Effects of CO2 enrichment on cockle shell growth interpreted with a Dynamic Energy Budget model
Klok, T.C. ; Wijsman, J.W.M. ; Kaag, N.H.B.M. ; Foekema, E.M. - \ 2014
Journal of Sea Research 94 (2014). - ISSN 1385-1101 - p. 111 - 116.
early-life stages - ocean acidification - elevated-temperature - cerastoderma-edule - population-level - mytilus-edulis - exposure - impact - consequences - reproduction
The increase in human induced atmospheric CO2 level leads to an increase in ocean acidification (OA). Mitigation of this increase by storage of CO2 in abandoned marine oil and gas reservoirs is seen as an interesting cost effective solution. However, this involves a risk of CO2 loss causing localised reductions in seawater pH. In this paper we report on the effects of CO2 enhancement on the growth of the bivalve Cerastoderma edule in mesocosms. The experiments show significant reductions in shell length, shell weight and cockle flesh dry weight at increased CO2 level suggesting both direct (shell erosion) and indirect (metabolic) effects. Indirect effects were analysed and interpreted using a Dynamic Energy Budget model by describing changes in 3 metabolic processes: assimilation, maintenance, and growth. Based on cockle size data only we could not differentiate between these processes, however, by using variability of DEB parameter values in 11 bivalve species, we showed growth to be the least relevant process.
Bivalve aquaculture transfers in Atlantic Europe. Part B: Environmental impacts of transfer activities
Brenner, M. ; Fraser, D. ; Nieuwenhove, K. van; Kamermans, P. - \ 2014
Ocean & Coastal Management 89 (2014). - ISSN 0964-5691 - p. 139 - 146.
mussel mytilus-edulis - mytilicola-intestinalis steuer - necrosis virus ipnv - cerastoderma-edule - crassostrea-gigas - polydora-ciliata - marteilia-refringens - mikrocytos-mackini - pacific oysters - ostrea-edulis
For centuries human populations have moved live shellfish around the world for consumption or aquaculture purposes; being relayed from their area of origin for growout or sale. This is in contrast to the inadvertent anthropogenic spreading of species via e.g. ballast waters. There are inherent risks associated with transfer of shellfish including introducing of alien species, diseases, pests, bacteria and viruses associated with the translocated species in addition to the potential impact on genetic integrity and biodiversity of local stocks. Many examples of severe ecological impacts have been documented worldwide owing to the intentional or unintentional translocation of animals. It is therefore important to develop risk reduction methods which have not yet been documented to be incorporated into current fish health or environmental legislation. This part of the study describes the impacts of transfer activities of cultured bivalve shellfish along the European Atlantic coast; identifies hitch hiker species, fouling organisms or infectious agents which can be translocated with a target species. Further, the study highlights the need for thorough, standard risk reduction measures designed to minimise the impact on ecosystems worldwide. In a companion paper details of actual transfer activities in Atlantic Europe are presented and all levels of legislation dealing with transfer activities on a global, regional and national scale are carefully reviewed.
Conditional responses of benthic communities to interference from an intertidal bivalve
Colen, C. van; Thrush, S. ; Vincx, M. ; Ysebaert, T. - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)6. - ISSN 1932-6203
cerastoderma-edule - terrigenous sediment - ecosystem services - macoma-balthica - coastal - habitats - hydrodynamics - disturbance - resilience - sandflats
Habitat-modifying organisms that impact other organisms and local functioning are important in determining ecosystem resilience. However, it is often unclear how the outcome of interactions performed by key species varies depending on the spatial and temporal disturbance context which makes the prediction of disturbance-driven regime shifts difficult. We investigated the strength and generality of effects of the filter feeding cockle Cerastoderma edule on its ambient intertidal benthic physical and biological environment. By comparing the magnitude of the effect of experimental cockle removal between a non-cohesive and a sheltered cohesive sediment in two different periods of the year, we show that the outcome of cockle interference effects relates to differences in physical disturbance, and to temporal changes in suspended sediment load and ontogenetic changes in organism traits. Interference effects were only present in the cohesive sediments, though the effects varied seasonally. Cockle presence decreased only the density of surface-dwelling species suggesting that interference effects were particularly mediated by bioturbation of the surface sediments. Furthermore, density reductions in the presence of cockles were most pronounced during the season when larvae and juveniles were present, suggesting that these life history stages are most vulnerable to interference competition. We further illustrate that cockles may enhance benthic microalgal biomass, most likely through the reduction of surface-dwelling grazing species, especially in periods with high sediment load and supposedly also high bioturbation rates. Our results emphasize that the physical disturbance of the sediment may obliterate biotic interactions, and that temporal changes in environmental stressors, such as suspended sediments, may affect the outcome of key species interference effects at the local scale. Consequently, natural processes and anthropogenic activities that change bed shear stress and sediment dynamics in coastal soft-sediment systems will affect cockle-mediated influences on ecosystem properties and therefore the resilience of these systems to environmental change.
