De PerceelVerdeler: optimaal verdelen van de beschikbare mest op het melkveebedrijf
Oenema, Jouke ; Verloop, Koos ; Hilhorst, Gerjan - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Koeien & Kansen 78) - 25
melkvee - melkveehouderij - rundveemest - kunstmeststoffen - ruimtelijke verdeling - dairy cattle - dairy farming - cattle manure - fertilizers - spatial distribution
Het verlagen van de TAN-excretie als maatregel om de ammoniakemissie op het melkveebedrijf te verminderen : methodiek voor het vaststellen van de TAN-excretie: module ‘Bedrijfsspecifieke Emissie Ammoniak’ (BEA) van de Kringloopwijzer
Šebek, L. ; Migchels, G. ; Dijk, C. van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1020) - 33
melkvee - melkveehouderij - ammoniakemissie - emissiereductie - rundveevoeding - rundveemest - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - dairy cattle - dairy farming - ammonia emission - emission reduction - cattle feeding - cattle manure - farm management
Mosquera, J. ; Philipsen, B. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 983) - 23
melkkoeien - melkvee - begrazing - ammoniakemissie - rundveemest - rundveeteelt - dairy cows - dairy cattle - grazing - ammonia emission - cattle manure - cattle farming
Grazing is a possible measure within PAS (Programmatic Approach Nitrogen) to reduce ammonia emissions from cattle farming (PAS 2015.08.02). In order to be applied, all dairy cows should be grazing for at least 720 hours per year. This measure is being assigned an ammonia emission reduction of 5%. The purpose of this desk study is to identify and quantify the effect of grazing on the ammonia emission from/in perspective of the whole manure chain for different grazing strategies.
Methodology for estimating emissions from agriculture in the Netherlands. : Calculations of CH4, NH3, N2O, NOx, PM10, PM2.5 and CO2 with the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA)
Vonk, J. ; Bannink, A. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Luesink, H.H. ; Oude Voshaar, S.V. ; Sluis, S.M. ; Velthof, G.L. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 53) - 164
air pollutants, greenhouse gases, livestock, crops, animal housing, manure storage, manure application, inorganic fertilizer, enteric fermentation, manure management, agricultural soils, liming, NIR, CRF, IIR, NFR - landbouw - gewassen - landbouwgronden - vee - huisvesting, dieren - dierlijke meststoffen - rundveemest - mestverwerking - begrazing - broeikasgassen - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - emissie - ammoniakemissie - kooldioxide - methaan - anorganische meststoffen - fermentatie - bekalking - nederland - compost - rioolslib - teelt - oogstresten - rijp worden - agriculture - crops - agricultural soils - livestock - animal housing - animal manures - cattle manure - manure treatment - grazing - greenhouse gases - air pollutants - emission - ammonia emission - carbon dioxide - methane - inorganic fertilizers - fermentation - liming - netherlands - composts - sewage sludge - cultivation - crop residues - ripening
The National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA) is used to calculate emissions to air from agricultural activities in the Netherlands on a national scale. Emissions of ammonia (NH3) and other N-compounds (NOx and N2O) from animal housing, manure storage, manure application and grazing are assessed using a Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen (TAN) flow model. Furthermore, emissions from application of inorganic N-fertilizer, compost and sewage sludge, cultivation of organic soils, crop residues, and ripening of crops are calculated. NEMA is also used to estimate emissions of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and manure management, particulate matter (PM) from manure management and agricultural soils, and carbon dioxide
(CO2) from liming. Emissions are calculated in accordance with international guidance criteria and reported in an annual Informative Inventory Report (IIR; for air pollutants) and National Inventory Report (NIR; for greenhouse gases). This methodology report describes the outline and backgrounds of the emission
calculations with NEMA
Forfaitaire waarden met betrekking tot de veestapel in relatie tot de KringloopWijzer
Aarts, H.F.M. ; Sebek, L.B. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Plant Research International (PRI-rapport 636) - 17
melkproductie - melkveehouderij - mestbeleid - modellen - berekening - dierlijke meststoffen - rundveemest - excretie - stikstof - fosfaat - ammoniakemissie - rundveevoeding - voederconversievermogen - milk production - dairy farming - manure policy - models - calculation - animal manures - cattle manure - excretion - nitrogen - phosphate - ammonia emission - cattle feeding - feed conversion efficiency
Het rekenmodel KringloopWijzer brengt op jaarbasis de waarden van een aantal kengetallen van het melkveebedrijf in beeld. Aan de veestapel gerelateerde kengetallen zijn 1) de excretie van stikstof (N) en fosfaat (P2O5) ‘onder de staart’, 2) de hoeveelheden N en P2O5 als voer geconsumeerd, 3) de efficiëntie waarmee de in het voer aanwezige N en P2O5 wordt omgezet in melk en groei en 4) de emissie van ammoniak (NH3) uit mest. De waarden van deze kengetallen kunnen vergeleken worden met referentie- en forfaitaire waarden. Referentiewaarden zijn waarden die door bedrijven gerealiseerd worden die in vergelijkbare omstandigheden verkeren wat betreft grondsoort en intensiteit (melkproductie per hectare). De veehouder weet daardoor hoe hij scoort in vergelijking met collega’s. Deze notitie gaat enkel in op de forfaitaire waarden voor de eerder genoemde kengetallen.
