Label-Free Glycoprofiling with Multiplex Surface Plasmon Resonance: A Tool To Quantify Sialylation of Erythropoietin
Geuijen, K.P.M. ; Halims, L.A. ; Schellekens, H. ; Schasfoort, R.B. ; Wijffels, R.H. ; Eppink, M.H.M. - \ 2015
Analytical Chemistry 87 (2015)16. - ISSN 0003-2700 - p. 8115 - 8122.
liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry - recombinant-human-erythropoietin - lectin microarray - biological function - real-time - cho-cells - glycosylation - carbohydrate - glycoproteins - hemoglobin
Protein glycosylation is among the most common and well-defined post-translational modifications due to its vital role in protein function. Monitoring variation in glycosylation is necessary for producing more effective therapeutic proteins. Glycans attached to glycoproteins interact highly specific with lectins, natural carbohydrate-binding proteins, which property is used in the current label-free methodology. We have established a lectin microarray for label-free detection of lectin-carbohydrate interactions allowing us to study protein glycosylation directly on unmodified glycoproteins. The method enables simultaneous measurement of up to 96 lectin-carbohydrate interactions on a multiplex surface plasmon resonance imaging platform within 20 min. Specificity determination of lectins succeeded by analysis of neoglycoproteins and enzymatically remodeled glycoproteins to verify carbohydrate binding. We demonstrated the possibilities for glycosylation fingerprinting by comparing different Erythropoietin sources without the need for any sample pretreatment and we were able to accurately quantify relative sialylation levels of Erythropoietin.
Arabinoxylans concentrates from wheat bran by electrostatic separation
Wang, J. ; Smits, E. ; Boom, R.M. ; Schutyser, M.A.I. - \ 2015
Journal of Food Engineering 155 (2015). - ISSN 0260-8774 - p. 29 - 36.
dietary fiber - phenolic-acid - particle-size - soft wheat - extraction - quality - (glucurono)arabinoxylans - carbohydrate - fractions - hydroxide
Electrostatic separation has been recently proposed as a novel method to fractionate wheat bran into valuable ingredient fractions. However, systematic study into the influence of parameters on electrostatic separation was lacking. Therefore, this study aimed at a more detailed evaluation of electrostatic separation for enriching arabinoxylans (AX) from wheat bran. The influence of wheat bran particle size, carrier gas velocity and charging tube length were investigated with a lab-scale electrostatic separator. A combination of larger particle size (D[4,3] of 210 µm compared to 110 µm), higher gas velocity (>28 m/s) and shorter charging tube (125 mm compared to 225 mm) can sufficiently charge the particles, and at the mean time avoid agglomeration by oppositely charged particles. With the optimal settings, single step electrostatic separation of wheat bran could increase the AX content from 23% dm to 30% dm, which is similar as can be obtained by sieving. However, in comparison to sieving, the yield of the enriched fraction from electrostatic separation is lower due to the horizontal design of the setup. Improvement of the yield is expected when adjusting the system design from horizontal to vertical. A sieving step added after the electrostatic separation could effectively remove starch and protein and resulted in a fraction with an AX content of 43% dm, which is around the theoretical maximum value that can be reached by dry fractionation.
The Biphasic Effects of Moderate Alcohol Consumption with a Meal on Ambiance-Induced Mood and Autonomic Nervous System Balance: A Randomized Crossover Trial
Schrieks, I.C. ; Stafleu, A. ; Kallen, V.L. ; Grootjen, M. ; Witkamp, R.F. ; Hendriks, H.F.J. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)1. - ISSN 1932-6203
heart-rate-variability - food-intake - individual-differences - emotion elicitation - frequency-domain - effects scale - red wine - carbohydrate - performance - drinking
Background: The pre-drinking mood state has been indicated to be an important factor in the mood effects of alcohol. However, for moderate alcohol consumption there are no controlled studies showing this association. Also, the mood effects of consuming alcohol combined with food are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol combined with a meal on ambiance-induced mood states. Furthermore effects on autonomic nervous system activity were measured to explore physiological mechanisms that may be involved in changes of mood state. Methods: In a crossover design 28 women (age 18-45 y, BMI 18.5-27 kg/m(2)) were randomly allocated to 4 conditions in which they received 3 glasses of sparkling white wine (30 g alcohol) or alcohol-free sparkling white wine while having dinner in a room with either a pleasant or unpleasant created ambiance. Subjects filled out questionnaires (B-BAES, POMS and postprandial wellness questionnaire) at different times. Skin conductance and heart rate variability were measured continuously. Results: Moderate alcohol consumption increased happiness scores in the unpleasant, but not in the pleasant ambiance. Alcohol consumption increased happiness and stimulation feelings within 1 hour and increased sedative feelings and sleepiness for 2.5 hour. Skin conductance was increased after alcohol within 1 hour and was related to happiness and stimulation scores. Heart rate variability was decreased after alcohol for 2 hours and was related to mental alertness. Conclusion: Mood inductions and autonomic nervous system parameters may be useful to evaluate mood changes by nutritional interventions. Moderate alcohol consumption elevates happiness scores in an unpleasant ambiance. However, drinking alcohol during a pleasant mood results in an equally positive mood state.