Effects of nanopolystyrene on the feeding behavior of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.)
Wegner, A. ; Besseling, E. ; Foekema, E.M. ; Kamermans, P. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2012
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 31 (2012)11. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 2490 - 2497.
marine-environment - gold nanoparticles - algal concentration - cerastoderma-edule - plastic particles - filtration-rate - accumulation - suspension - nanomaterials - bivalves
As the industrial production of nanoplastic and the degradation of microplastic into smaller particles at sea increase, the potential amount of nanoplastics in the marine environment rises. It has been reported that mussels uptake 100-nm polystyrene (PS) beads; to date, however, the effects of this uptake on the organism are unknown. In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of 30-nm PS on the feeding behavior of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) by exposing the organism to different nano PS and different algae (Pavlova lutheri) concentrations. The state of nano PS aggregation in the exposure medium was assessed using dynamic light scattering. In all treatments that contained nano PS, M. edulis produced pseudofeces. The total weight of the feces and pseudofeces increased with increasing nano PS and increasing algae concentration. Furthermore, M. edulis reduced its filtering activity when nano PS was present but still caused a decrease in the apparent nano PS concentration in the water. The presence of nano PS around the foot of M. edulis after the bioassay confirmed that the organism removed nano PS from the water. Chronic effect studies are therefore needed to investigate the effects of nanoplastics in M. edulis and possible consequences for its predators, including humans.
Long-term divergent tidal flat benthic community recovery following hypoxia-induced mortality
Colen, C. van; Montserrat, F. ; Vincx, M. ; Herman, P.M.J. ; Ysebaert, T. ; Degraer, S. - \ 2010
Marine Pollution Bulletin 60 (2010)2. - ISSN 0025-326X - p. 178 - 186.
cerastoderma-edule - marine ecosystems - wadden sea - polydora-ligni - sediment - dynamics - recolonization - invertebrates - consequences - bioturbation
Macrobenthos recovery after hypoxia-induced mass mortality was assessed in an estuarine tidal mudflat during 3 years. During the first 2 years, a Pearson-Rosenberg type of community recovery took place along with the improving bottom water oxygen conditions. After 3 months, spionid polychaetes became superabundant (i.e. opportunistic peak), followed rapidly by a steep decline (i.e. ecotone point). Subsequently, a moderate increase in species richness and a steep increase in biomass, related to the growth of long-lived species occurred (i.e. transition region). Afterwards, however, the recovering community diverged again from the ambient, undisturbed, sediments due to enhanced recruitment success of long-lived species presumably resulting from the lowered interference from bioturbation during early recovery stages in the disturbed plots. Hence, despite early community recovery may be more or less deterministic, lagged divergent community reassembling may occur at the longer-term, thereby contributing to benthos patchiness in areas which are frequently subjected to disturbances.
