Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Boars with balls
    Backus, G.B.C. - \ 2018
    animal welfare - animal production - pigs - animal behaviour - animal ethics - animal health - castration
    Boars on the way : results of the 5 year Dutch research programme 'Boars heading for 2018'
    Backus, G.B.C. ; Smet, A. de; Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Valeeva, N.I. ; Tacken, G.M.L. ; Kornelis, M. ; Snoek, H.M. ; Broek, E.M.F. van den; Immink, V.M. ; Haaster-de Winter, M.A. van; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Fels, J.B. van der; Riel, J.W. van - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 60
    varkenshouderij - vleesproductie - beren (varkens) - ketenmanagement - varkensvlees - berengeur - organoleptische kenmerken - castratie - consumentenvoorkeuren - detectie - diergedrag - dierenwelzijn - varkens - dierlijke productie - diergezondheid - pig farming - meat production - boars - supply chain management - pigmeat - boar taint - organoleptic traits - castration - consumer preferences - detection - animal behaviour - animal welfare - pigs - animal production - animal health
    The programme 'Boars Heading for 2018’ is an initiative by the Dutch pork production chain represented in the Stop Castration steering committee. The report compiles 50 individual studies from a research programme that was carried out over a five-year period (2009-2013) in the Netherlands. The main results of the research program are presented in this report. The report contains 6 chapters, each of them including several project results: 1. Setting the stage, 2. Consumer, 3. Detection, 4 Preventive measures, 5. Behaviour of boars, 6. Boar taint economics and international developments.
    Houden van biologische beren
    Vermeer, H.M. ; Houwers, H.W.J. ; Leeijen, J. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 734) - 29
    varkenshouderij - beren (varkens) - biologische landbouw - castratie - berengeur - dierenwelzijn - diergedrag - varkens - dierlijke productie - pig farming - boars - organic farming - castration - boar taint - animal welfare - animal behaviour - pigs - animal production
    Finishing entire male organic pigs on 4 farms showed that mounting and aggression were not more frequent than on conventional pig farms, but the proportion of pigs with boar taint was higher.
    Onderzoeksprogramma "Beren op de Weg"; Fokkerij - Wat kun je doen om berengeur te verlagen
    Fels, Bennie van der - \ 2013
    boars - boar taint - pig breeding - castration
    Direct and associative effects for androstenone and genetic correlations with backfat and growth in entire male pigs
    Duijvesteijn, N. ; Knol, E.F. ; Bijma, P. - \ 2012
    Journal of Animal Science 90 (2012)8. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 2465 - 2475.
    average daily gain - boar taint - multilevel selection - heritable variation - sexual-maturity - sus-scrofa - fat - castration - traits - level
    In the pig industry, male piglets are surgically castrated early in life to prevent boar taint. Boar taint is mainly caused by androstenone and skatole. Androstenone is a pheromone that can be released from the salivary glands when the boar is sexually aroused. Boars are housed in groups and as a consequence boars can influence and be influenced by the phenotype of other boars by (non-)heritable social interactions. The influence of these social interactions on androstenone is not well understood. The objective of this study is to investigate whether androstenone concentrations are affected by (non-)heritable social interactions and estimate their genetic correlation with growth rate and backfat. The dataset contained 6,245 boars, of which 4,455 had androstenone observations (68%). The average number of animals per pen was 7 and boars were housed in 899 unique pen-groups (boars within a single pen) and 344 unique compartment-groups (boars within a unique ‘room’ within a barn during time). Four models including different random effects, were compared for androstenone. Direct genetic, associative (also known as social genetic or indirect genetic effects), group, compartment, common environment and residual effects were included as random effects in the full model (M3). Including random pen and compartment effects (non-heritable social effects) significantly improved the model (M2) compared with including only direct, common environment and residual as random effects (M1, P <0.001), and including associative effects even more (M3, P <0.001). The sum of the direct and associative variance components determines the total genetic variance of the trait. The associative effect explained 11.7% of the total genetic variance. Backfat thickness was analysed using M2 and growth using M3. The genetic correlation between backfat (direct genetic variance) and total genetic variance for androstenone was close to 0. Backfat and the direct and associative effects for androstenone had genetic correlations of 0.14 ± 0.08 and -0.25 ± 0.18, respectively. The genetic correlation between total genetic variances for growth rate and androstenone was 0.33 ± 0.18. The genetic correlation between direct effects was 0.11 ± 0.09 and between associative effects was 0.42 ± 0.31. The genetic correlations and current selection towards lower backfat and greater growth rate suggest that no major change in androstenone is expected when breeding goals are not changed. For selection against boar taint and therefore also against androstenone , results recommend that at least the social environment of the boars should be considered.