Human protein status modulates brain reward responses to food cues1–3
Griffioen-Roose, S. ; Smeets, P.A.M. ; Heuvel, E.M. van den; Boesveldt, S. ; Finlayson, G. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2014
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100 (2014)1. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 113 - 122.
leverage hypothesis - energy-intake - taste - breakfast - appetite - satiety - carbohydrate - mechanisms - receptors - choice
Background: Protein is indispensable in the human diet, and its intake appears tightly regulated. The role of sensory attributes of foods in protein intake regulation is far from clear. Objective: We investigated the effect of human protein status on neural responses to different food cues with the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The food cues varied by taste category (sweet compared with savory) and protein content (low compared with high). In addition, food preferences and intakes were measured. Design: We used a randomized crossover design whereby 23 healthy women [mean SD age: 22 +/- 2 y; mean +/- SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22.5 +/- 1.8] followed two 16-d fully controlled dietary interventions involving consumption of either a low-protein diet (0.6 g protein center dot kg body weight(-1) center dot d(-1), similar to 7% of energy derived from protein, approximately half the normal protein intake) or a high-protein diet (2.2 g protein center dot kg body weight(-1) center dot d(-1), similar to 25% of energy, approximately twice the normal intake). On the last day of the interventions, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses to odor and visual food cues were measured by using fMRI. The 2 interventions were followed by a 1 -d ad libitum phase, during which a large array of food items was available and preference and intake were measured. Results: When exposed to food cues (relative to the control condition), the BOLD response was higher in reward-related areas (orbitofrontal cortex, striatum) in a low-protein state than in a high-protein state. Specifically, BOLD was higher in the inferior orbitofrontal cortex in response to savory food cues. In contrast, the protein content of the food cues did not modulate the BOLD response. A low protein state also increased preferences for savory food cues and increased protein intake in the ad libitum phase as compared with a high-protein state. Conclusions: Protein status modulates brain responses in reward regions to savory food cues. These novel findings suggest that dietary protein status affects taste category preferences, which could play an important role in the regulation of protein intake in humans. This trial was registered at www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=3288 as NTR3288.
Short-term effects of glucose and sucrose on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people
Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Rest, O. van de; Kessels, R.P.C. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2014
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 36 (2014)5. - ISSN 1380-3395 - p. 517 - 527.
participants aged 24-81 - blood-glucose - normative data - older-adults - memory performance - diabetes-mellitus - subjective memory - enhancement - humans - carbohydrate
In this study we determined the short-term effects of a glucose drink and a sucrose drink compared to a placebo on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people with subjective, mild memory complaints using a randomized crossover study design. In total, 43 nondiabetic older adults with self-reported memory complaints were included. Drinks consisted of 250 ml with dissolved glucose (50 g), sucrose (100 g), or a mixture of artificial sweeteners (placebo). Multiple neuropsychological tests were performed and were combined by means of z scores into four cognitive domains: episodic memory, working memory, attention and information (processing speed), and executive functioning. Mood was assessed with the short Profile of Mood Status (s-POMS) questionnaire. Blood glucose concentrations were measured at five time points to divide participants into those with a better or poorer blood glucose recovery. Performance on the domain of attention and information processing speed was significantly better after consuming the sucrose drink (domain score of 0.06, SD = 0.91) than after the placebo drink (–0.08, SD = 0.92, p = .04). Sucrose had no effect on the other three domains, and glucose had no effect on any of the domains compared to the placebo. When dividing participants into poorer or better glucose recoverers, the beneficial effect of sucrose on attention and information processing speed was only seen in participants with a poorer recovery. After sucrose consumption, depressive feelings and tension were slightly higher than after the placebo. To conclude, 100 g sucrose, but not 50 g glucose, optimized attention and information processing speed in the short term in this study in elderly people with subjective, mild memory complaints.
