK, and XA concentrations were 41 nmol/L (IQR: 29-60 nmol/L), 40.1 nmol/L (IQR: 33.0-48.0 nmol/L), and 19.1 nmol/L (IQR: 14.5-24.9 nmol/L), respectively, in healthy controls compared with 29 nmol/L (IQR: 17-50 nmol/L), 61.5 nmol/L (IQR: 45.6-86.5 nmol/L), and 25.5 nmol/L (IQR: 17.2-40.0 nmol/L), respectively, in RTRs (all P < 0.001). RTRs had a higher median 3-HK:XA ratio (2.38; IQR: 1.68-3.49) than did healthy controls (2.13; IQR: 1.63-2.71) (P < 0.05). In RTRs, the 3-HK:XA ratio was inversely associated with plasma PLP (β = -0.21, P < 0.001). Moreover, a higher 3-HK:XA ratio was independently associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR per SD increment: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.49), cancer mortality (HR per SD increment: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.95), and infectious disease mortality (HR per SD increment: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.86) in RTRs.Conclusions: Vitamin B-6-deficient RTRs have a worse functional vitamin B-6 status than do healthy controls and vitamin B-6-sufficient RTRs. Worse functional vitamin B-6 status in RTRs is independently associated with an increased risk of mortality particularly because of cancer and infectious disease. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02811835.
Changes in body composition as a result of chemotherapy : Comparing women with and without breast cancer
Berg, Maaike M.G.A. van den - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E. Kampman; M. Visser, co-promotor(en): R.M. Winkels; J.H.M. de Vries. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436984 - 140
body composition - neoplasms - cancer - drug therapy - breast cancer - body weight - intake - diet - meta-analysis - toxicity - lichaamssamenstelling - neoplasma's - cancer - geneesmiddelenbehandeling - borstkanker - lichaamsgewicht - opname (intake) - dieet - meta-analyse - toxiciteit
Because of the improved survival rate, both short term and long term adverse effects of breast cancer treatment have become increasingly important. Body weight and body composition before, during, and after chemotherapy may influence side effects during treatment and survival. The aims of this thesis were to assess among stage I-IIIB breast cancer patients: 1) the association between pre-treatment body composition and dose-limiting toxicities during chemotherapy, 2) potential changes in body weight and body composition during and after chemotherapy compared to changes in age-matched women without cancer in the same time period, and 3) dietary intake during chemotherapy compared to age-matched women without cancer in the same time period.
Chapter 2 describes the association between pre-treatment body composition and dose-limiting toxicities during chemotherapy. Data from 172 breast cancer patients who participated in the COBRA-study were analysed. Body composition was measured using a total body Dual Energy X-ray Absorption (DEXA) scan. Information regarding dose-limiting toxicities was abstracted from medical records. A higher BMI (kg/m2) and a higher fat mass (kg and percentage) were associated with an increased risk of dose-limiting toxicity, while lean body mass (kg) was not associated with risk of toxicities.
Chapter 3 presents the findings of a meta-analysis on changes in body weight during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. The meta-analysis showed an overall gain in body weight of 2.7 kg (95% CI: 2.0-3.3) during chemotherapy, with a high degree of heterogeneity (I2= 94.2%). Weight gain in breast cancer patients was more pronounced in papers published before 2000 and studies including cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil as chemotherapy regime.
Chapter 4 describes changes in body weight and body composition during and after chemotherapy. Data from 145 patients and 121 women of an age-matched comparison group, participating in the COBRA-study were analysed. Body composition was measured using DEXA-scan at three time points during the study period. For the patient group, these tie points were: before start of chemotherapy, shortly after chemotherapy, and 6 months after chemotherapy. For the comparison group these measurements were conducted over a similar time frame: baseline, 6 months after baseline, and 12 months after baseline. In addition, we identified determinants of changes in body weight and body composition.