    Genetic parameters for androstenone, skatole, indole, and human nose scores as measures of boar taint and their relationship with finishing traits
    Windig, J.J. ; Mulder, H.A. ; Napel, J. ten; Knol, E.F. ; Mathur, P.K. ; Crump, R.E. - \ 2012
    Journal of Animal Science 90 (2012)7. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 2120 - 2129.
    entire male pigs - young boars - pork fat - castration - level - meat
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate measures of boar (Sus scrofa) taint as potential selection criteria to reduce boar taint so that castration of piglets will become unnecessary. Therefore, genetic parameters of boar taint measures and their genetic correlations with finishing traits were estimated. In particular, the usefulness of a human panel assessing boar taint (human nose score) was compared with chemical assessment of boar taint compounds, androstenone, skatole, and indole. Heritability estimates for androstenone, skatole, and indole were 0.54, 0.41, and 0.33, respectively. The heritability for the human nose score using multiple panelists was 0.12, and ranged from 0.12 to 0.19 for individual panelists. Genetic correlations between scores of panelists were generally high up to unity. The genetic correlations between human nose scores and the boar taint compounds ranged from 0.64 to 0.999. The boar taint compounds and human nose scores had low or favorable genetic correlations with finishing traits. Selection index estimates indicated that the effectiveness of a breeding program based on human nose scores can be comparable to a breeding program based on the boar taint compounds themselves. Human nose scores can thus be used as a cheap and fast alternative for the costly determination of boar taint compounds, needed in breeding pigs without boar taint.
    Puberende beerbig soms een lastpak
    Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Vermeer, H.M. - \ 2012
    V-focus 9 (2012)5a. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 32 - 33.
    varkenshouderij - biggen - beren (varkens) - castratie - dierenwelzijn - diergedrag - seksueel gedrag - dierlijke productie - varkens - pig farming - piglets - boars - castration - animal welfare - animal behaviour - sexual behaviour - animal production - pigs
    Met het stoppen met castreren van beerbiggen wordt tegemoetgekomen aan een belangrijke maatschappelijke wens om dieren intact te houden. Tevens maken de betere technische resultaten het ook economisch aantrekkelijk. Op sommige bedrijven, waar niet meer gecastreerd wordt, blijkt er ook een keerzijde te zijn: de puberende beren blijken seksueel opdringerig en soms agressief te worden. Omdat er ook veel bedrijven zijn die succesvol beren houden, komen daarvoor binnen het lopende onderzoek ongetwijfeld heldere adviezen naar boven.
    A brief summary of European legislation regarding animal welfare
    Dwinger, R.H. ; Lambooij, E. - \ 2012
    Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift 125 (2012)7/8. - ISSN 0005-9366 - p. 297 - 304.
    castration - piglets - responses
    An overview of the current European legislation concerning animal welfare is given. The legal requirements concern the housing and care of production animals (poultry, calves and swine), the transport of animals and the killing of animals (not only in slaughterhouses, but also in case of contagious animal disease outbreaks). General information concerning the principles and contents of European pieces of legislation as well as detailed information concerning requirements for individual animal species is given. Furthermore, other elements concerning animal welfare such as castration of piglets, ritual slaughter and animals used for experimental purposes are also reviewed. Finally, some recent initiatives in the field of animal welfare are mentioned and useful links are provided for finding the various legislative acts and additional supportive information
    Illegal treatment of barrows with nandrolone ester: effect on growth, histology and residue levels in urine and hair
    Groot, M.J. ; Lasaroms, J.J.P. ; Bennekom, E.O. van; Meijer, T. ; Vinyeta, E. ; Klis, J.D. van der; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2012
    Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 29 (2012)5. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 727 - 735.
    mass-spectrometry - testosterone - castration - steroids - pigs - 19-nortestosterone - metabolism - estradiol - carcass - boars
    The effect of 17ß-19-nortestosterone (17ßNT) treatment of barrows on residue levels and growth was evaluated. Five barrows were treated three times during the fattening period with 17ßNT phenylpropionate (Nandrosol, nandrolone phenylpropionate 50¿mg/ml,1¿mg/kg body weight). Another five barrows were untreated and five boars (untreated) were kept as positive control. Boars and treated barrows showed a 13 and 9% improvement in growth compared to untreated barrows, with mean final body weights of 121.6, 117.8 and 109.0¿kg, respectively. The bulbourethral glands of the treated barrows were three times heavier than untreated barrows. The histology of the prostate and bulbourethral gland of the treated barrows was comparable to the boars, whereas the control barrows showed atrophic glands. Levels of 17ßNT ester in hair from treated barrows were high, whereas boars and untreated barrows did not show levels above LLQ. It is concluded that analysis of hair can detect illegal treatment with 17ßNT ester in barrows. The size of the bulbourethral gland can also be used for screening in the slaughterhouse.