Stability of (Bio)Functionalized Porous Aluminum Oxide
Debrassi, A. ; Ribbera, A. ; Vos, W.M. de; Wennekes, T. ; Zuilhof, H. - \ 2014
Langmuir 30 (2014). - ISSN 0743-7463 - p. 1311 - 1320.
self-assembled monolayers - lactic-acid bacteria - lactobacillus-plantarum - nanoporous alumina - click chemistry - anodic alumina - surfaces - adsorption - membrane - carbohydrate
Porous aluminum oxide (PAO), a nanostructured support for, among others, culturing microorganisms, was chemically modified in order to attach biomolecules that can selectively interact with target bacteria. We present the first comprehensive study of monolayer-modified PAO using conditions that are relevant to microbial growth with a range of functional groups (carboxylic acid, a-hydroxycarboxylic acid, alkyne, alkene, phosphonic acid, and silane). Their stability was initially assessed in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.0) at room temperature. The most stable combination (PAO with phosphonic acids) was further studied over a range of physiological pHs (4–8) and temperatures (up to 80 °C). Varying the pH had no significant effect on the stability, but it gradually decreased with increasing temperature. The stability of phosphonic acid-modified PAO surfaces was shown to depend strongly on the other terminal group of the monolayer structure: in general, hydrophilic monolayers were less stable than hydrophobic monolayers. Finally, an alkyne-terminated PAO surface was reacted with an azide-linked mannose derivative. The resulting mannose-presenting PAO surface showed the clearly increased adherence of a mannose-binding bacterium, Lactobacillus plantarum, and also allowed for bacterial outgrowth.
The impact of protein supplementation on cognitive performance in frail elderly
Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Rest, O. van de; Tieland, C.A.B. ; Adam, J.J. ; Hiddink, G.J. ; Loon, L.J.C. van; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2014
European Journal of Nutrition 53 (2014)3. - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 803 - 812.
older-adults - alzheimers-disease - nutritional-status - dietary-protein - whey-protein - amino-acids - task-force - healthy - carbohydrate - decline
Purpose Maintenance of cognitive abilities is important for elderly to stay independent. With the aging of the population, the call for modifiable factors is emerging. Dietary protein might improve cognitive performance; however, this has hardly been studied. Therefore, we studied the impact of 24-week dietary protein supplementation on cognitive performance in pre-frail and frail elderly people. Methods Pre-frail and frail elderly subjects, according to the Fried criteria, randomly received a protein drink containing 15 g protein or a placebo drink twice a day. Cognitive performance was measured at baseline and after 24 weeks by means of a sensitive neuropsychological test battery. In addition, reaction time was assessed after both 12 and 24 weeks of intervention. Domain scores were calculated for the domains episodic memory, attention and working memory, information processing speed, and executive functioning. Analyses of covariance were used to determine differences between groups. Linear mixed models were used to determine differences in reaction time over time and per treatment. Results In total, 65 subjects (79 ± 8 years) with a median Mini-Mental State Examination score of 28 (interquartile range 26–30) were included. Reaction time improved more in the protein group (68 ms) than in the placebo group (18 ms, P = 0.03). Dietary protein had no significant effect on any of the cognitive domain scores. Conclusions Protein supplementation might improve reaction time performance in pre-frail and frail elderly, but did not improve other cognitive functions.
Review article: the association of diet with onset and relapse in patients with inflammatory bowel disease
Spooren, C.E.G.M. ; Pierik, M. ; Zeegers, M.P.A. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Masclee, A.A.M. - \ 2013
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 38 (2013)10. - ISSN 0269-2813 - p. 1172 - 1187.
polyunsaturated fatty-acids - european prospective cohort - active crohns-disease - ulcerative-colitis - risk-factors - environmental-factors - consumption - population - epidemiology - carbohydrate
Background The role of diet in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is supported by migration studies and increasing incidences in line with Westernisation. Aim To give a complete overview of studies associating habitual diet with the onset or relapses in ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD). Methods A structured search in Pubmed, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE was performed using defined key words, including only full text papers in English language. Results Forty-one studies were identified, investigating onset (n = 35), relapses (n = 5) or both (n = 1). Several studies reported high intake of sugar or sugar-containing foods (n = 7 UC, n = 12 CD), and low intake of fruits and/or vegetables (n = 5 UC, n = 10 CD) to be associated with an increased onset risk. However, these findings could not be confirmed by similar or higher numbers of other studies. A possible protective role was found for grain-derived products in CD onset, but results were inconsistent for dietary fibre in UC and CD and grain-derived products in UC. No definite conclusions could be drawn for unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), protein and energy intake due to limited and/or inconsistent results. Six studies reported on diet and relapse risk, of which only two (n = 1 UC, n = 1 CD) had a prospective follow-up. Conclusions The current evidence is not sufficient to draw firm conclusions on the role of specific food components or nutrients in the aetiology of IBD. Furthermore, large prospective studies into the role of habitual diet as a trigger of relapses are needed, to identify new therapeutic or preventive targets
Deciduous and evergreen trees differ in juvenile biomass allometries because of differences in allocation to root storage
Tomlinson, K.W. ; Langevelde, F. van; Ward, D. ; Bongers, F.J.J.M. ; Alves da Silva, D. ; Prins, H.H.T. ; Bie, S. de; Sterck, F.J. - \ 2013
Annals of Botany 112 (2013)3. - ISSN 0305-7364 - p. 575 - 587.
