Mapping ecosystem services: The supply and demand of flood regulation services in Europe
Sturck, J. ; Poortinga, A. ; Verburg, P.H. - \ 2014
Ecological Indicators 38 (2014). - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 198 - 211.
land-use changes - climate-change - changing climate - runoff - soil - protection - catchments - forests - areas - time
Ecosystem services (ES) feature highly distinctive spatial and temporal patterns of distribution, quantity, and flows. The flow of ecosystem goods and services to beneficiaries plays a decisive role in the valuation of ES and the successful implementation of the ES concept in environmental planning. This is particularly relevant to regulating services where demands emerge often spatially separated from supply. However, spatial patterns of both supply and demand are rarely incorporated in ES assessments on continental scales. In this paper, we present an ES modeling approach with low data demand, fit to be employed in scenario analysis and on multiple scales. We analyze flood regulation services at a European scale by explicitly addressing the spatial distribution of ES demand. A flood regulation supply indicator is developed based on scenario runs with a hydrological model in representative river catchments, incorporating detailed information on land, cover, land use and management. Land use sensitive flood damage estimates in the European Union (EU) are employed to develop a spatial indicator for flood regulation demand. Findings are transferred to the EU territory to create a map of the current supply of flood regulation and the potential supply under conditions of natural vegetation. Regions with a high capacity to provide flood regulation are mainly characterized by large patches of natural vegetation or extensive agriculture. The main factor limiting supply on a continental scale is a low water holding capacity of the soil. Flood regulation demand is highest in central Europe, at the foothills of the Alps and upstream of agglomerations. We were able to identify areas with a high potential capacity to provide flood regulation in conjunction with land use modifications. When combined with spatial patterns of current supply and demand, we could identify priority areas for investments in ES flood regulation supply through conservation and land use planning. We found that only in a fraction of the EU river catchments exhibiting a high demand, significant increases in flood regulation supply are achievable by means of land use modifications. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lumped surface and sub- surface runoff for erosion modeling within a small hilly watershed in northern Vietnam
Bui, Y.T. ; Orange, D. ; Visser, S.M. ; Hoanh, C.T. ; Laissus, M. ; Poortinga, A. ; Tran, D.T. ; Stroosnijder, L. - \ 2014
Hydrological Processes 28 (2014)6. - ISSN 0885-6087 - p. 2961 - 2974.
land-use changes - soil-erosion - sediment transport - steep slopes - sensitivity-analysis - scale - infiltration - catchments - framework - thailand
Developing models to predict on-site soil erosion and off-site sediment transport at the agricultural watershed scale represent an on-going challenge in research today. This study attempts to simulate the daily discharge and sediment loss using a distributed model that combines surface and sub-surface runoffs in a small hilly watershed (<1km(2)). The semi-quantitative model, Predict and Localize Erosion and Runoff (PLER), integrates the Manning-Strickler equation to simulate runoff and the Griffith University Erosion System Template equation to simulate soil detachment, sediment storage and soil loss based on a map resolution of 30m x 30m and over a daily time interval. By using a basic input data set and only two calibration coefficients based, respectively, on water velocity and soil detachment, the PLER model is easily applicable to different agricultural scenarios. The results indicate appropriate model performance and a high correlation between measured and predicted data with both Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (Ef) and correlation coefficient (r(2)) having values>0.9. With the simple input data needs, PLER model is a useful tool for daily runoff and soil erosion modeling in small hilly watersheds in humid tropical areas.
Integration of research advances in modelling and monitoring in support of WFD river basin management planning in the context of climate change
Quevauviller, P. ; Barceló, D. ; Beniston, M. ; Djordjevic, S. ; Harding, R.J. ; Iglesias Ludwig, R.A. ; Navarra, A. ; Navarra Ortega, A. ; Mark, O. ; Roson, R. ; Sempere Torres, D. ; Stoffel, M. ; Lanen, H.A.J. van; Werner, M. - \ 2012
Science of the Total Environment 440 (2012). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 167 - 177.
eu policy - water - europe - science - risks - catchments - impacts - africa - areas
The integration of scientific knowledge about possible climate change impacts on water resources has a direct implication on the way water policies are being implemented and evolving. This is particularly true regarding various technical steps embedded into the EU Water Framework Directive river basin management planning, such as risk characterisation, monitoring, design and implementation of action programmes and evaluation of the “good status” objective achievements (in 2015). The need to incorporate climate change considerations into the implementation of EU water policy is currently discussed with a wide range of experts and stakeholders at EU level. Research trends are also on-going, striving to support policy developments and examining how scientific findings and recommendations could be best taken on board by policy-makers and water managers within the forthcoming years. This paper provides a snapshot of policy discussions about climate change in the context of the WFD river basin management planning and specific advancements of related EU-funded research projects. Perspectives for strengthening links among the scientific and policy-making communities in this area are also highlighted.