Shortly after chemotherapy, patients had a significantly higher body weight, BMI, and lean body mass than women in the comparison group, while fat mass was similar. Six months after chemotherapy no differences in body weight or body composition were observed between the patient and comparison group. A younger age, better appetite during chemotherapy, and an ER-receptor negative tumour were associated with greater changes in body weight over time. A younger age and better appetite during chemotherapy were associated with greater changes in fat mass over time, while the only determinant associated with greater changes in lean body mass over time was a better appetite during chemotherapy.
Chapter 5 describes the dietary intake and food groups before and during chemotherapy of breast cancer patients compared with women without cancer. In addition we assessed the association between symptoms and energy intake. Data from 117 breast cancer patients and 88 women without breast cancer who participated in the COBRA-study were used. Habitual dietary intake before chemotherapy was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Two 24-hr dietary recalls were used to assess actual dietary intake during chemotherapy for patients and within 6 months for the comparison group. Shortly after the 24-hr dietary recall, participants filled out questionnaires about symptoms. Before chemotherapy, dietary intake was similar for both groups. During chemotherapy, breast cancer patients reported significantly lower total energy, total fat, total protein, and alcohol intake than women without cancer, which could be explained by a lower intake of specific food groups.
Overall results from this thesis suggest that pre-treatment fat mass is associated with dose-limiting toxicities during chemotherapy. Weight gain during chemotherapy appeared to be more modest than we expected based on literature and changes in body composition during chemotherapy consist mainly of an increase in lean body mass, which is only temporary and returned to baseline within 6 months after chemotherapy. A higher appetite during chemotherapy was associated with changes in body weight and body composition. A younger age at diagnosis was associated with greater changes in body weight and fat mass, but not with changes in lean body mass. In addition, an ER-receptor negative tumour was associated with greater changes in body weight, but not with changes in fat mass or lean body mass. During chemotherapy women with breast cancer have a lower intake of energy, fat, protein and alcohol compared to age-matched women without cancer, which was expressed in a lower intake of specific food groups. The results of this thesis do not suggest that dietary intake is associated with weight gain during chemotherapy.
Hypothalamic regulation of food intake during cancer
Dwarkasing, J.T. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Renger Witkamp, co-promotor(en): Klaske van Norren; Mark Boekschoten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575486 - 147
hypothalamische regulatie - anorexia - eetlustcontrole - voedselopname - cancer - chronische ziekten - diermodellen - muizen - serotonine - hypothalamic regulation - anorexia - appetite control - food intake - cancer - chronic diseases - animal models - mice - serotonin
Appetite is often reduced in patients with chronic illness, including cancer.
Cancer anorexia, loss of appetite, frequently co-exists with cachexia, and the combined clinical picture is known as anorexia-cachexia syndrome. In patients suffering from this syndrome, anorexia considerably contributes to the progression of cachexia, and strongly impinges on quality of life. Inflammatory processes in the hypothalamus are considered to play a crucial role in the development of disease-related anorexia.
The main aim of this thesis was to further elucidate crucial processes involved in the pathogenesis of anorexia in cancer. To investigate mechanisms specifically involved in cancer anorexia, we used two tumour mouse models with opposing food intake behaviours: a C26-colon adenocarcinoma model with increased food intake and a Lewis lung carcinoma model with decreased food intake. In both models, tumour-induced cachexia (body wasting) was strongly present. The contrast in food intake behaviour between tumour-bearing (TB) mice in response to growth of the two different tumours was used to distinguish processes involved in cachexia from those specifically involved in anorexia.
The hypothalamus was used for transcriptomic analysis (Affymetrix chips). We found expression of genes involved in serotonin signalling in the hypothalamus to be differentially regulated between the two tumour models. Furthermore, transcriptional activity of genes involved in serotonin signalling were inversely associated with food intake behaviour. Surprisingly, we also found a strong increase in gene expression of NPY and AgRP, potent orexigenic neuropeptides, in both models, meaning that their expression did not reflect food intake behaviour. However, NPY has also been described to regulate energy storage. Therefore, we hypothesized that this upregulation of NPY/AgRP corresponded to weight loss, which was severe in both tumour models.