optimal partitioning theory - shade-tolerance - general-model - dry forest - plants - water - savanna - light - carbohydrate - communities
Background and Aims - Biomass partitioning for resource conservation might affect plant allometry, accounting for a substantial amount of unexplained variation in existing plant allometry models. One means of resource conservation is through direct allocation to storage in particular organs. In this study, storage allocation and biomass allometry of deciduous and evergreen tree species from seasonal environments were considered. It was expected that deciduous species would have greater allocation to storage in roots to support leaf regrowth in subsequent growing seasons, and consequently have lower scaling exponents for leaf to root and stem to root partitioning, than evergreen species. Itwas further expected that changes to root carbohydrate storage and biomass allometry under different soil nutrient supply conditions would be greater for deciduous species than for evergreen species. Methods - Root carbohydrate storage and organ biomass allometrieswere compared for juveniles of 20 savanna tree species of different leaf habit (nine evergreen, 11 deciduous) grown in two nutrient treatments for periods of 5 and 20 weeks (total dry mass of individual plants ranged from 0.003 to 258.724 g). Key Results - Deciduous species had greater root non-structural carbohydrate than evergreen species, and lower scaling exponents for leaf to root and stem to root partitioning than evergreen species. Across species, leaf to stem scaling was positively related, and stem to root scaling was negatively related to root carbohydrate concentration. Under lower nutrient supply, trees displayed increased partitioning to non-structural carbohydrate, and to roots and leaves over stems with increasing plant size, but this change did not differ between leaf habits. Conclusions - Substantial unexplained variation in biomass allometry of woody species may be related to selection for resource conservation against environmental stresses, such as resource seasonality. Further differences in plant allometry could arise due to selection for different types of biomass allocation in response to different environmental stressors (e.g. fire vs herbivory)
Repeated measurements of in vitro fermentation of fibre-rich substrates using large intestinal microbiota of sows
Sappok, M.A. ; Pellikaan, W.F. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Bosch, G. ; Sundrum, A. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2013
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 93 (2013)5. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 987 - 994.
volatile fatty-acids - human fecal bacteria - dietary fiber - protein-synthesis - growing pigs - stomached animals - feed ingredients - swine manure - fermentability - carbohydrate
BACKGROUND: Fibrous ingredients for pig diets can be characterized by in vitro fermentation. In vitro fermentation methods often use a one-time measurement of gas production during the incubation of test substrates with one faecal inoculum. The representativeness of this approach can be questioned as measuring time and number of animals from which inoculum originates may influence fermentation results. An in vitro fermentation trial was conducted incubating three fibrous substrates with three inocula in five replicates (different fermentation runs) to test the influence of run and origin of inocula. RESULTS: Total gas production and maximal rate of gas production differed (P <0.05) between fermentation runs, but less than substrates (P <0.01). The ranking order between substrates remained similar for each run. Fermentation of cellulose led to higher coefficients of variation between inocula compared to the fast fermentable substrates oligofructose and soy pectin. Differences ranged from 2% for total gas production up to 25% for maximal rate of gas production. CONCLUSION: One fermentation run can provide representative results for substrate ranking. Using multiple inocula mixed from four faecal samples each leads to high coefficients of variation for slow fermentable substrates like cellulose. Future studies should examine the optimal number of animals for inocula preparation to decrease variation.