Aanzuursystemen voor rundveedrijfmest in stallen
Melse, R.W. ; Starmans, D.A.J. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2015
17 : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 898) - 17
rundveehouderij - rundveemest - aanzuren - ammoniakemissie - emissiereductie - luchtkwaliteit - mestvergisting - melkveehouderij - melkvee - zwavelzuur - cattle husbandry - cattle manure - acidulation - ammonia emission - emission reduction - air quality - manure fermentation - dairy farming - dairy cattle - sulfuric acid
By acidification of liquid cattle manure in the pit underneath the floor, the emission of ammonia from an animal house can be reduced. Two systems for acidification can be distinguished: 1) Acidification with sulphuric acid; 2) Biological acidification, i.e. acid compounds are produced by bacteria in the manure. At the request of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs in this report the main aspects of these systems are discussed. The analysis shows that the maximum achievable ammonia emission reduction is about 20%. Applied as a single low-emission measure in dairy barns, this reduction is not large enough to comply with the maximum levels that will come into effect from 2018, implying that this measure has to be combined with additional techniques, such as low-emission floor or air scrubbing techniques, and as such restricting perspectives for practical application. Furthermore, it is concluded that the sulphuric acid acidification system is ready for on-farm implementation, whereas the biological acidification system needs to be further developed. Acidification with sulphuric acid leads to a drastic increase of the sulphur content of the manure; attention must be paid to maximum sulphur application rates when this manure is applied to the soil; when this system is applied to the soil. The operating costs for biological acidification are about twice as much as for acidification with sulphuric acid. Besides, application of biological acidification might lead to a higher methane production. Because of the relatively high costs, it is uncertain whether biological acidification is feasible, even when it is ready for practical implementation. Therefore it is concluded that the biological acidification system is without prospects for the short term. The economic feasibility might improve when the increased methane production can be used in a digester. It is recommended to further study the feasibility of a combined system of biological acidification and manure digestion.
Producten uit rundermest : de landbouwkundige waarde onderzocht
Curth-van Middelkoop, J.C. ; Verdoes, N. - \ 2015
V-focus 12 (2015)3. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 18 - 19.
rundveehouderij - rundveemest - mestverwerking - mestoverschotten - mineralen - rundveedrijfmest - raffineren - organische stof - cattle husbandry - cattle manure - manure treatment - manure surpluses - minerals - cattle slurry - refining - organic matter
Sinds 2014 zijn veehouders verplicht een deel van hun mestoverschot te laten verwerken. Veehouders kunnen dit regelen door mestverwerkingsovereenkomsten af te sluiten met mestverwerkers. Dit artikel beschrijft de landbouwkundige waarde van diverse meststoffen die verwerking van rundermest oplevert.
