Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Saturated areas through the lens: 1. Spatio-temporal variability of surface saturation documented through thermal infrared imagery
    Antonelli, Marta ; Glaser, Barbara ; Teuling, Adriaan J. ; Klaus, Julian ; Pfister, Laurent - \ 2020
    Hydrological Processes (2020). - ISSN 0885-6087
    catchment hydrology - ground-based thermal infrared imagery - intracatchment variability - remote sensing - riparian processes - surface saturation dynamics - surface saturation mapping

    Surface saturated areas are key features in generating run-off. A detailed characterization of the expansion and contraction of surface saturation in riparian zones and its connectivity to the stream is fundamental to improve our understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of streamflow generation processes. In this first contribution of a series of two papers, we used ground-based thermal infrared imagery for characterizing riparian surface saturation seasonal dynamics of seven different riparian areas in the Weierbach catchment (0.42 km2), a small forested catchment in Luxembourg. We collected biweekly panoramic images of the seven areas over a period of 2 years. We identified the extension of saturation in each collected panoramic image (i.e., percentage of pixels corresponding to saturated surfaces in each riparian area) to generate time series of surface saturation. Riparian surface saturation in all areas was seasonally variable, and its dynamics were in accordance with lower hillslope groundwater level fluctuations. Surface saturation in the different areas related to catchment outlet discharge through power law relationships. Differences in these relationships for different areas could be associated with the location of the areas along the stream network and to a possible influence of local riparian morphology on the development of surface saturation, suggesting a certain degree of intracatchment heterogeneity. This study paves the way for a subsequent investigation of the spatio-temporal variability of streamflow generation in the catchment, presented in our second contribution.

    Saturated areas through the lens: 2. Spatio-temporal variability of streamflow generation and its relationship with surface saturation
    Antonelli, Marta ; Glaser, Barbara ; Teuling, Adriaan J. ; Klaus, Julian ; Pfister, Laurent - \ 2019
    Hydrological Processes (2019). - ISSN 0885-6087
    catchment hydrology - hydrological connectivity - intracatchments variability - riparian processes - stream network dynamics - streamflow generation - surface saturation dynamics - topographic controls

    Investigating the spatio-temporal variability of streamflow generation is fundamental to interpret the hydrological and biochemical functioning of catchments. In humid temperate environments, streamflow generation is often linked to the occurrence of near stream surface saturated areas, which mediate hydrological connectivity between hillslopes and streams. In this second contribution of a series of two papers, we used salt dilution gauging to investigate the spatio-temporal variability of streamflow in different subcatchments and for different reaches in the Weierbach catchment (0.42 km2) and explored the topographical controls on streamflow variability. Moreover, we mapped stream network expansion and contraction dynamics. Finally, we combined the information on the spatio-temporal variability of streamflow with the characterization of riparian surface saturation dynamics of seven different areas within the catchment (mapped with thermal infrared imagery, as presented in our first manuscript). We found heterogeneities in the streamflow contribution from different portions of the catchment. Although the size of the contributing area could explain differences in subcatchments' and reaches' net discharge, no clear topographic controls could be found when considering the area-normalized discharge. This suggests that some local conditions exert control on the variability of specific discharge (e.g., local bedrock characteristics and occurrence of perennial springs). Stream network dynamics were found not to be very responsive to changes in catchment's discharge (i.e., total active stream length vs. stream outlet discharge relationship could be described through a power law function with exponent = 0.0195). On the contrary, surface saturation dynamics were found to be in agreement with the level of streamflow contribution from the correspondent reach in some of the investigated riparian areas. This study represents an example of how the combination of different techniques can be used to characterize the internal heterogeneity of the catchment and thus improve our understanding of how hydrological connectivity is established and streamflow is generated.