Filling the white space on maps of European runoff trends: estimates from a multi-model ensemble
Stahl, K. ; Tallaksen, L.M. ; Hannaford, J. ; Lanen, H.A.J. van - \ 2012
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 16 (2012). - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 2035 - 2047.
north-atlantic oscillation - soil-moisture - streamflow - climate - precipitation - 20th-century - catchments - impact - flood - discharge
An overall appraisal of runoff changes at the European scale has been hindered by "white space" on maps of observed trends due to a paucity of readily-available streamflow data. This study tested whether this white space can be filled using estimates of trends derived from model simulations of European runoff. The simulations stem from an ensemble of eight global hydrological models that were forced with the same climate input for the period 1963–2000. The derived trends were validated for 293 grid cells across the European domain with observation-based trend estimates. The ensemble mean overall provided the best representation of trends in the observations. Maps of trends in annual runoff based on the ensemble mean demonstrated a pronounced continental dipole pattern of positive trends in western and northern Europe and negative trends in southern and parts of eastern Europe, which has not previously been demonstrated and discussed in comparable detail. Overall, positive trends in annual streamflow appear to reflect the marked wetting trends of the winter months, whereas negative annual trends result primarily from a widespread decrease in streamflow in spring and summer months, consistent with a decrease in summer low flow in large parts of Europe. High flow appears to have increased in rain-dominated hydrological regimes, whereas an inconsistent or decreasing signal was found in snow-dominated regimes. The different models agreed on the predominant continental-scale pattern of trends, but in some areas disagreed on the magnitude and even the direction of trends, particularly in transition zones between regions with increasing and decreasing runoff trends, in complex terrain with a high spatial variability, and in snow-dominated regimes. Model estimates appeared most reliable in reproducing observed trends in annual runoff, winter runoff, and 7-day high flow. Modelled trends in runoff during the summer months, spring (for snow influenced regions) and autumn, and trends in summer low flow were more variable – both among models and in the spatial patterns of agreement between models and the observations. The use of models to display changes in these hydrological characteristics should therefore be viewed with caution due to higher uncertainty.
Soil processes and functions in critical zone observatories: hypotheses and experimental design
Banwart, S. ; Bernasconi, S.M. ; Bloem, J. ; Blum, W. ; Ruiter, P.C. de; Gaans, P. van; Riemsdijk, W.H. van - \ 2011
Vadose Zone Journal 10 (2011)3. - ISSN 1539-1663 - p. 974 - 987.
solid-solution interface - physical quality - organic-matter - water-quality - river-basin - adsorption - catchments - (hydr)oxides - ecosystems - deposition
European Union policy on soil threats and soil protection has prioritized new research to address global soil threats. This research draws on the methodology of Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs) to focus a critical mass of international, multidisciplinary expertise at specific field sites. These CZOs were selected as part of an experimental design to study soil processes and ecosystem function along a hypothesized soil life cycle—from incipient soil formation where new parent material is being deposited, to highly degraded soils that have experienced millennia of intensive land use. Further CZOs have been selected to broaden the range of soil environments and data sets to test soil process models that represent the stages of the soil life cycle. The scientific methodology for this research focuses on the central role of soil structure and soil aggregate formation and stability in soil processes. Research methods include detailed analysis and mathematical modeling of soil properties related to aggregate formation and their relation to key processes of reactive transport, nutrient transformation, and C and food web dynamics in soil ecosystems. Within this program of research, quantification of soil processes across an international network of CZOs is focused on understanding soil ecosystem services including their quantitative monetary valuation within the soil life cycle. Further experimental design at the global scale is enabled by this type of international CZO network. One example is a proposed experiment to study soil ecosystem services along planetary-scale environmental gradients. This would allow scientists to gain insight into the responses of soil processes to increasing human pressures on Earth's critical zone that arise through rapidly changing land use and climate.