Sustainability aspects of ten bedded pack dairy barns in The Netherlands
Galama, P.J. ; Boer, H.C. de; Dooren, H.J.C. van; Ouweltjes, W. ; Driehuis, K. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research report 873) - 80
landbouwschuren - melkveehouderij - duurzame veehouderij - huisvesting van koeien - economie van de veehouderij - dierenwelzijn - melkkwaliteit - rundveemest - landbouw en milieu - rundveehouderij - barns - dairy farming - sustainable animal husbandry - cow housing - livestock economics - animal welfare - milk quality - cattle manure - agriculture and environment - cattle husbandry
A bedded pack barn is a different type of housing for dairy cows compared to the common free stall barns with cubicles and slatted concrete floors with slurry storage underneath (reference system). A bedded pack barn presumably has a different impact on the sustainability aspects economics, animal welfare, milk quality, manure quality and environment. In the present study we have investigated these sustainability aspects on 10 bedded pack barns in the Netherlands.
Ontwikkeling van de N-balans, het N-verlies en de beddingsamenstelling van vrijloopstal Ottema-Wiersma in 2013/2014
Boer, H.C. de - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 881)
huisvesting van koeien - melkveehouderij - stikstofbalans - stikstofverliezen - stikstofkringloop - vervluchtiging - rundveemest - stalinrichting - loopstallen - rundveeteelt - dierenwelzijn - landbouw en milieu - cow housing - dairy farming - nitrogen balance - nitrogen losses - nitrogen cycle - volatilization - cattle manure - animal housing design - loose housing - cattle farming - animal welfare - agriculture and environment
Een aantal Nederlandse melkveehouders stapt de laatste jaren over van een ligboxenstal met een roostervloer naar een vrijloopstal met een organische bedding. Deze overstap heeft meerdere effecten, waaronder op de stikstofkringloop op het melkveebedrijf. Het onderzoek in dit rapport richtte zich op het vaststellen van het N-verlies door vervluchtiging uit de vrijloopstal van de VOF Ottema-Wiersma in Midwolde (Groningen).
Effect van het Aeromix systeem op ammoniakemissie in een melkveestal : verkennend onderzoek op Dairy Campus
Dooren, H.J.C. van; Bokma, S. ; Zonderland, J.L. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock research rapport 850) - 25
melkvee - melkveehouderij - ammoniakemissie - stallen - landbouwschuren - emissiereductie - mestvergisting - mestverwerking - rundveemest - distikstofmonoxide - gevalsanalyse - dairy cattle - dairy farming - ammonia emission - stalls - barns - emission reduction - manure fermentation - manure treatment - cattle manure - nitrous oxide - case studies
During a case-control trial with Aeromix manure mixing system a sharp reduction of the ammonia emission from the dairy barn was established. In comparison to the reference barn the reduction was on average 50 %. No increase in laughing gas (N2O) was found.
Optimizing the performance of a reactor by reducing the retention time and addition of glycerin for anaerobically digesting manure
Timmerman, M. ; Schuman, E. ; Eekert, M. ; Riel, J.W. van - \ 2015
Environmental Technology 36 (2015)10. - ISSN 0959-3330 - p. 1223 - 1236.
co-digestion - methane production - crude glycerin - cattle manure - biogas - waste - biogasification - inhibition - ammonia
Anaerobic digestion of manure is a widely accepted technology for energy production. However, only a minimal portion of the manure production in the EU is anaerobically digested and occurs predominantly in codigestion plants. There is substantial potential for biogas plants that primarily operate on manure (>90%); however, the methane yields of manure are less compared to coproducts, which is one of the reasons for manure-based biogas plants often being economically non-viable. Therefore, it is essential to begin increasing the efficiency of these biogas plants. This study investigated the effect of decreasing retention time and introducing a moderate amount of glycerin on the biogas production as methods to improve efficiency. An experiment has been conducted with two different manure types in four biogas reactors. The results of the study demonstrated that, first, it was possible to decrease the retention time to 10–15 days; however, the effect on biogas production varied per manure type. Secondly, the biogas production almost triples at a retention time of 15.6 days with an addition of 4% glycerin. The relative production-enhancing effect of glycerin did not vary significantly with both manure types. However, the absolute production-enhancing effect of glycerin differed per manure type since the biogas production per gram VS differed per manure type. Thirdly, the positive effect of the glycerin input declines with shorter retention times. Therefore, the effect of glycerin addition depends on the manure type and retention time.