Using hypothalamic cell lines we further explored how serotonin might act on food intake regulatory pathways. We showed that serotonin was able to inhibit neuronal NPY secretion, while not affecting gene expression. Inflammatory markers IL-6 and TNFα were also measured in plasma and it was found that C26 TB mice had a lower inflammatory response than LL TB mice. These differences in inflammatory response could be implicated in the differences in feeding behaviour and serotonin signalling between C26 and LL TB mice. We therefore investigated the direct influence of inflammation on hypothalamic serotonin turnover and its contribution to the development of anorexia. To this end, different doses of TNF and IL-6 were administered by injection to healthy mice, inducing an acute inflammatory response. The injected cytokine doses were estimated from their corresponding plasma levels measured in tumour bearing (TB) mice. Also in this cytokine induced-anorexia model, where anorexia was exclusively induced by an inflammatory response, serotonin metabolism in the hypothalamus was affected. Both TNF and IL-6 increased hypothalamic serotonin turnover while also inducing anorectic behaviour. Furthermore, the effect of cytokines on increasing serotonin turnover was supported by in vitro experiments with hypothalamic neuronal cell lines.
In conclusion, we identified hypothalamic serotonin signalling to play a major role in the decrease in food intake during cancer. Serotonin signalling itself is modulated by inflammatory mediators. Therefore, hypothalamic inflammation is an important trigger in the failure of hypothalamic food-intake regulation, probably by affecting serotonergic signalling, which acts as an upstream modulator of various orexigenic and anorexigenic systems.
Isocaloric substitution of carbohydrates with protein: the association with weight change and mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes
Campmans-Kuijpers, M.J.E. ; Sluijs, I. van der; Sluik, D. - \ 2015
Cardiovascular Diabetology 14 (2015). - ISSN 1475-2840 - 10 p.
randomized controlled-trial - glycemic load values - dietary-protein - european countries - physical-activity - body-weight - index - nutrition - cancer - fat
Background: The health impact of dietary replacement of carbohydrates with protein for patients with type 2 diabetes is still debated. This study aimed to investigate the association between dietary substitution of carbohydrates with (animal and plant) protein and 5-year weight change, and all-cause and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: The study included 6,107 diabetes patients from 15 European cohorts. Patients with type 1 diabetes were excluded. At recruitment, validated country-specific food-frequency questionnaires were used to estimate dietary intake. Multivariable adjusted linear regression was used to examine the associations between dietary carbohydrate substitution with protein and 5-year weight change, and Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for (CVD) mortality. Results: Annual weight loss of patients with type 2 diabetes was 0.17 (SD 1.24) kg. After a mean follow-up of 9.2 (SD 2.3)y, 787 (13%) participants had died, of which 266 (4%) deaths were due to CVD. Substitution of 10 gram dietary carbohydrate with total (ß = 187 [75;299]g) and animal (ß = 196 [137;254]g) protein was associated with mean 5-year weight gain. Substitution for plant protein was not significantly associated with weight change (ß = 82 [-421;584]g). Substitution with plant protein was associated with lower all-cause mortality risk (HR = 0.79 [0.64;0.97]), whereas substitution with total or animal protein was not associated with (CVD) mortality risk. Conclusions: In diabetes patients, substitution with plant protein was beneficial with respect to weight change and all-cause mortality as opposed to substitution with animal protein. Therefore, future research is needed whether dietary guidelines should not actively promote substitution of carbohydrates by total protein, but rather focus on substitution of carbohydrates with plant protein.