Scale effects in Hortonian surface runoff on agricultural slopes in West Africa: Field data and models
Giesen, N. van de; Stomph, T.J. ; Ajayi, A.E. ; Bagayoko, F. - \ 2011
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 142 (2011)1-2. - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 95 - 101.
soil-erosion model - overland-flow - lisem model - rainfall - length - infiltration - hillslopes - generation - management - catchments
This article provides an overview of both experimental and modeling research carried out over the past 15 years by the authors addressing scaling effects in Hortonian surface runoff. Hortonian surface runoff occurs when rainfall intensity exceeds infiltration capacity of the soil. At three sites in West Africa (Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, and Burkina Faso) runoff was measured from plots of different lengths to assess scale effects. Consistently, longer plots showed much lower runoff percentages than shorter plots. There were large variations in runoff percentages from one rainstorm to the next but there were very good correlations between plots of equal length for each single event. This strongly suggests that temporal dynamics are the cause behind the observed scale effects. In the literature, spatial variability is often proffered as explanation for such scale effects without providing a mechanism that would cause consistent reduction in runoff percentages with increasing slope length. To further examine whether temporal dynamics can indeed provide the explanation, Hortonian runoff was simulated using models with increasing levels of complexity. The simplest model was already able to reproduce the observed scale effects. Also more complex models were used that accounted explicitly for spatial variability. The conclusions remained the same regarding the role of temporal dynamics. Finally, a dimensional analysis was developed that helps predict under which circumstances one can expect scale effects similar to the ones observed in West Africa.
Large-scale river flow archives: importance, current status and future needs
Hannah, D.M. ; Demuth, S. ; Lanen, H.A.J. van; Looser, U. ; Prudhomme, C. ; Rees, R. ; Stahl, K. ; Tallaksen, L.M. - \ 2011
Hydrological Processes 25 (2011)7. - ISSN 0885-6087 - p. 1191 - 1200.
ungauged basins - europe - variability - catchments - discharge - networks - drought - regimes - runoff - trends
Improving load estimates for NO3 and P in surface waters by characterizing the concentration response to rainfall events
Rozemeijer, J.C. ; Velde, Y. van der; Geer, F.C. van; Rooij, G.H. de; Torfs, P.J.J.F. ; Broers, H.P. - \ 2010
Environmental Science and Technology 44 (2010)16. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 6305 - 6312.
field-scale - land-use - phosphorus - catchments - dynamics - management - separation - frequency - transport - nutrient
For the evaluation of action programs to reduce surface water pollution, water authorities invest heavily in water quality monitoring. However, sampling frequencies are generally insufficient to capture the dynamical behavior of solute concentrations. For this study, we used on-site equipment that performed semicontinuous (15 min interval) NO3 and P concentration measurements from June 2007 to July 2008. We recorded the concentration responses to rainfall events with a wide range in antecedent conditions and rainfall durations and intensities. Through sequential linear multiple regression analysis, we successfully related the NO3 and P event responses to high-frequency records of precipitation, discharge, and groundwater levels. We applied the regression models to reconstruct concentration patterns between low-frequency water quality measurements. This new approach significantly improved load estimates from a 20% to a 1% bias for NO3 and from a 63% to a 5% bias for P. These results demonstrate the value of commonly available precipitation, discharge, and groundwater level data for the interpretation of water quality measurements. Improving load estimates from low-frequency concentration data just requires a period of high-frequency concentration measurements and a conceptual, statistical, or physical model for relating the rainfall event response of solute concentrations to quantitative hydrological changes
Diffuse Phosphorus Models in the United States and Europe: Their Usages, Scales, and Uncertainties
Radcliffe, D.E. ; Freer, J. ; Schoumans, O.F. - \ 2009
Journal of Environmental Quality 38 (2009)5. - ISSN 0047-2425 - p. 1956 - 1967.