Fosfaatoverschot in de melkveehouderij
Koeijer, T.J. de; Blokland, P.W. ; Luesink, H.H. - \ 2014
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota LEI 2015-063) - 26
fosfaat - melkveehouderij - melkproductie - mestoverschotten - rundveemest - fosformeststoffen - rundveehouderij - dierenwelzijn - phosphate - dairy farming - milk production - manure surpluses - cattle manure - phosphorus fertilizers - cattle husbandry - animal welfare
De invoering van het wetsvoorstel Verantwoorde groei van de melkveehouderij heeft tot doel dat bedrijven met melkvee bij uitbreiding de extra mest op een verantwoorde manier afzetten. Bij invoering van het wetsvoorstel krijgen alle bedrijven met melkvee op basis van het verschil in 2013 tussen hun fosfaatproductie en mestplaatsingsruimte op het eigen bedrijf een fosfaatreferentie toegewezen. Het melkvee fosfaatoverschot op het bedrijf dat boven de fosfaatreferentie uitkomt, moet 100% worden verwerkt dan wel geplaatst op extra te verwerven grond. Op verzoek van de vakgroep melkveehouderij van LTO - Nederland is in deze quick scan nagegaan hoeveel bedrijven een melkveefosfaatoverschot hebben, hoe de spreiding in de omvang van het melkveefosfaatoverschot per bedrijf is en hoe de regionale verdeling is. Dit is in beeld gebracht voor de huidige situatie (2013) en voor 2020 waarbij ook het effect van management en voermaatregelen, aan te tonen via de BEX (Bedrijfsspecifieke Excretie), in beeld is gebracht. In 2013 had ruim 60% van de bedrijven met melkvee een overschot aan melkveemest. Door lagere gebruiksnormen en een stijging van de melkproductie met 10% stijgt het aantal bedrijven met een overschot aan melkveemest naar ruim 70% in 2020. Bij volledige realisatie van het voerspoor daalt dit percentage naar minder dan 50%.
Impact of crop-manure ratios on energy production and fertilizing characteristics of liquid and solid digestate during codigestion
Pabon Pereira, C.P. ; Vries, J.W. de; Slingerland, M.A. ; Zeeman, G. ; Lier, J.B. van - \ 2014
Environmental Technology 35 (2014)19. - ISSN 0959-3330 - p. 2427 - 2434.
anaerobic co-digestion - methane production - biogas production - cattle manure - grass-silage - pig manure - maize - residues - sludge - slurry
The influence of maize silage-manure ratios on energy output and digestate characteristics was studied using batch experiments. The methane production, nutrients availability (N and P) and heavy metals' content were followed in multiflask experiments at digestion times 7, 14, 20, 30 and 60 days. In addition, the available nutrient content in the liquid and solid parts of the digestate was evaluated. Aanaerobic digestion favoured the availability of nutrients to plants, after 61 days 20-26% increase in NH4+ and 0-36% increase in PO43- were found in relation to initial concentrations. Digestion time and maize addition increased the availability of PO43-. Inorganic nutrients were found to be mainly available in the liquid part of the digestate, i.e. 80-92% NH4+ and 65-74% PO43-. Manure had a positive effect on the methane production rate, whereas maize silage increased the total methane production per unit volatile solids in all treatments.
Benefits of legume–maize rotations: Assessing the impact of diversity on the productivity of smallholders in Western Kenya
Ojiem, J.O. ; Franke, A.C. ; Vanlauwe, B. ; Ridder, N. de; Giller, K.E. - \ 2014
Field Crops Research 168 (2014). - ISSN 0378-4290 - p. 75 - 85.