    Winter hydrology and soil erosion processes in an agricultural catchment in Norway
    Starkloff, Torsten - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): C.J. Ritsema, co-promotor(en): J. Stolte; R. Hessel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432207 - 154
    catchment hydrology - erosion - winter - snow - norway - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - erosie - winter - sneeuw - noorwegen

    In regions with a Nordic climate, soil erosion rates in winter and early spring can exceed those occurring during other seasons of the year. In this context, this study was initiated to improve our understanding of the interaction between agricultural soils and occurring winter conditions. The main objective was to better understand how hydrological processes in a catchment are influenced by snow, ice, and freeze-thaw cycles of soils, leading to runoff and soil erosion in winter and spring conditions.

    For this purpose, detailed spatially and temporally distributed measurements and observations in a small catchment in Norway were executed during three consecutive winter/spring periods. During the winter/spring periods of 2013-2014, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016, soil water content, soil temperature, and snow cover properties were measured. In addition, numerous soil samples were taken to determine the soil hydraulic characteristics of the investigated soils and to quantify the changes in their macropore networks due to freeze-thaw events, using X-ray imaging.

    With the collected data and deduced process understanding, it was possible to model and quantify the spatial and temporal development of snow packs. Furthermore, the field observations revealed how the interaction of tillage, state of the soils and snow cover at a certain time can lead to none or extensive surface runoff and soil erosion.

    Integrating acquired data, observations and process knowledge facilitated advances in simulating and quantifying surface runoff and soil erosion rates across the catchment under investigation. The models applied and the maps and output derived are crucial elements for presenting current state and problems in the catchment to stakeholders (such as farmers), providing a starting point for discussing ways to prevent and reduce further runoff and erosion. For model calibration and validation, including interpretation of modelling results, good knowledge of the area and availability of detailed data are essential, especially when processes such as freezing-thawing of soils and ice layer and snow-pack dynamics have to be considered also.

    In order to reduce runoff and soil erosion during winter and snowmelt conditions in the future, more targeted research is required in order to address the full range of existing knowledge gaps in this field, as identified in this particular study also.

    De Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS): een snel neerslag-afvoermodel speciaal voor laaglandstroomgebieden
    Brauer, C.C. ; Torfs, P.J.J.F. ; Teuling, A.J. ; Uijlenhoet, R. - \ 2016
    Stromingen : vakblad voor hydrologen 22 (2016)1. - ISSN 1382-6069 - p. 7 - 18.
    neerslag - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - modellen - afvoerwater - laaglandgebieden - stroomgebieden - grondwater - oppervlaktewater - kwel - reservoirs - droogte - risicoanalyse - precipitation - catchment hydrology - models - effluents - lowland areas - watersheds - groundwater - surface water - seepage - reservoirs - drought - risk analysis
    De Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS) is een nieuw neerslag-afvoermodel dat het gat moet vullen tussen complexe, ruimtelijk gedistribueerde modellen die vaak gebruikt worden in laaglandstroomgebieden en simpele, ruimtelijk geïntegreerde, parametrische modellen die voornamelijk zijn ontwikkeld voor hellende stroomgebieden. WALRUS houdt expliciet rekening met hydrologische processen die belangrijk zijn in laaglandgebieden, in het bijzonder (1) de koppeling tussen grondwater en onverzadigde zone, (2) vochttoestandafhankelijke stroomroutes, (3) grondwater-oppervlaktewaterterugkoppeling en (4) kwel, wegzijging en het inlaten of wegpompen van oppervlaktewater. WALRUS bestaat uit een gekoppeld reservoir voor grondwater en onverzadigde zone, een reservoir voor snelle stroomroutes en een oppervlaktewaterreservoir. Het is geschikt voor operationele toepassingen omdat het efficiënt rekent en numeriek stabiel is. In de vrij toegankelijke modelcode zijn standaardrelaties geïmplementeerd, zodat er slechts vier parameters overblijven die gekalibreerd hoeven te worden. Het model is geschikt voor het operationeel simuleren van hoogwater en droogte ten behoeve van risico-analyses en scenario-analyses, voor het ontwerpen van infrastructuur en voor het aanvullen van ontbrekende gegevens in afvoermeetreeksen
    Assessing groundwater potentials use for expanding irrigation in the Buriti Vermehlo Watershed
    Wendt, Doris ; Rodrigues, Lineu Neiva ; Dijksma, R. ; Dam, J.C. van - \ 2015
    Irriga: Brazilian Journal of Irrigation and Drainage 1 (2015)2. - ISSN 1413-7895 - p. 81 - 94.