Dietary Fibre Intake and Risks of Cancers of the Colon and Rectum in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
Murphy, N. ; Norat, T. ; Ferrari, P. ; Jenab, M. ; Bueno-de-Mesquita, B. ; Skeie, G. ; Dahm, C.C. ; Overvad, K. ; Olsen, A. ; Tjonneland, A. ; Clavel-Chapelon, F. ; Boutron-Ruault, M.C. ; Racine, A. ; Kaaks, R. ; Teucher, B. ; Boeing, H. ; Bergmann, M.M. ; Trichopoulou, A. ; Trichopoulos, D. ; Lagiou, P. ; Palli, D. ; Pala, V. ; Panico, S. ; Tumino, R. ; Vineis, P. ; Siersema, P. ; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van; Peeters, P.H.M. ; Hjartaker, A. ; Engeset, D. ; Gonzalez, C.A. ; Sanchez, M.J. ; Dorronsoro, M. ; Navarro, C. ; Ardanaz, E. ; Quiros, J.R. ; Sonestedt, E. ; Ericson, U. ; Nilsson, L. ; Palmqvist, R. ; Khaw, K.T. ; Wareham, N. ; Key, T.J. ; Crowe, F.L. ; Fedirko, V. ; Wark, P.A. ; Chuang, S.C. ; Riboli, E. - \ 2012
PLoS ONE 7 (2012)6. - ISSN 1932-6203
colorectal-cancer - nonstarch polysaccharides - epidemiologic evidence - measurement error - glycemic index - cohort - project - carbohydrate - calibration - protection
Background: Earlier analyses within the EPIC study showed that dietary fibre intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, but results from some large cohort studies do not support this finding. We explored whether the association remained after longer follow-up with a near threefold increase in colorectal cancer cases, and if the association varied by gender and tumour location. Methodology/Principal Findings: After a mean follow-up of 11.0 years, 4,517 incident cases of colorectal cancer were documented. Total, cereal, fruit, and vegetable fibre intakes were estimated from dietary questionnaires at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models stratified by age, sex, and centre, and adjusted for total energy intake, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, education, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, oral contraceptive use, and intakes of alcohol, folate, red and processed meats, and calcium. After multivariable adjustments, total dietary fibre was inversely associated with colorectal cancer (HR per 10 g/day increase in fibre 0.87, 95% CI: 0.79-0.96). Similar linear associations were observed for colon and rectal cancers. The association between total dietary fibre and risk of colorectal cancer risk did not differ by age, sex, or anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary variables. Fibre from cereals and fibre from fruit and vegetables were similarly associated with colon cancer; but for rectal cancer, the inverse association was only evident for fibre from cereals. Conclusions/Significance: Our results strengthen the evidence for the role of high dietary fibre intake in colorectal cancer prevention.
Learning about the energy density of liquid and semi-solid foods
Hogenkamp, P.S. ; Stafleu, A. ; Mars, M. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2012
International Journal of Obesity 36 (2012)9. - ISSN 0307-0565 - p. 1229 - 1235.
satiation - satiety - humans - compensation - viscosity - carbohydrate - responses - behavior - stimuli - flavor
BACKGROUND: People learn about a food's satiating capacity by exposure and consequently adjust their energy intake. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of energy density and texture on subsequent energy intake adjustments during repeated consumption. DESIGN: In a randomized crossover design, participants (n = 27, age: 21 +/- 2.4 years, body mass index: 22.2 +/- 1.6 kg m(-2)) repeatedly consumed highly novel foods that were either low-energy-dense (LE: 30 kcal per 100 g) or high-energy-dense (HE: 130 kcal per 100 g), and either liquid or semi-solid, resulting in four product conditions. In each condition, a fixed portion of test food was consumed nine times as an obligatory part of breakfast, lunch and dinner on 3 consecutive days. All meals continued with an ad libitum buffet; food items for evening consumption were provided and the intake (kcal per day) was measured. RESULTS: Buffet intake depended on energy density and day of consumption of the test foods (day*energy interaction: P = 0.02); daily buffet intake increased from day 1 (1745 +/- 577 kcal) to day 3 (1979 +/- 567 kcal) in the LE conditions; intake did not change in the HE conditions (day 1: 1523 +/- 429 kcal, day 3: 1589 +/- 424 kcal). Food texture did not affect the intake (P = 0.56). CONCLUSIONS: Intake did depend on energy density of the test foods; participants increased their buffet intake over days in response to learning about the satiating capacity of the LE foods, but did not change buffet intake over days when repeatedly consuming a HE food as part of their meal. The adjustments in intake were made irrespective of the food texture.
Complete resequencing and reannotation of the Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 genome
Siezen, R.J. ; Francke, C. ; Renckens, B. ; Boekhorst, L.J.S. ; Wels, M. ; Kleerebezem, M. ; Hijum, S.A.F.T. van - \ 2012
Journal of Bacteriology 194 (2012)1. - ISSN 0021-9193 - p. 195 - 196.
lactic-acid bacteria - gastrointestinal-tract - identification - fermentation - database - artemis - growth - genes - mice - carbohydrate
There is growing interest in the beneficial effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on human health. The genome of L. plantarum WCFS1, first sequenced in 2001, was resequenced using Solexa technology. We identified 116 nucleotide corrections and improved function prediction for nearly 1,200 proteins, with a focus on metabolic functions and cell surface-associated proteins.