Deconjugation of soy isoflavone glucuronides needed for estrogenic activity
Islam, M.A. ; Bekele, R. ; Berg, J.H.J. van den; Kuswanti, Y. ; Thapa, O. ; Soltani, S. ; Leeuwen, F.X.R. ; Rietjens, I.M.C.M. ; Murk, A.J. - \ 2015
Toxicology in Vitro 29 (2015)4. - ISSN 0887-2333 - p. 706 - 715.
beta-messenger-rna - in-vitro - er-beta - receptor-beta - cell-proliferation - human plasma - cancer - expression - alpha - genistein
Soy isoflavones (SIF) are present in the systemic circulation as conjugated forms of which the estrogenic potency is not yet clear. The present study provides evidence that the major SIF glucuronide metabolites in blood, genistein-7-O-glucuronide (GG) and daidzein-7-O-glucuronide (DG), only become estrogenic after deconjugation. The estrogenic potencies of genistein (Ge), daidzein (Da), GG and DG were determined using stably transfected U2OS-ERa, U2OS-ERß reporter gene cells and proliferation was tested in T47D-ERß cells mimicking the ERa/ERß ratio of healthy breast cells and inT47D breast cancer cells. In all assays applied, the estrogenic potency of the aglycones was significantly higher than that of their corresponding glucuronides. UPLC analysis revealed that in U2OS and T47D cells, 0.2-1.6% of the glucuronides were deconjugated to their corresponding aglycones. The resulting aglycone concentrations can account for the estrogenicity observed upon glucuronide exposure. Interestingly, under similar experimental conditions, rat breast tissue S9 fraction was about 30 times more potent in deconjugating these glucuronides than human breast tissue S9 fraction. Our study confirms that SIF glucuronides are not estrogenic as such, and that the small % of deconjugation in the cell is enough to explain the slight bioactivity observed for the SIF-glucuronides. Species differences in deconjugation capacity should be taken into account when basing risk-benefit assessment of these SIF for the human population on animal data.
Retention of glucosinolates during fermentation of Brassica juncea: a case study on production of sayur asin
Nugrahedi, P.Y. ; Widianarko, B. ; Dekker, M. ; Verkerk, R. ; Oliviero, T. - \ 2015
European Food Research and Technology 240 (2015)3. - ISSN 1438-2377 - p. 559 - 565.
cruciferous vegetables - myrosinase activity - human health - allyl isothiocyanate - colonic microflora - indian mustard - cabbage - cancer - broccoli - food
Fermentation can reduce the concentration of health-promoting glucosinolates in Brassica vegetables. The endogenous enzyme myrosinase is hypothesised to mainly responsible for the degradation of glucosinolates during fermentation. In order to retain glucosinolates in the final fermented product, the role of myrosinase activity during the production of sayur asin was investigated. Sayur asin is a traditionally fermented product of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) commonly consumed in Indonesia. It is prepared by a spontaneous fermentation of withered (sun-dried) B. juncea leaves. The leaves of B. juncea contain a substantial amount of the aliphatic glucosinolate sinigrin. Three withering methods were investigated to obtain B. juncea leaves with different myrosinase activities prior to fermentation. Results show that withering by oven at 35 °C for 2.5 h and by microwave at 180 W for 4.5 min reduced myrosinase activity by 84 and 74 %, respectively. Subsequently, sinigrin was not detectable in the leaves after 24 h of incubation in the fermentation medium. However, withering by microwave for 2 min at 900 W inactivated myrosinase completely and produced sayur asin with a sinigrin concentration of 11.4 µmol/10 g dry matter after 7 days of fermentation. This high power-short time pretreatment of B. juncea leaves contributes to the production of sayur asin containing significant levels of health-promoting glucosinolate. In this study, the effect of myrosinase activity during Brassica fermentation was quantified, and optimised production methods were investigated to retain glucosinolate in the final product.
Comprehensive metabolomics to evaluate the impact of industrial processing on the phytochemical composition of vegetable purees
Lopez-Sanchez, P. ; Vos, R.C.H. de; Jonker, H.H. ; Mumm, R. ; Hall, R.D. ; Bialek, L. ; Leenman, R. ; Strassburg, K. ; Vreeken, R. ; Hankemeier, T. ; Schumm, S. ; Duynhoven, J.P.M. van - \ 2015
Food Chemistry 168 (2015). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 348 - 355.
mass-spectrometry - plant metabolomics - thermal treatments - vitamin-c - broccoli - tomato - fruit - antioxidant - cancer - l.