    base flow recession - catchment hydrology - hydrogeology - crop water productivity
    In Brazil, the increasing middle class has raised food demand substantially. The Brazilian Savannah (Cerrados) is one of the rare places where agriculture can expand and address this new demand without jeopardizing the environment. Cerrados has a strictly divided dry and wet season. The dry season lasts from May to September. This long period contributes to various problems such as water shortages, conflicts and insecure food production. Without irrigation, only two crops can be grown per year in this region. Production suffers with a recurrent drought. Because agricultural production is uncertain, irrigation has an important role in this context, but its expansion is limited by water availability. Water conflicts have already occurred in some watersheds, which may jeopardize agriculture and decrease the livelihood of rural communities. In general, water for irrigation is limited to surface water. Therefore, it is important to investigate alternative sources of water, like groundwater. The purpose of this study is to assess the groundwater potential for expanding the irrigated area in a small-scale catchment (Buriti Vermelho, DF, Brazil). The current water demand was investigated and simulated by an Irrigation Strategies Simulation Model (MSEI). A daily water balance was computed, which quantified catchment storage over time. In addition, groundwater behavior and availability were investigated by recession curve analysis. The irrigated area was changed using two scenarios that showed different effects in both catchment surface water balance and groundwater levels. A decline in groundwater levels is seen in all scenarios one year after the beginning of extra extraction. With time, water levels may decline beyond the natural recovery capacity, which will certainly penalize poorer farmers and result in areas being taken out of agricultural production.
    ESF stromende wateren en stroomgebiedsbrede ecologische systeemanalyse
    Verdonschot, P.F.M. ; Verdonschot, R.C.M. ; Besse-Lototskaya, A.A. - \ 2015
    H2O online (2015)28 augustus.
    hydrologie van stroomgebieden - kaderrichtlijn water - watersystemen - ecologische beoordeling - macrofauna - nutriëntenstromen - catchment hydrology - water framework directive - water systems - ecological assessment - nutrient flows
    Het halen van de doelen van de Kaderrichtlijn water (KRW) verloopt moeizaam, deels doordat de aanpak vaak te kleinschalig is en niet integraal. Stroomgebiedsbrede ecologische systeemanalyse (SESA) kan helpen bij het doorgronden van het ecologisch functioneren van watersystemen. Dat gaat uit van haalbare doelen en ondersteunt bij het afwegen van de verschillende gebruiksfuncties die oppervlaktewateren vervullen. Door de ecologische sleutel-, stress- en stuurfactoren aan elkaar te koppelen en te integreren in de stroomgebiedsbrede ecologische systeemanalyse ontstaat een integrale benadering die leidt tot doelgerichte maatregelen en een succesvollere aanpak van de KRW-waterproblematiek
    Uncertainty in the future change of extreme precipitation over the Rhine basin: the role of internal climate variability
    Pelt, S.C. van; Beersma, J.J. ; Buishand, T.A. ; Hurk, B.J.J.M. van den; Schellekens, J. - \ 2015
    Climate Dynamics 44 (2015)7. - ISSN 0930-7575 - p. 1789 - 1800.