soil fertility management - crop-livestock systems - on-farm productivity - soybean glycine-max - cattle manure - sustainable intensification - exploring diversity - semiarid kenya - degraded soils - nitrogen
Agricultural intensification of farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa is a prerequisite to alleviate rural poverty and improve livelihoods. Legumes have shown great potential to enhance system productivity. On-farm experiments were conducted in different agro-ecological zones (AEZ) in Western Kenya to assess the agronomic and economic benefits of promising legumes. In each zone, trials were established in fields of high, medium and low fertility to assess the effect of soil fertility heterogeneity on legume productivity and subsequent maize yield. Common bean, soybean, groundnut, lima bean, lablab, velvet bean, crotalaria, and jackbean were grown in the short rains season, followed by maize in the long rains season. Alongside, continuous maize treatments fertilised at different rates were established. AEZs and soil fertility gradients within these zones greatly affected crop productivity, returns to land and labour of rotations, as well as the relative performance of rotations. Poorer soil fertility and AEZs with lower rainfall gave smaller legume and maize yields and consequently, smaller returns to land and labour. The cultivation of legumes increased maize yields in the subsequent long rains season compared with continuous maize receiving fertiliser at a similar rate, while the increase of maize after green manure legumes was stronger than that after grain legumes. Maize yield responded strongly to increasing amounts of N applied as legume residues with diminishing returns to legume-N application rates above 100 kg N ha-1. In the low potential zones, factors other than improved N availability likely also stimulated maize yield. Rotations with grain legumes generally provided better returns than those with green manures. Intercropping bean with maize in the long rains season provided an additional bean yield that did not come at the expense of maize yield and improved returns to land and labour, but more so in the high potential zones. The results demonstrate the strong impact of biophysical diversity on the productivity of the legumes and suggest the need for careful targeting of legume technologies to the different biophysical conditions.
Simulating emission of ammonia after liquid manure applicaton on arable land : Preliminary performance assessment of the Volt'air model for manure application conditions in the Netherlands
Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Holterman, H.J. ; Vermeulen, G.D. ; Stolk, A.J. ; Pul, W.A.J. van - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 42
akkerbouw - rundveemest - ammoniakemissie - nederland - arable farming - cattle manure - ammonia emission - netherlands
The high variability of the total ammonia emission after manure application on agricultural land in the Netherlands can be partly be linked to the application method, slurry characteristics and the meteorological conditions by statistical analysis of the experimental results.
Improving the agro-environmental value of solid cattle manure
Shah, G.A. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Peter Groot Koerkamp, co-promotor(en): Egbert Lantinga; Jeroen Groot. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736499 - 193
rundveemest - stikstofverliezen - veehouderij - mestverwerking - cattle manure - nitrogen losses - livestock farming - manure treatment
Soil biota and nitrogen cycling in production grasslands with different fertilisation histories
Rashid, M.I. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Lijbert Brussaard, co-promotor(en): Egbert Lantinga; Ron de Goede. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735485 - 192
stikstofkringloop - bodemfauna - mineralisatie - rundveemest - decompositie - bodeminvertebraten - bodem ph - aardwormen - graslanden - bodembiologie - nitrogen cycle - soil fauna - mineralization - cattle manure - decomposition - soil invertebrates - soil ph - earthworms - grasslands - soil biology
Strategies to reduce losses and improve utilisation of nitrogen from solid cattle manure
Shah, G.M. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Oene Oenema, co-promotor(en): Egbert Lantinga; Jeroen Groot. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735188 - 156
stikstof - dierlijke meststoffen - ammoniakemissie - mineralisatie - stikstofverliezen - stikstofbalans - bodem - uitspoelen - rundveemest - opslag - voedingsstoffenbeschikbaarheid - nitrogen - animal manures - ammonia emission - mineralization - nitrogen losses - nitrogen balance - soil - leaching - cattle manure - storage - nutrient availability
Background and objectives