The effects of high levels of rumen degradable protein on rumen pH and histamine concentrations in dairy cows
Pilachai, R. ; Schonewille, J.T. ; Thamrongyoswittayakul, C. ; Aiumlamai, S. ; Wachirapakom, C. ; Everts, H. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2012
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 96 (2012)2. - ISSN 0931-2439 - p. 206 - 213.
ruminal degradability - low-quality - acidosis - carbohydrate - cattle - fermentation - laminitis - digestion - histidine - system
An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the supplementation of crude protein (CP) results in rumen acidosis and increased histamine concentrations in dairy cows. Six ruminally fistulated, non-pregnant dry cows were fed three experimental rations in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. The CP contents in the low-CP, the high rumen undegradable protein (high-RUP) and the high rumen degradable protein (high-RDP) rations were 112, 259 and 266 g/kg dry matter (DM) respectively. The cows were fed 7.7 kg DM of the concentrates and 2.7 kg DM of rice straw. High levels of RDP in the ration significantly increased the ammonia, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) and histamine concentrations in the rumen fluid. However, supplemental CP, whether degradable or undegradable, did not significantly affect the pH of rumen fluid. Plasma urea nitrogen concentration was higher in both high-RDP and high-RUP in relation to cows fed the low-CP ration. The rise in ruminal histamine concentrations was physiologically non-relevant, most likely because rumen pH was not affected by supplemental CP at the installed level of DM intake. Therefore, it can be concluded that the issue of supplemental CP, rumen pH and ruminal histamine concentrations has not yet been settled. Further research is warranted to understand these relationships.
Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to glucose intolerance among Greenland's Inuit population
Aerde, M.A. van; Witte, D.R. ; Jeppesen, C. ; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. - \ 2012
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 97 (2012)2. - ISSN 0168-8227 - p. 298 - 305.
dependent diabetes-mellitus - insulin-resistance atherosclerosis - dietary fiber intake - life-style - type-2 - risk - women - tolerance - carbohydrate - prevalence
BACKGROUND: Intake of carbohydrates which elicit a large glycemic response is hypothesized to increase the risk of diabetes. However, studies assessing the relationship between glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and diabetes are inconsistent. Only few studies have studied the relationship between GI and GL and markers of glucose metabolism, mostly in western populations. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between GI and GL and indices of glucose metabolism and prevalence of diabetes in Greenland's Inuit population. DESIGN: The Inuit Health in Transition Study is a geographically representative cross-sectional study among aged =18years. Diet was assessed using a 67-item food frequency questionnaire. Logistic and linear regression was used to assess the association between GI and GL and diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, HbA(1c), fasting plasma glucose, 2h plasma glucose, HOMA2-IR and HOMA2-%ß. RESULTS: No association was found between GI and GL and diabetes. GL was significantly inversely associated with IFG (OR: 0.91 (0.84-0.98)). While GI was positively associated with FPG, GL was positively associated with both HOMA2-IR and HOMA2-%ß and inversely associated with IFG. CONCLUSION: These findings do not support a link between dietary GI or GL and risk of type 2 diabetes among Greenland's Inuit population.
Protein status elicits compensatory changes in food intake and food preferences
Griffioen-Roose, S. ; Mars, M. ; Siebelink, E. ; Finlayson, G. ; Tome, D. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2012
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 95 (2012)1. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 32 - 38.
sensory specific satiety - dietary-protein - flavor preferences - appetite - humans - acid - rats - carbohydrate - association - hunger
Background: Protein is an indispensable component within the human diet. It is unclear, however, whether behavioral strategies exist to avoid shortages. Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of a low protein status compared with a high protein status on food intake and food preferences. Design: We used a randomized crossover design that consisted of a 14-d fully controlled dietary intervention involving 37 subjects [mean ± SD age: 21 ± 2 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 21.9 ± 1.5] who consumed individualized, isoenergetic diets that were either low in protein [0.5 g protein · kg body weight (BW)-1 · d-1] or high in protein (2.0 g protein · kg BW-1 · d-1). The diets were followed by an ad libitum phase of 2.5 d, during which a large array of food items was available, and protein and energy intakes were measured. Results: We showed that in the ad libitum phase protein intake was 13% higher after the low-protein diet than after the high-protein diet (253 ± 70 compared with 225 ± 63 g, P <0.001), whereas total energy intake was not different. The higher intake of protein was evident throughout the ad libitum phase of 2.5 d. In addition, after the low-protein diet, food preferences for savory high-protein foods were enhanced. Conclusions: After a protein deficit, food intake and food preferences show adaptive changes that suggest that compensatory mechanisms are induced to restore adequate protein status. This indicates that there are human behavioral strategies present to avoid protein shortage and that these involve selection of savory high-protein foods
Histological and molecular investigation of the basis for variation in tomato fruit size in response to fruit load and genotype
Fanwoua, J. ; Visser, P.H.B. de; Heuvelink, E. ; Angenent, G.C. ; Yin, X. ; Marcelis, L.F.M. ; Struik, P.C. - \ 2012
Functional Plant Biology 39 (2012)9. - ISSN 1445-4408 - p. 754 - 763.