    klimaatverandering - neerslag - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - risicoanalyse - rijn - climatic change - precipitation - catchment hydrology - risk analysis - river rhine - local precipitation - change simulations - model - temperature - quantification - frequency - ensemble - version - gcm
    Future changes in extreme multi-day precipitation will influence the probability of floods in the river Rhine basin. In this paper the spread of the changes projected by climate models at the end of this century (2081–2100) is studied for a 17-member ensemble of a single Global Climate Model (GCM) and results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) ensemble. All climate models were driven by the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario. An analysis of variance model is formulated to disentangle the contributions from systematic differences between GCMs and internal climate variability. Both the changes in the mean and characteristics of extremes are considered. To estimate variances due to internal climate variability a bootstrap method was used. The changes from the GCM simulations were linked to the local scale using an advanced non-linear delta change approach. This approach uses climate responses of the GCM to transform the daily precipitation of 134 sub-basins of the river Rhine. The transformed precipitation series was used as input for the hydrological Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning model to simulate future river discharges. Internal climate variability accounts for about 30 % of the total variance in the projected climate trends of average winter precipitation in the CMIP3 ensemble and explains a larger fraction of the total variance in the projected climate trends of extreme precipitation in the winter half-year. There is a good correspondence between the direction and spread of the changes in the return levels of extreme river discharges and extreme 10-day precipitation over the Rhine basin. This suggests that also for extreme discharges a large fraction of the total variance can be attributed to internal climate variability.
    Advies ‘Herstel Leuvenumse beek’
    Dongen, R. van; Verdonschot, P.F.M. - \ 2014
    Driebergen : Bosschap, bedrijfschap voor bos en natuur - 20
    waterlopen - herstel - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - maatregelen - inventarisaties - natuurgebieden - veluwe - streams - rehabilitation - catchment hydrology - measures - inventories - natural areas
    Het OBN Deskundigenteam Beekdallandschap is gevraagd advies uit te brengen over de geplande herstelmaatregelen in de Leuvenumse beek. Dit advies is verwerkt in de definitieve herstelvisie (Bell Hullenaar) en heeft ook doorgewerkt in de wijze waarop de maatregelen zullen worden uitgevoerd. Kort gezegd heeft het advies ervoor gezorgd dat het herstel van het beeksysteem op meer systematische wijze zal gaan plaatsvinden
    Hydrological drought : characterisation and representation in large-scale models
    Huijgevoort, M.H.J. van - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Remko Uijlenhoet, co-promotor(en): Henny van Lanen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739414 - 124
    hydrologie van stroomgebieden - droogte - klimaatverandering - wateropslag - scenario-analyse - modellen - europa - vs - catchment hydrology - drought - climatic change - water storage - scenario analysis - models - europe - usa
    De verwachting is dat door klimaatverandering de intensiteit van droogte zal toenemen in verschillende gebieden op de wereld. Uitkomsten van vijf hydrologische modellen in combinate met drie klimaatmodellen voor het A2 emissie scenario zijn gebruikt om effecten van klimaatverandering op hydrologische droogte te analyseren voor verschillende stroomgebieden. Droogtes en lage afvoeren (maandelijkse 20ste percentiel waarden, Q20) zijn geïdentificeerd uit de uitkomsten van de hydrologische modellen voor een historische periode (1971–2000) en een periode in de toekomst (2071–2100). De gesimuleerde lage afvoeren voor de historische periode zijn vergeleken met geobserveerde lage afvoeren van de verschillende stroomgebieden. De modelcombinaties (combinatie van een klimaatmodel en een hydrologisch model), die de beste resultaten gaven, zijn gebruikt voor verdere analyse. In koude klimaten werd een verschuiving in het hydrologische regime (de piek van sneeuwsmelt zal eerder optreden) waargenomen en een verhoging van de lage afvoeren tussen de historische periode en de periode in de toekomst. Voor aride klimaten gaven de modelcombinaties aan dat omstandigheden nog droger zullen worden in de toekomst. Voor vochtige klimaten werden zowel drogere als nattere situaties verwacht op basis van de modelcombinaties
    Modelling rainfall-runoff processes in lowland catchments
    Brauer, C.C. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Remko Uijlenhoet, co-promotor(en): Ryan Teuling. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738547 - 93
    hydrologie - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - regen - afvloeiingswater - laaglandgebieden - modelleren - nederland - hydrology - catchment hydrology - rain - runoff water - lowland areas - modeling - netherlands
    Lowland catchments can be divided into mildly sloping, freely draining catchments and flat areas with managed surface water levels. In this thesis, data from two Dutch field sites are used. The mildly sloping, freely draining Hupsel Brook catchment is located in the east of The Netherlands, with elevations ranging from 22 to 35 m above sea level. This catchment has been an experimental catchment since the 1960s. The flat Cabauw polder is located in the west of The Netherlands at an “elevation” of 1 meter below sea level. This area is part of the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR).