The effects of conventional industrial processing steps on global phytochemical composition of broccoli, tomato and carrot purees were investigated by using a range of complementary targeted and untargeted metabolomics approaches including LC–PDA for vitamins, 1H NMR for polar metabolites, accurate mass LC–QTOF MS for semi-polar metabolites, LC–MRM for oxylipins, and headspace GC–MS for volatile compounds. An initial exploratory experiment indicated that the order of blending and thermal treatments had the highest impact on the phytochemicals in the purees. This blending-heating order effect was investigated in more depth by performing alternate blending-heating sequences in triplicate on the same batches of broccoli, tomato and carrot. For each vegetable and particularly in broccoli, a large proportion of the metabolites detected in the purees was significantly influenced by the blending-heating order, amongst which were potential health-related phytochemicals and flavour compounds like vitamins C and E, carotenoids, flavonoids, glucosinolates and oxylipins. Our metabolomics data indicates that during processing the activity of a series of endogenous plant enzymes, such as lipoxygenases, peroxidases and glycosidases, including myrosinase in broccoli, is key to the final metabolite composition and related quality of the purees.
Comparison of approaches to correct intake-health association for FFQ measurement eroor using a duplicate recovery biomarker and a duplicate 24h dietary recall as reference method
Geelen, A. ; Souverein, O.W. ; Busstra, M.C. ; Vries, J.H.M. de; Veer, P. van 't - \ 2015
Public Health Nutrition 18 (2015)2. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 226 - 233.
episodically consumed foods - european centers - urinary nitrogen - potassium intake - validation - cancer - nutrition - protein - questionnaires - individuals
Objective To illustrate the impact of intake-related bias in FFQ and 24 h recall (24hR), and correlated errors between these methods, on intake–health associations. Design Dietary intake was assessed by a 180-item semi-quantitative FFQ and two 24hR. Urinary N and urinary K were estimated from two 24 h urine samples. We compared four scenarios to correct associations for errors in an FFQ estimating protein and K intakes. Setting Wageningen, The Netherlands. Subjects Fifty-nine men and fifty-eight women aged 45–65 years. Results For this FFQ, measurement error weakened a true relative risk of 2·0 to 1·4 for protein and 1·5 for K. As compared with calibration to duplicate recovery biomarkers (i.e. the preferred scenario 1), estimating a validity coefficient using this duplicate biomarker resulted in overcorrected associations, caused by intake-related bias in the FFQ (scenario 2). The correction factor based on a triad using biomarkers and 24hR was hampered by this intake-related bias and by correlated errors between FFQ and 24hR, and in this population resulted in a nearly perfect correction for protein but an overcorrection for K (scenario 3). When the 24hR was used for calibration, only a small correction was done, due to correlated errors between the methods and intake-related bias in the 24hR (scenario 4). Conclusions Calibration to a gold standard reference method is the preferred approach to correct intake–health associations for FFQ measurement error. If it is not possible to do so, using the 24hR as reference method only partly removes the errors, but may result in improved intake–health associations.
The Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project-design, population and data harmonization of a large-scale, international study
Boffetta, P. ; Bobak, M. ; Borsch-Supan, A. ; Brenner, H. ; Eriksson, S. ; Grodstein, F. ; Jansen, E. ; Jenab, M. ; Juerges, H. ; Kampman, E. ; Kee, F. ; Kuulasmaa, K. ; Park, Y. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Duijn, C. van; Wilsgaard, T. ; Wolk, A. ; Trichopoulos, D. ; Bamia, C. ; Trichopoulou, A. - \ 2014
European Journal of Epidemiology 29 (2014)12. - ISSN 0393-2990 - p. 929 - 936.