intensively farmed grasslands - stream water phosphorus - surface-applied manures - agricultural watersheds - soil-phosphorus - spatial variability - dynamic topmodel - risk-assessment - catchments - river
Today there are many well-established computer models that are being used at different spatial and temporal scales to describe water, sediment, and P transport from diffuse sources. In this review, we describe how diffuse P models are commonly being used in the United States and Europe, the challenge presented by different temporal and spatial scales, and the uncertainty in model predictions. In the United States for water bodies that do not meet water quality standards, a total maximum daily load (TMDL) of the Pollutant of concern must be set that will restore water quality and a plan implemented to reduce the pollutant load to meet the TMDL. Models are used to estimate the current maximum daily and annual average load, to estimate the contribution from different nonpoint sources, and to develop scenarios for achieving the TMDL target. In Europe, the EC-Water Framework Directive is the driving force to improve water quality and models are playing a similar role to that in the United States, but the models being used are not the same. European models are more likely to take into account leaching of P and the identification of critical source areas. Scaling up to the watershed scale has led to overparameterized models that cannot be used to test hypotheses regarding nonpoint sources of P or transport processes using the monitoring data that is typically available. There is a need for more parsimonious models and monitoring data that takes advantage of the technological improvements that allow nearly continuous sampling for P and sediment. Tools for measuring model uncertainty must become an integral part of models and be readily available for model users.
Exploring industry specific social welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement in linked terrestrial and marine ecosystems
Roebeling, P.C. ; Hendrix, E.M.T. ; Grieken, M.E. van - \ 2009
Journal of Coastal Research 2009 (2009)SI 56. - ISSN 0749-0208 - p. 1681 - 1685.
coastal ecosystems - coral-reefs - baltic sea - land - catchments - management - runoff
Marine ecosystems are severely affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments, while these ecosystems are of vital importance from an environmental as well as an economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance the marginal costs from coastal catchment water pollution abatement and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution abatement costs are, however, not equal across industries and, consequently, the question arises to what extent marine water quality improvement can efficiently be pursued across industries. In this paper we develop an optimal control approach to explore, analytically as well as quantitatively, social welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement across industries. For a case study of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN) water pollution in the Great Barrier Reef region of Australia, water pollution abatement cost functions for two agricultural industries are estimated to, in turn, explore social welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement per industry. Results for the Tully-Murray catchment show that DIN water pollution can be reduced by about 25% through the adoption of win-win management practices in the sugarcane industry. However, when taking into account the benefits from reduced DIN water pollution in the downstream marine environment, this study shows that maximum social welfare gains can be obtained by reducing DIN water pollution through a reduction in the agricultural production area in combination with the adoption of lose-win management practices in the sugarcane as well as the grazing industry.
Phosphorus losses from agricultural areas in river basins; effects and uncertainties of targeted mitigation measures
Kronvang, B. ; Bechmann, M. ; Lundekvam, H. ; Behrendt, H. ; Rubaek, G.H. ; Schoumans, O.F. ; Syversen, N. ; Andersen, H.E. ; Hoffmann, C.C. - \ 2005
Journal of Environmental Quality 34 (2005)6. - ISSN 0047-2425 - p. 2129 - 2144.
buffer zones - particulate phosphorus - nutrient management - subsurface drainage - watershed scale - riparian areas - arable land - sediment - danish - catchments
In this paper we show the quantitative and relative importance of phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural areas within European river basins and demonstrate the importance of P pathways, linking agricultural source areas to surface water at different scales. Agricultural P losses are increasingly important for the P concentration in most European rivers, lakes, and estuaries, even though the quantity of P lost from agricultural areas in European catchments varies at least one order of magnitude (<0.2 kg P ha(-1) to > 2.1 kg P ha(-1)). We focus on the importance of P for the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive and discuss the benefits, uncertainties, and side effects of the different targeted mitigation measures that can be adopted to combat P losses from agricultural areas in river basins. Experimental evidence of the effects of some of the main targeted mitigation measures hitherto implemented is demonstrated, including: (i) soil tillage changes, (ii) treatment of soils near ditches and streams with iron to reduce P transport from source areas to surface waters, (iii) establishment of buffer zones for retaining P from surface runoff, (iv) restoration of river-floodplain systems to allow natural inundation of riparian areas and deposition of P, and (v) inundation of riparian areas with tile drainage water for P retention. Furthermore, we show how river basin managers can map and analyze the extent and importance of P risk areas, exemplified by four catchments differing in size in Norway, Denmark, and the Netherlands. Finally, we discuss the factors and mechanisms that may delay and/or counteract the responses of mitigation measures for combating P losses from agricultural areas when monitored at the catchment scale.