    Bestrijdingsmiddelen en nieuwe stoffen en in beeld gebracht voor Maasstroomgebied
    Verhagen, F. ; Kruijne, R. ; Klein, J. - \ 2014
    H2O online 2014 (2014)26 feb.
    hydrologie van stroomgebieden - waterverontreiniging - pesticiden - geneesmiddelen - inventarisaties - kaderrichtlijn water - kwaliteitsnormen - limburg - noord-brabant - zuidhollandse eilanden - catchment hydrology - water pollution - pesticides - drugs - inventories - water framework directive - quality standards
    De schadelijkheid van bestrijdingsmiddelen en nieuwe stoffen – zoals geneesmiddelen – in het water staat steeds meer in de belangstelling. Hoe groot is het probleem? Worden normen overschreden? En wat is de herkomst van de verontreiniging? Voor het Maasstroomgebied zijn deze vragen in diverse studies in beeld gebracht. Dit artikel geeft een overzicht.
    Evaluation of modeled changes in extreme precipitation in Europe and the Rhine basin
    Haren, R. van; Oldenborgh, G.J. van; Lenderink, G. ; Hazeleger, W. - \ 2013
    Environmental Research Letters 8 (2013)1. - ISSN 1748-9326
    klimaatverandering - neerslag - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - modellen - rijn - climatic change - precipitation - catchment hydrology - models - river rhine - climate-change simulations - reanalysis
    In this study, we investigate the change in multi-day precipitation extremes in late winter in Europe using observations and climate models. The objectives of the analysis are to determine whether climate models can accurately reproduce observed trends and, if not, to find the causes of the difference in trends. Similarly to an earlier finding for mean precipitation trends, and despite a lower signal to noise ratio, climate models fail to reproduce the increase in extremes in much of northern Europe: the model simulations do not cover the observed trend in large parts of this area. A dipole in the sea-level pressure trend over continental Europe causes positive trends in extremes in northern Europe and negative trends in the Iberian Peninsula. Climate models have a much weaker pressure trend dipole and as a result a much weaker ( extreme) precipitation response. The inability of climate models to correctly simulate observed changes in atmospheric circulation is also primarily responsible for the underestimation of trends in the Rhine basin. When it has been adjusted for the circulation trend mismatch, the observed trend is well within the spread of the climate model simulations. Therefore, it is important that we improve our understanding of circulation changes, in particular related to the cause of the apparent mismatch between observed and modeled circulation trends over the past century.
    Uitwerking kennisvragen pilot de Sloot in het kader van Deltaplan Agrarisch Waterbeheer
    Roelsma, J. - \ 2013
    hydrologie van stroomgebieden - landgebruik - waterkwaliteit - proefprojecten - akkerbouw - intensieve veehouderij - de peel - midden-limburg - catchment hydrology - land use - water quality - pilot projects - arable farming - intensive livestock farming
    Naar aanleiding van een tweetal zogenaamde huiskamerbijeenkomsten met grondgebruikers in het pilotgebied de Sloot zijn een aantal kennisvragen geformuleerd. Deze kennisvragen zijn via LTO aangeboden aan Alterra. Het pilotgebied de Sloot is een hydrologisch goed afgebakend stroomgebied van ruim 400 ha en ligt ten oosten van Meijel. Het gebied wordt gekenmerkt door een diversiteit aan flankerende gronden en bedrijven en het behoort tot de bovenloop van de Roggelsebeek.