The number of domesticated cattle in the world has steadily increased during the last decades, and thereby also the amount of manure produced annually. The excrements of grazing cattle are dropped in pastures and left unmanaged, but that of confined and housed cattle are collected and managed. The collected manure is often a variable mixture of urine, faeces, bedding material and spoiled feed and (drinking) water. On most modern farms, excrements are usually collected in leak-tight storages and handled as slurry: a mixture of urine, faeces and spoiled water. However, on a significant fraction of farms, cattle excrements are ‘source-separated’ in a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. The solid cattle manure (SCM) is usually a mixture of faeces and bedding material with some absorbed urine. The production of SCM is increasing due to the renewed interest in straw-based housing systems for better animal health and welfare. It has been observed that a significant loss of N can occur, especially from the storage and application phases of the SCM management chain. This N loss pollutes the air, groundwater and surface waters, and also reduces its N fertiliser value. Thus the challenge is to develop an effective SCM management system that retains as much of the excreted N in the system as possible, and thereby improving on-farm N cycling through the cattle-manure-soil-crop continuum (Chapter 1). Themain objective of this PhD thesis research was to increase the understanding of the factors controlling N losses during storage and after field application, and to develop and test strategies to decrease N losses and improve crop utilisation of N from SCM. The specific objectives were:To study the interactions between a number of animal manures and soil types on N mineralisation and plant N recovery (Chapter 2) To investigate the effects of storage conditions on (i) magnitude and pathways of C and N losses during storage of SCM, and (ii) crop apparent N recovery (ANR) and DM yield (Chapter 3) To examine manure disappearance rates, N release pattern and herbage ANR during the year of application and the year thereafter from surface applied SCM subjected to different storage conditions (Chapter 4), and To analyse the effect of various application strategies on NH3 emission and/or crop ANR from applied SCM to grassland and arable (maize) land (Chapters 3 and 5)
To pursue these objectives a pot experiment in a glasshouse (Chapter 2) and a number of field experiments (Chapters 3 to 5) were conducted on experimental facilities of Wageningen University, the Netherlands. The pot experiment dealt with net N mineralisation and herbage ANR from SCM, cattle slurry and poultry manure, all applied to peat, sandy and clay soils. The field experiments examined (i) total C and N losses from stockpiled, composted, covered and roofed SCM heaps, (ii) manure decomposition, N release and herbage ANR after surface application of fresh and stored SCM on grassland, and (iii) the effects of irrigation and soil incorporation after SCM application, and lava meal as an additive on NH3 emission and/or crop ANR by grassland herbage or arable maize.
Major findings of the thesis
Results of the pot experiment showed that net N mineralisation and herbage ANR varied as function of manure storage method and soil type. Irrespective of the manure types, net N mineralisation and herbage ANR were highest in peat soil, which was characterised by the greatest N delivering capacity. Between the clay and sandy soils, both having similar N delivering capacity, net N mineralisation and herbage ANR were lower in the clay soil than in the sandy soil, likely because of immobilisation and fixation of ammonium-N by its inherited higher clay content. On each soil type,ANR was lower from SCM than cattle slurry and poultry manure(Chapter 2). The N recovery fraction was low when SCM was stored traditionally (i.e. stockpiling or composting) due to (i) loss of the initial mineral N content and readily degradable organic N compounds, and (ii) conversion of part of the remaining N into more stable forms as compared to that originally present before storage. Up to 31% of the initial total N from the stockpiled and 46% from the composted SCM heaps were lost during a period of about four months. Covering and roofing of SCM heaps reduced the losses down to 6 and 12%, respectively. Of the total N losses from each storage method, only about one fourth could be traced back as NH3-N and N2O-N emissions, and/or N leaching. The remainder could not be accounted for and constituted, in all probability, of harmless N2 gas. Of the total measured gaseous and liquid N losses together, N leaching contributed the most. The leaching N losses were reduced by almost three times through protection of SCM heap against precipitation either by its covering or roofing when compared to its stockpiling or composting in the open air. Although stockpiling of SCM under a roof significantly reduced overall total N losses, NH3 and N2O emissions were much higher as compared to stockpiling of SCM in the open air. Composting of SCM resulted in higher gaseous N emissions as well as N leaching with respect to the other storage methods. In view of these finding I conclude that covering of SCM heaps with an impermeable sheet is the best option to reduce storage N losses (Chapters 3 and 4).
In addition, because of N conservation and slow mineralisation of the organically bound N during the covered storage, mineral N content of SCM increased at the end of the storage phase. This, together with high mineralisation activities after field application of covered SCM, led to greater crop ANR and DM yield especially when compared to composted SCM, both in the year of application and in the subsequent year. When N losses during storage was taken into account to arrive at the crop ANR of the collected manure from the barn, it turned out that the ANR value was about three times larger in case of covered storage compared to composting of SCM, both for grassland (21 vs. 7%; Chapter 4) and arable land (37 vs. 13%, Chapter 3). Interestingly, despite of some N losses during covered storage (~10% of the initial N), crop ANR and DM yield were significantly larger from covered than fresh SCM taken directly from the barn, again in both situations.