plant-cell cycle - dna endoreduplication - carbon availability - gene-expression - hormone levels - growth - number - proliferation - carbohydrate - metabolism
Understanding the molecular mechanisms and cellular dynamics that cause variation in fruit size is critical for the control of fruit growth. The aim of this study was to investigate how both genotypic factors and carbohydrate limitation cause variation in fruit size. We grew a parental line (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and two inbred lines from Solanum chmielewskii (C.M.Rick et al.; D.M.Spooner et al.) producing small or large fruits under three fruit loads (FL): continuously two fruits/truss (2&2F) or five fruits/truss (5&5F) and a switch from five to two fruits/truss (5&2F) 7 days after anthesis (DAA). Final fruit size, sugar content and cell phenotypes were measured. The expression of major cell cycle genes 7 DAA was investigated using quantitative PCR. The 5&5F treatment resulted in significantly smaller fruits than the 5&2F and 2&2F treatments. In the 5&5F treatment, cell number and cell volume contributed equally to the genotypic variation in final fruit size. In the 5&2F and 2&2F treatment, cell number contributed twice as much to the genotypic variation in final fruit size than cell volume did. FL treatments resulted in only subtle variations in gene expression. Genotypic differences were detected in transcript levels of CycD3 (cyclin) and CDKB1 (cyclin-dependent-kinase), but not CycB2. Genotypic variation in fruit FW, pericarp volume and cell volume was linked to pericarp glucose and fructose content (R2 = 0.41, R2 = 0.48, R2 = 0.11 respectively). Genotypic variation in cell number was positively correlated with pericarp fructose content (R2 = 0.28). These results emphasise the role of sugar content and of the timing of assimilate supply in the variation of cell and fruit phenotypes
The effect of within-meal protein content and taste on subsequent food choice and satiety
Griffioen-Roose, S. ; Mars, M. ; Finlayson, G. ; Blundell, J.E. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2011
The British journal of nutrition 106 (2011)5. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 779 - 788.
sensory specific satiety - appetite control - whey-protein - humans - carbohydrate - liking - thermogenesis - preferences - healthy - fat
It is posed that protein intake is tightly regulated by the human body. The role of sensory qualities in the satiating effects of protein, however, requires further clarification. Our objective was to determine the effect of within-meal protein content and taste on subsequent food choice and satiety. We used a cross-over design whereby sixty healthy, unrestrained subjects (twenty-three males and thirty-seven females) with a mean age of 20·8 (sd 2·1) years and a mean BMI of 21·5 (sd 1·6) kg/m2 were offered one of four isoenergetic preloads (rice meal) for lunch: two low in protein (about 7 % energy derived from protein) and two high in protein (about 25 % energy from protein). Both had a sweet and savoury version. At 30 min after preload consumption, subjects were offered an ad libitum buffet, consisting of food products differing in protein content (low/high) and taste (sweet/savoury). In addition, the computerised Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire (LFPQ) was run to assess several components of food reward. The results showed no effect of protein content of the preloads on subsequent food choice. There was an effect of taste; after eating the savoury preloads, choice and intake of sweet products were higher than of savoury products. No such preference was seen after the sweet preloads. No differences in satiety were observed. To conclude, within one eating episode, within-meal protein content in these quantities seems not to have an effect on subsequent food choice. This appears to be mostly determined by taste, whereby savoury taste exerts the strongest modulating effect. The results of the LFPQ provided insight into underlying processes
Oxidation of dietary stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids in growing pigs follows a biphasic pattern
Bruininx, E.M.A.M. ; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Heugten, E. van; Milgen, J. van; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2011
The Journal of Nutrition 141 (2011)9. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1657 - 1663.