    Basisafvoer van de Baakse beek : onderzoek naar perspectieven voor aquatische natuur in een laaglandbeek
    Jansen, P.C. ; Massop, H.T.L. ; Houten, G.J. van den; Klutman, W.A.J. ; Bakx, W. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra rapport 2383) - 101
    waterlopen - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - droogte - waterstroming - historische ecologie - hydrologie - achterhoek - streams - catchment hydrology - drought - water flow - historical ecology - hydrology
    Een groot aantal van de oppervlaktewateren binnen het beheergebied van waterschap Rijn en IJssel heeft binnen de Kader Richtlijn Water de typering langzaam stromende midden- en benedenloop op zand (R5) gekregen. Vanuit ecologisch oogpunt houdt dat in dat er ook in droge perioden stroming in de waterloop moet plaatsvinden. Het waterschap wil weten hoe groot deze zogenaamde basisafvoer vroeger was en wat de invloed van latere antropogene ingrepen op de basisafvoer is geweest. Het moet antwoord geven op de vraag of een herstel van de basisafvoer een reële optie is. Het stroomgebied van de Baakse beek is door het waterschap aangewezen om daar onderzoek naar te doen.
    The simultaneous occurrence of surge and discharge extremes for the Rhine delta
    Kew, S.F. ; Selten, F.M. ; Lenderink, G. ; Hazeleger, W. - \ 2013
    Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 13 (2013). - ISSN 1561-8633 - p. 2017 - 2029.
    afvoer - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - hydrologie - rijn - klimaatverandering - discharge - catchment hydrology - hydrology - river rhine - climatic change - climate
    The low-lying Netherlands is at risk from multiple threats of sea level rise, storm surges and extreme river discharges. Should these occur simultaneously, a catastrophe will be at hand. Knowledge about the likelihood of simultaneous occurrence or the so-called "compound effect" of such threats is essential to provide guidance on legislation for dike heights, flood barrier design and water management in general. In this study, we explore the simultaneous threats of North Sea storm surges and extreme Rhine river discharge for the current and future climate in a large 17-member global climate model ensemble. We use a simple approach, taking proxies of north-northwesterly winds over the North Sea and multiple~day precipitation averaged over the Rhine basin for storm surge and discharge respectively, so that a sensitivity analysis is straightforward to apply. By investigating soft extremes, we circumvent the need to extrapolate the data and thereby permit the model's synoptic development of the extreme events to be inspected. Our principle finding based on the climate model data is that, for the current climate, the probability of extreme surge conditions following extreme 20-day precipitation sums is around 3 times higher than that estimated from treating extreme surge and discharge probabilities as independent, as previously assumed. For the future climate (2070–2100), the assumption of independence cannot be rejected, at least not for precipitation sums exceeding 7 days.
    On the propagation of drought : how climate and catchment characteristics influence hydrological drought development and recovery
    Loon, A.F. van - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Remko Uijlenhoet, co-promotor(en): Henny van Lanen. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735010 - 196
    droogte - waterstress - waterbeheer - hydrologie - klimaat - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - stroomgebieden - modellen - drought - water stress - water management - hydrology - climate - catchment hydrology - watersheds - models

    Drought is a severe natural disaster resulting in high economic loss and huge ecological and societal impacts. In this thesis drought is defined as a period of below-normal water availability in precipitation (meteorological drought), soil moisture (soil moisture drought), or groundwater and discharge (hydrological drought), caused by natural variability in climate. Drought propagation is the change of the drought signal as it moves from anomalous meteorological conditions to a hydrological drought through the terrestrial part of the hydrological cycle. The objective of this PhD research is to investigate the processes underlying drought propagation and their relation with climate and catchment characteristics, both on the catchment scale and on the global scale.