    Maatregelen die het ongewenst gedrag van beren verminderen = Reducing male finishing pig behaviour by management measures
    Vermeer, H.M. ; Dirx-Kuijken, N.C.P.M.M. ; Houwers, H.W.J. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der - \ 2011
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 466) - 20
    varkenshouderij - beren (varkens) - castratie - diergedrag - agressief gedrag - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - varkens - diergezondheid - pig farming - boars - castration - animal behaviour - aggressive behaviour - animal welfare - animal production - pigs - animal health
    To reduce sexual behaviour and aggression in non-castrated male pigs measures were compared. Extra feeders and an obstacle in the pen reduced skin lesions and lameness.
    Angst voor berengeur bijna verleden tijd : dier & welzijn
    Backus, G.B.C. - \ 2011
    V-focus 8 (2011)5A. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 24 - 25.
    varkenshouderij - castratie - beren (varkens) - berengeur - dierenwelzijn - fokkerijmethoden - pig farming - castration - boars - boar taint - animal welfare - animal breeding methods
    Europa wil af van het castreren van beerbiggen per 2018. Voor Nederland is dit al grotendeels een feit: ruim 80 procent van het verkochte berenvlees komt van niet-gecastreerde dieren. Buitenlandse afzetpartijen durven het echter nog niet aan om nu al berenvlees in het schap te leggen vanwege de kans op berengeur. Volgens Gé Backus van LEI Wageningen UR is het in de nabije toekomst mogelijk om te stoppen met castratie zonder angst voor berengeur. In het afgelopen jaar zijn daartoe grote stappen gezet.
    Verdoofd castreren in de praktijk
    Kluivers-Poodt, M. ; Lambooij, E. - \ 2011
    Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 136 (2011)6. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 426 - 427.
    varkenshouderij - varkens - biggen - castratie - bedwelmen - anesthesie - dierenwelzijn - pig farming - pigs - piglets - castration - stunning - anaesthesia - animal welfare
    In 2008 is in de Nederlandse varkenssector het verdoofd castreren van biggen geïntroduceerd. Deze introductie is voorafgegaan door wetenschappelijk onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden en effecten van lokale en algehele anesthesie bij de castratie van biggen. Algehele anesthesie met een combinatie van CO2 en zuurstof bleek effectief om de pijn tijdens het castratie weg te nemen. Op basis van deze uitkomst en enkele praktische aspecten (kosten, veiligheid, toediening van anesthesie door varkenshouders) heeft de begeleidingsgroep van het onderzoek daarop besloten deze methode praktijkrijp te maken. In deze begeleidingsgroep waren niet alleen de sector en het ministerie van landbouw vertegenwoordigd, maar nadrukkelijk ook CBL, Dierenbescherming en KNMVD.
    Big castreren hoeft niet meer
    Backus, G.B.C. - \ 2010
    Kennis Online 7 (2010)nov. - p. 8 - 8.
    varkenshouderij - voersamenstelling - berengeur - detectie - castratie - pig farming - feed formulation - boar taint - detection - castration
    Een slimme combinatie van vader- en moederlijnen kan berengeur bij mannelijke vleesvarkens sterk verminderen. Ook een andere voersamenstelling helpt. Dat blijkt uit onderzoek van Gé Backus van het LEI, Wageningen UR Livestock Research en het Institute for Pig Genetics.