fatty-acids - energy-metabolism - adipose-tissue - healthy-men - chain-length - carbohydrate - whole - digestibility - protein - women
Abstract We used the pig as a model to assess the effects of dietary fat content and composition on nutrient oxidation and energy partitioning in positive energy balance. Pigs weighing 25 kg were assigned to either: 1) a low fat–high starch diet, or 2) a high saturated-fat diet, or 3) a high unsaturated-fat diet. In the high-fat treatments, 20% starch was iso-energetically replaced by 10.8% lard or 10.2% soybean oil, respectively. For 7 d, pigs were fed twice daily at a rate of 1200 kJ digestible energy · kg-0.75 · d-1. Oral bolus doses of [U-13C] glucose, [U-13C] a-linoleate, [U-13C] stearate, and [U-13C] oleate were administered on d 1, 2, 4, and 6, respectively, and 13CO2 production was measured. Protein and fat deposition were measured for 7 d. Fractional oxidation of fatty acids from the low-fat diet was lower than from the high-fat diets. Within diets, the saturated [U-13C] stearate was oxidized less than the unsaturated [U-13C] oleate and [U-13C] linoleate. For the high unsaturated-fat diet, oxidation of [U-13C] oleate was higher than that of [U-13C] linoleate. In general, recovery of 13CO2 from labeled fatty acids rose within 2 h after ingestion but peaked around the next meal. This peak was induced by an increased energy expenditure that was likely related to increased eating activity. In conclusion, oxidation of dietary fatty acids in growing pigs depends on the inclusion level and composition of dietary fat. Moreover, our data suggest that the most recently ingested fatty acids are preferred substrates for oxidation when the direct supply of dietary nutrients has decreased and ATP requirements increase
Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol, but not unsaturated fat or starch, induces C-reactive protein associated early atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition in diabetic pigs
Koopmans, S.J. ; Dekker, R.A. ; Ackermans, M.T. ; Sauerwein, H.P. ; Serlie, M.J. ; Beusekom, H.M.M. ; Heuvel, M. van den; Giessen, W.J. - \ 2011
Cardiovascular Diabetology 10 (2011). - ISSN 1475-2840 - 11 p.
cardiovascular-disease - insulin-resistance - coronary-arteries - carbohydrate - inflammation - interleukin-6 - nutrigenomics - hyperglycemia - proliferator - nutrition
Background Diabetes is thought to accelerate cardiovascular disease depending on the type of diet. This study in diabetic subjects was performed to investigate the metabolic, inflammatory and cardiovascular effects of nutritional components typically present in a Western, Mediterranean or high glycaemic diet. Methods Streptozotocin-diabetic pigs (~45 kg) were fed for 10 weeks supplemental (40% of dietary energy) saturated fat/cholesterol (SFC), unsaturated fat (UF) or starch (S) in an eucaloric dietary intervention study. Results Fasting plasma total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations were 3-5 fold higher (p <0.01) in SFC compared to UF and S pigs. Fasting plasma NEFA concentrations (mmol/L) were highest (p <0.05) in SFC (1.09 ± 0.17), intermediate in UF (0.80 ± 0.14) and lowest in S pigs (0.58 ± 0.14) whereas plasma glucose (~13 mmol/L), triglyceride (~0.5 mmol/L) and insulin (~24 pmol/L) concentrations were comparable among SFC, UF and S pigs. The postprandial response area under the curves (AUC, 0-4 h) for glucose but not for insulin and triglyceride responses were intermediate in SFC (617 ± 144) and lowest (p <0.05) in UF (378 ± 157) compared to S pigs (925 ± 139). Fasting hepatic glucose production, hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity and blood pressure were not different among pigs. C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations (mg/L) were highest (p <0.05) in SFC (25 ± 4), intermediate in S (21 ± 3) and lowest in UF pigs (14 ± 2). Liver weights, liver and muscle triglyceride concentrations, and the surface area of aorta fatty streaks were highest (p <0.01) in SFC pigs. A positive correlation between postprandial plasma CRP and aorta fatty streaks was observed in SFC pigs (R2 = 0.95). Retroperitoneal fat depot weight (g) was intermediate in SFC (260 ± 72), lowest in S (135 ± 51) and highest (p <0.05) in UF (571 ± 95) pigs. Conclusion Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol induces inflammation, atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition whereas an equally high dietary unsaturated fat load does not induce these abnormalities and shows beneficial effects on postprandial glycaemia in diabetic pigs. Keywords: Diabetes; Insulin; Diet; Unsaturated fat; Saturated fat; Cholesterol; Inflammation; C-reactive protein; Atherosclerosis; Pigs