    The catchment-scale studies are based on five headwater catchments in Europe with contrasting climate and catchment characteristics. In one of these case study areas, anthropogenic influence on the water system was significant, resulting in severe water scarcity. As I only study natural processes in this thesis, there was a need to separate drought (as defined in this thesis) from human-induced water scarcity in this case study area. I proposed an observation-modelling framework that consists of a hydrological model to simulate the ‘naturalised’ situation and an anomaly analysis method to quantify drought and water scarcity events. Both the time series and the anomaly characteristics of the ‘disturbed’ and ‘naturalised’ situation were compared to quantify human and natural influences on the hydrological system.
    After simulation of hydrometeorological variables of all case study areas with a conceptual hydrological model and drought identification with the variable threshold level method, time series and characteristics of drought events were analysed. I classified the drought events into six hydrological drought types that are the result of the interplay of temperature, precipitation, evapotranspiration and storage in different seasons. The most common hydrological drought type develops as a result of a rainfall deficit. However, in the development of the most severe hydrological drought events temperature and storage-related processes play an important role, for example through a lack of recovery of the drought.
    As I aimed to investigate drought propagation also on larger scales, I tested an ensemble mean of a number of large-scale models (both land-surface models and global hydrological models) on their ability to reproduce the drought propagation processes found in the case study areas. The large-scale models did simulate general aspects of drought propagation (e.g. fewer and longer drought events in discharge than in precipitation), but the above-mentioned effects of temperature and storage-related processes were only partly reproduced. In the large-scale model ensemble, daily runoff reacted almost immediately to changes in precipitation, resulting in important deficiencies in drought simulation in cold and semi-arid climates and regions with large storage. For the time being, this limits the use of large-scale models for the study of processes underlying drought propagation on a global scale.
    Consequently, I used a synthetic conceptual hydrological model to study drought propagation on the global scale. I focused on climate control by isolating forcing effects from effects of catchment properties. The drought characteristics (duration and deficit combined) of both soil moisture and subsurface discharge exhibited strongly non-linear patterns in seasonal climates. The non-linear effects in soil moisture drought were caused by the fact that the development of soil moisture droughts in warm seasonal climates is limited by the wilting point. Hydrological droughts in both warm and cold seasonal climates showed a strong increase of deficit with duration due to a lack of recovery in the dry season or snow season, respectively. This effect was strongest in cold seasonal climates, which indicates that for the development and recovery of within-year hydrological drought temperature is an important factor.
    The overall conclusion of this research is that, although drought is a complex, nonlinear phenomenon with drought characteristics varying with climate type and catchment characteristics, generic patterns can be derived that reflect the different hydrological processes underlying drought propagation. These processes result in different hydrological drought types that are shown to play a role both on the catchment scale and on the global scale. The non-linear effects of snow and storage-related processes on drought are not incorporated sufficiently in the currently-used large-scale models and drought indices. Possible future steps include more focus on catchment control, in particular the representation of storage, and the role of temperature and evapotranspiration. Additionally, the findings of this research can be applied to hydrological drought forecasting, prediction in ungauged basins, and prediction under global change.

    Future weather
    Lenderink, G. ; Attema, J. ; Kew, S. ; Selten, F. ; Maat, H.W. ter - \ 2012
    Utrecht : Knowledge for Climate Programme Office - ISBN 9789490070601 - 47
    klimaatverandering - neerslag - weersgegevens - scenario-analyse - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - climatic change - precipitation - weather data - scenario analysis - catchment hydrology
    The impact of climate change will manifest itself in our future weather. In the project Future Weather we investigated a number of these impact relevant weather conditions in the (present and) future climate. We focussed primarily on changes in precipitation extremes on different scales ranging from intense showers at local scales to multi-day precipitation extremes over the Rhine catchment area. On an intermediate scale, regional differences in precipitation within the Netherlands are studied. Finally, we considered a worst case scenario of a combined wind and discharge extreme.