Prediction of flow characteristics using multiple regression and neural networks: A case study in Zimbabwe
Mazvimavi, D. ; Meijerink, A.M.J. ; Savenije, H.H.G. ; Stein, A. - \ 2005
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 30 (2005)11-16. - ISSN 1474-7065 - p. 639 - 647.
regionalization - water - basin - descriptors - parameters - catchments - runoff
The feasibility of predicting flow characteristics from basin descriptors using multiple regression and neural networks has been investigated on 52 basins in Zimbabwe. Flow characteristics considered were average annual runoff, base flow index, flow duration curve, and average monthly runoff . Mean annual runoff is predicted using linear equations from mean annual precipitation, basin slope, and proportion of a basin underlain by granite and gneiss. A multiple regression equation is derived to predict the base flow index from mean annual precipitation, slope, and proportion of a basin with grasslands. Findings indicate that a neural network predicts the base flow index with comparable accuracy to multiple regression. Differences in lithology and land cover type were not significant in explaining the base flow index. An exponential model was able to describe flow duration curves, and coefficients of this model could be predicted from the base flow index. Best predictions of flow duration curves were made by a neural network from base flow index, slope, and proportion of a basin with grasslands. The distribution of mean annual runoff into monthly flows was predicted by a neural network from base flow index, slope, and proportion of a basin with grasslands. The study found the base flow index to be important for predicting flow characteristics, and recommends studies aimed at improving prediction of the base flow index.
Restricting layers, flow paths, and correlation between duration of soil saturation and soil morphological features along a hillslope with an altered soil water regime in western Victoria
Brouwer, J. ; Fitzpatrick, R.W. - \ 2002
Australian Journal of Soil Research 40 (2002)6. - ISSN 0004-9573 - p. 927 - 946.
quantitative relationships - degraded landscapes - dundas tableland - dryland salinity - color patterns - indiana soils - australia - terrain - groundwater - catchments
This paper is the second of two describing how soil macromorphological and chemical data can be combined with soil hydrological data to distinguish between, and to quantify, past and present hydrological processes relevant to waterlogging and dryland salinity. The first paper provides a methodological framework for the study, and describes the initial interpretation of the macromorphological features of the toposequence studied, using the soil feature-system-domain grouping method. This second paper deals with the added value of extensive piezometric and other hydrological observations relative to soil macromorphological studies, and with quantitative relationships between soil colour and duration of waterlogging. As with the first paper, this paper focuses on a soil toposequence at Gatum on the eastern Dundas Tableland in western Victoria. For the the broad crest with yellow gradational soils or Dermosols (Plinthoxeralfs), the hydrological data confirmed the conclusion from macromorphological observations that: (1) There are three levels at which downward flow of water is restricted: at the top of the largely unaltered mottled zone, that is at 0.8-1.0 m depth, well below the top of the yellow Bt1-horizon (fresh water); at the top of the pallid zone, at about 3-3.5 m depth (fresh water); and on top of the unweathered ignimbrite (saline water). (2) Below about 30 mm depth, down at least as far as 2.0 m and sometimes even more, the major pathways for downward movement of water are indeed root channels, with or without live roots, and not interpedal cracks. The 3-dimensional spacing of the rootholes above and through the less-permeable mottled zone, and the (horizontal) conductivity, storage capacity, and thickness of overlying horizons determine the extent of ponding, runoff, and deep infiltration taking place. In addition, the hydrological observations showed that: (3) If rainfall is regular, well-spaced, and not excessive, ponding is unlikely to take place even where there is a rainfall surplus and there are layers restricting downward flow of water. Furthermore, along the toposequence with yellow duplex soils or Dermosols, Chromosols, and Hydrosols, (4) There were generally good correlations between duration of saturation at the bottom of the E-horizon and colour aspects of the E-horizon (value and chroma of the matrix) and of the B2-horizon (hue, value, and chroma of the matrix). Based on these findings additional suggestions are made for improving identification and management of water logging and salinisation processes