osteoporotic fractures - cardiovascular-disease - life-style - epidemiology - mortality - women - diet - consumption - disability - cancer
There is a public health demand to prevent health conditions which lead to increased morbidity and mortality among the rapidly-increasing elderly population. Data for the incidence of such conditions exist in cohort studies worldwide, which, however, differ in various aspects. The Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project aims at harmonizing data from existing major longitudinal studies for the elderly whilst focussing on cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, cancer, fractures and cognitive impairment in order to estimate their prevalence, incidence and cause-specific mortality, and identify lifestyle, socioeconomic, and genetic determinants and biomarkers for the incidence of and mortality from these conditions. A survey instrument assessing ageing-related conditions of the elderly will be also developed. Fourteen cohort studies participate in CHANCES with 683,228 elderly (and 150,210 deaths), from 23 European and three non-European countries. So far, 287 variables on health conditions and a variety of exposures, including biomarkers and genetic data have been harmonized. Different research hypotheses are investigated with meta-analyses. The results which will be produced can help international organizations, governments and policy-makers to better understand the broader implications and consequences of ageing and thus make informed decisions.
How a long-lived fungus keeps mutations in check
Aanen, D.K. - \ 2014
Science 346 (2014)6212. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 922 - 923.
stem-cells - cancer - plant
An individual of the mushroom-forming fungus Armillaria bulbosa is among the largest and oldest of all living organisms: More than 1500 years old, it covers more than 15 ha and weighs more than 10,000 kg (1). Some trees can also reach ages of thousands of years (2). How can such long-lived organisms keep the number of deleterious mutations during somatic growth in check? In a recent paper in Mycologia, Anderson and Catona (3) report extremely low genetic variation, and by inference a very low mutation rate, in a long-lived individual of another fungus, Armillaria gallica (see the photo). This genomic stability is puzzling and unexpected, because the sequenced samples come from locations that are more than 100 m apart and presumably separated by many rounds of cell division
Additional analyses in a study on the obesity paradox
Winkels, R.M. ; Gomora, Z. ; Zutphen, M. van; Kampman, E. - \ 2014
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100 (2014)4. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 1208 - 1208.
Use of Two-Part Regression Calibration Model to Correct for Measurement Error in Episodically Consumed Foods in a Single-Replicate Study Design: EPIC Case Study
Agogo, G.O. ; Voet, H. van der; Veer, P. van 't; Ferrari, P. ; Leenders, M. ; Muller, D.C. ; Sánchez-Cantalejo, E. ; Bamia, C. ; Braaten, T. ; Knüppel, S. ; Johansson, I. ; Eeuwijk, F.A. van; Boshuizen, H.C. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)11. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 15 p.
dietary self-report - nutrition - cancer - instruments - outcomes - disease - markers
In epidemiologic studies, measurement error in dietary variables often attenuates association between dietary intake and disease occurrence. To adjust for the attenuation caused by error in dietary intake, regression calibration is commonly used. To apply regression calibration, unbiased reference measurements are required. Short-term reference measurements for foods that are not consumed daily contain excess zeroes that pose challenges in the calibration model. We adapted two-part regression calibration model, initially developed for multiple replicates of reference measurements per individual to a single-replicate setting. We showed how to handle excess zero reference measurements by two-step modeling approach, how to explore heteroscedasticity in the consumed amount with variance-mean graph, how to explore nonlinearity with the generalized additive modeling (GAM) and the empirical logit approaches, and how to select covariates in the calibration model. The performance of two-part calibration model was compared with the one-part counterpart. We used vegetable intake and mortality data from European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. In the EPIC, reference measurements were taken with 24-hour recalls. For each of the three vegetable subgroups assessed separately, correcting for error with an appropriately specified two-part calibration model resulted in about three fold increase in the strength of association with all-cause mortality, as measured by the log hazard ratio. Further found is that the standard way of including covariates in the calibration model can lead to over fitting the two-part calibration model. Moreover, the extent of adjusting for error is influenced by the number and forms of covariates in the calibration model. For episodically consumed foods, we advise researchers to pay special attention to response distribution, nonlinearity, and covariate inclusion in specifying the calibration model.