Irrigation immediately after SCM spreading and use of lava meal as an additive significantly (i) reduced NH3 emission and (ii) improved crop ANR as well as DM yield (Chapters 3 and 5).Irrigation at a level of 5 mm immediately after surface application of fresh and covered SCM to grassland reduced NH3 emission by 30 and 65%, respectively, whereas it was not effective in case of composted SCM, likely because of its greater DM content. Addition of lava meal before application at a rate of 80 g per kg of covered SCM resulted in an emission reduction of 46%. By combining it with 10 mm irrigation, an almost 100% reduction in NH3 emissions from covered SCM was realised, whereas herbage ANR increased from 18 to 26% of the applied N over a growing period of five months (Chapter 5). Incorporation of SCM just before sowing of maize resulted in an ANR value of 39% from covered SCM, whereas this fraction was 20, 29 and 31% in case of composted, stockpiled and roofed manure, respectively (Chapter 3).
Overall conclusionsThe ANR from applied manure in harvested herbage depends on manure type and soil type, and varies widely. It is lower from SCM than from cattle slurry Total N losses during storage of SCM can be reduced remarkably by covering the heap with an impermeable sheet. Covering reduced two N loss pathways: (i) gaseous N emissions to air, and (ii) N leaching to surface waters and groundwater. Field application of SCM that was covered by a sheet during storage, decomposed faster and more N was available for plant uptake, both in the year of application and the subsequent year, when compared to SCM that was stored in traditional ways Emission of NH3 following land application of SCM can be reduced greatly by irrigation or incorporation immediately after SCM spreading, and using lava meal as an additive. Irrigation appeared to be more effective in reducing NH3 emission than the addition of lava meal. All these NH3 emission abatement measures substantially increased crop ANR and DM yield Overall, combining covered storage with either direct irrigation following application of SCM to vegetated soil or direct incorporation in the soil following application of SCM to arable land is the best practical option to reduce losses and improve utilisation of N from SCM management systems. Depending on the farm infrastructure, losses may be further reduced by the use of lava meal, preferably as a bedding additive in the barn
Implication for efficient manure management
In many industrialised countries, animal manure is a major source of environmental pollution. In contrast, in most of the developing countries animal manure is considered as a key nutrient source to maintain or improve crop productivity and therefore N losses from manure management are more seen as ‘loss of plant nutrient’ rather than ‘pollution problems’. In either case development of efficient SCM management systems is highly important. Based on the results of this thesis, I propose some key management actions to improve the agro-environmental value of SCM.If economically attractive, apply lava meal to straw bedding in the barn (Chapter 5) Store the barn-produced SCM under impermeable sheet (Chapters 3 and 4) Crop and soil-specific SCM application rates must take into account the potential available N (Chapter 2) and degradability of organic N compounds (Chapter 4) Incorporate the SCM from covered storages directly into the soil when applied to arable land (Chapter 3) In situations where incorporation is not feasible, like on grassland, spread SCM just before a predicted rainfall event or apply irrigation otherwise (Chapter 5) Take into account the expected residual N contribution from earlier manure input when determining the manure application rate(Chapter 4)
Invloed van voeding en mestsamenstelling op schuimvorming in rundveemest
Vuuren, A.M. van; Stokkers, E. - \ 2012
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 637) - 23
rundveehouderij - rundveemest - huisvesting van rundvee - voersamenstelling - melkveehouderij - rundveevoeding - cattle husbandry - cattle manure - cattle housing - feed formulation - dairy farming - cattle feeding
No relationship was established between composition of diet or faeces and foam formation in under-floor pits in cattle barns.
Kan hyacint zonder stalmest?
Vreeburg, P.J.M. - \ 2012
bemesting - hyacinten - bloembollen - vollegrondsteelt - rundveemest - bodemvruchtbaarheid - fertilizer application - hyacinths - ornamental bulbs - outdoor cropping - cattle manure - soil fertility
Poster met onderzoeksinformatie. Doel van het onderzoek is achterhalen of vaste rundermest essentieel is voor de teelt en afbroeikwaliteit van hyacint.