    Verdoofd castreren - evaluatie van de Verklaring van Noordwijk
    Baltussen, W.H.M. ; Winter, M.A. de; Kluivers-Poodt, M. - \ 2009
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 3, Consumenten en ketens ) - ISBN 9789086153725 - 43
    varkenshouderij - varkens - biggen - castratie - dierenwelzijn - pig farming - pigs - piglets - castration - animal welfare
    At the request of the parties that have signed the Declaration of Noordwijk (Verklaring van Noordwijk), LEI and Livestock Research, parts of Wageningen UR, have carried out an evaluation into on the one hand the current situation relating to the agreements made in the Declaration and on the other hand the experiences of sow farmers with the castration of piglets under anaesthetic. The evaluation was carried out on the basis of interviews, questionnaires, group sessions and farm visits. Recommendations have been drawn up for the participating parties
    Vleesafzet van biologische beren : een opiniepeiling in Duitsland en het Verenigd Koninkrijk
    Hoste, R. ; Baltussen, W.H.M. ; Oosterkamp, E.B. - \ 2009
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR : Werkveld 3, Consumenten en ketens ) - ISBN 9789086153589 - 24
    biologische landbouw - varkenshouderij - beren (varkens) - castratie - vleeskwaliteit - export - houding van consumenten - dierenwelzijn - biologische voedingsmiddelen - markten - duitsland - verenigd koninkrijk - organic farming - pig farming - boars - castration - meat quality - exports - consumer attitudes - animal welfare - organic foods - markets - germany - uk
    The organic pig sector in the Netherlands wants to put an end to the castration of boar piglets as soon as possible. Since the Netherlands exports organic meat, it is important to be aware of the attitude of buyers abroad with regard to meat from intact male pigs. This small-scale opinion poll provides insight into this.
    Castratie : via verdoofd naar volledig stoppen
    Backus, G.B.C. - \ 2009
    V-focus 6 (2009)5. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 38 - 39.
    varkenshouderij - varkens - biggen - castratie - berengeur - detectie - onderzoekers - particuliere sector - dierenwelzijn - dierenbescherming - pig farming - pigs - piglets - castration - boar taint - detection - research workers - private sector - animal welfare - animal protection
    In november 2007 ondertekenden CBL, COV, LTO en NVV de Verklaring van Noordwijk: uiterlijk 2015 stopt Nederland met het castreren van biggen. Het ministerie van LNV en de Dierenbescherming ondersteunen deze ambitie. Nu hebben we nog ongeveer vijf jaar te gaan tot dat moment. In een Europese samenwerking werkt Wageningen UR onder leiding van Gé Backus samen met het bedrijfsleven en andere kennisinstellingen aan het terugdringen van berengeur
    De Hoeve zet trend naar niet-castreren
    Lauwere, C.C. de; Bikker, A.M. - \ 2009
    Syscope Magazine 2009 (2009)22. - p. 23 - 26.
    varkens - dierenwelzijn - castratie - beren (varkens) - innovaties - systeeminnovatie - pigs - animal welfare - castration - boars - innovations - system innovation
    Samenwerkingsverband De Hoeve laat zien hoe een bedreiging voor de varkenssector is om te zetten in een kans. Een vooruitstrevende visie, een continue drive om te innoveren en het binden van medestanders blijken belangrijke succesfactoren te zijn, leert een analyse
    Moving towards boar taint-free meat: an overview of alternatives to surgical castration from a chain perspective
    Valeeva, N.I. ; Backus, G.B.C. ; Baltussen, W.H.M. - \ 2009
    varkenshouderij - dierenwelzijn - beren (varkens) - berengeur - castratie - varkensvlees - alternatieve methoden - pig farming - animal welfare - boars - boar taint - castration - pigmeat - alternative methods
    The objective of this study is to review important issues in boar taint prevention without surgical castration, namely alternatives to surgical castration, factors influencing boar taint development and economic considerations associated with the presently feasible alternatives to surgical castration. The paper looks at these issues from the pig production chain perspective and suggests a framework for the analysis of boar taint prevention without surgical castration within the whole-chain context
    Use of CO2-anesthesia in practice
    Kluivers, M. - \ 2008
    Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 133 (2008)19. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 811 - 812.
    varkenshouderij - biggen - castratie - bedwelmen - anesthesie - kooldioxide - pig farming - piglets - castration - stunning - anaesthesia - carbon dioxide
    In dit artikel wordt een toelichting gegeven op de gasverdovingsmethode, die in Nederland door varkenshouders gebruikt gaat worden om biggen verdoofd te castreren. Het onderzoek wordt belicht, waaruit deze methode is ontstaan, naast de praktische aspecten, die voor varkenshouders en de begeleidend dierenarts van belang zijn
    'Niet meer castreren was een goed besluit'
    Noorduyn, L. - \ 2008
    Syscope Magazine 2008 (2008)20. - p. 6 - 7.
    dierenwelzijn - castratie - beren (varkens) - certificering - innovaties - animal welfare - castration - boars - certification - innovations
    Voorop lopen is noodzaak, vindt varkenshouder Hans Verhoeven. Hij is voorzitter van De Hoeve, een samenwerkingsverband van varkensvleesproducenten. Hij was dan ook de eerste in Nederland met een Milieukeur voor varkensvlees en de eerste die stopte met het castreren van beerbiggen
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