    Gerichtere sturing van de oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit
    Roelsma, J. ; Tol - Leenders, T.P. van; Dries, A. ; Dongen, M. van - \ 2012
    H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 45 (2012)10. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 31 - 34.
    oppervlaktewater - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - fosfor - mestbeleid - eutrofiëring - interacties - grondwater - bodemwater - bodemkwaliteit - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - drenthe - surface water - surface water quality - phosphorus - manure policy - eutrophication - interactions - groundwater - soil water - soil quality - catchment hydrology - drenthe
    De fosforconcentraties in het oppervlaktewater stijgen in de door landbouw gedomineerde delen van de Drentsche Aa ondanks de flinke afname van het gebruik van meststoffen door het aangescherpte mestbeleid. In het project Monitoring Stroomgebieden is in detail gekeken naar de relatie tussen het mestbeleid en de oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit. De stijgende trend in delen van het stroomgebied van de Drentsche Aa kan worden verklaard door de toegenomen fosfaatverzadiging van de landbouwbodems in combinatie met toename van neerslag en hogere grondwaterstanden. Door bij de interpretatie van de oppervlaktewatermetingen beter gebruik te maken van de informatie uit het bodemkwaliteitsmeetnet kan zeer gericht worden gestuurd op een goede oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit.
    ACER: developing Adaptive Capacity to Extreme events in the Rhine basin
    Linde, A.H. te; Moors, E.J. ; Droogers, P. ; Bisselink, B. ; Becker, G. ; Maat, H.W. ter; Aerts, J.C.J.H. - \ 2012
    Nieuwegein : Programme Office Climate changes Spatial Planning - ISBN 9789088150395 - 52
    hydrologie van stroomgebieden - klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - rijn - scenario-analyse - waterbeheer - nederland - duitsland - frankrijk - catchment hydrology - climatic change - climate adaptation - river rhine - scenario analysis - water management - netherlands - germany - france
    Het algemene doel van het ACER project is om de gevolgen van klimaatverandering en adaptatie strategieën te onderzoeken voor het Rijnstroomgebied, zowel grensoverschrijdend in Duitsland en Frankrijk als voor het regionale waterbeheer in Nederland. ACER gebruikt een scenario analyse om effecten en oplossing te analyseren en vergelijken, onder de veronderstelling van verschillende klimaatverandering en sociaal-economische scenario’s voor 2050. Aan de basis van deze scenario aanpak staat een internationale groep van belanghebbenden en waterbeheerders uit verschillende bestuurslagen in het Rijnstroomgebied. Het is de vraag of de maatregelen die momenteel stroomopwaarts in Duitsland worden uitgevoerd positieve of negatieve effecten op de piekavoeren benedenstrooms hebben
    Future changes in extreme precipitation in the Rhine basin based on global and regional climate model simulations
    Pelt, S.C. van; Beersma, J.J. ; Buishand, T.A. ; Hurk, B.J.J.M. van den; Kabat, P. - \ 2012
    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 16 (2012)12. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 4517 - 4530.
    klimaatverandering - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - afvoer - neerslag - rijn - modellen - climatic change - catchment hydrology - discharge - precipitation - river rhine - models - generalized pareto distribution - multisite simulation - change impacts - river thames - tall tales - temperature - projections - uncertainties - ensemble - europe
    Probability estimates of the future change of extreme precipitation events are usually based on a limited number of available global climate model (GCM) or regional climate model (RCM) simulations. Since floods are related to heavy precipitation events, this restricts the assessment of flood risks. In this study a relatively simple method has been developed to get a better description of the range of changes in extreme precipitation events. Five bias-corrected RCM simulations of the 1961–2100 climate for a single greenhouse gas emission scenario (A1B SRES) were available for the Rhine basin. To increase the size of this five-member RCM ensemble, 13 additional GCM simulations were analysed. The climate responses of the GCMs are used to modify an observed (1961–1995) precipitation time series with an advanced delta change approach. Changes in the temporal means and variability are taken into account. It is found that the range of future change of extreme precipitation across the five-member RCM ensemble is similar to results from the 13-member GCM ensemble. For the RCM ensemble, the time series modification procedure also results in a similar climate response compared to the signal deduced from the direct model simulations. The changes from the individual RCM simulations, however, systematically differ from those of the driving GCMs, especially for long return periods.
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