Diversity, trait displacements and shifts in assemblage structure of tidal flat deposit feeders along a gradient of hydrodynamic stress
Colen, C. van; Backer, A. De; Meulepas, G. ; Wal, D. van der; Vincx, M. ; Degraer, S. ; Ysebaert, T. - \ 2010
Marine Ecology Progress Series 406 (2010). - ISSN 0171-8630 - p. 79 - 89.
community structure - cerastoderma-edule - benthic community - arenicola-marina - macrobenthic community - functional diversity - nematode communities - environmental-stress - corophium-volutator - organic enrichment
To assess the effect of variability in hydrodynamic stress on benthic assemblages we investigated whether deposit-feeding macrobenthos performs a unimodal response to an intertidal flat hydrodynamic stress gradient, congruent with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH), and whether this response is related to assemblage-wide biological trait displacements, reflecting species sorting mechanisms. Patterns in diversity and assemblage-wide biological traits were explained to a large extent by hydrodynamic stress and reflected in a significantly differing assemblage structure between stress levels. Our data did not support the IDH, since species richness and diversity peaked at low stress, whereas evenness was lowest at intermediate stress, suggesting that species sorting in response to hydrodynamic stress, rather than competitive exclusion at low stress, drives the diversity stress response. The decrease in species richness and diversity towards the hydrodynamically harsher low intertidal was reflected in the assemblage-wide shifts towards a lower dietary dependency on microalgal carbon and a deeper living position. Intermediate stressed assemblages were associated with a shift towards a more resistant development mode to superficial sediment disturbance. This is suggested to result from species sorting in response to Cerastoderma edule interference from bioturbation, which peaked at intermediate hydrodynamic stress where optimal hydrodynamic conditions for suspension feeders prevail. The present study demonstrated that the alteration of the natural hydrodynamic regime will significantly affect tidal flat benthic community composition and, hence, ecosystem functioning. Additionally, our findings reveal that inhibitory biophysical interactions, such as interference from bioturbation, should be incorporated in environmental stress biodiversity models.
Sediment segregation by biodiffusing bivalves
Montserrat, F. ; Colen, C. van; Provoost, P. ; Milla, M. ; Ponti, M. ; Meersche, K. Van den; Ysebaert, T. ; Herman, P.M.J. - \ 2009
Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 83 (2009)4. - ISSN 0272-7714 - p. 379 - 391.
lugworm arenicola-marina - nereis-diversicolor - intertidal sediments - reworking activities - biological-activity - particle dispersal - cerastoderma-edule - cohesive sediment - tracer technique - muddy sediments
The selective processing of sediment fractions (sand and mud; >63 mu m and
Effects of an increasing filter feeder stock on larval abundance in the Oosterschelde estuary (SW Netherlands)
Troost, K. ; Gelderman, E.A.C. ; Kamermans, P. ; Smaal, A.C. ; Wolff, W. - \ 2009
Journal of Sea Research 61 (2009)3. - ISSN 1385-1101 - p. 153 - 164.
suspension-feeding bivalves - mussel mytilus-edulis - pelagic food-web - cerastoderma-edule - crassostrea-virginica - vertical-distribution - boundary-layer - ingestion - oyster - mechanisms
Predation by adult bivalves on bivalve larvae has been suggested to reduce larval abundance in areas with high bivalve filter-feeder biomass. Although the occurrence of larviphagy is well-studied in the laboratory, its effects in the field have scarcely been studied. We studied larviphagy at different spatial scales in the Oosterschelde estuary. On the scale of individuals, we confirmed that larviphagy occurs in Crassostrea gigas and Mytilus edulis in the Oosterschelde estuary, by examining stomach contents of adult bivalves. On a local scale, we studied effects of larviphagy by a Pacific oyster (C. gigas) bed on presence of larvae in the overlying water column by sampling larvae with fixed plankton nets. Abundance of blue mussel (M. edulis) larvae was significantly reduced by the oyster. Abundance of C. gigas larvae did not seem to be reduced by the oyster bed, but spawning by the adult oysters during the sampling period may have affected the results. On estuary-scale, the effect of larviphagy on larval abundance of C. gigas and M. edulis was studied using existing monitoring data over 6 years for M. edulis and 13 years for C. gigas. Numbers of M. edulis larvae showed no significant trend over the 6 years studied. Abundance of C. gigas larvae declined with an increasing filter feeder stock (that was mainly caused by an increase in C. gigas stock). This decline may be due to direct effects of larviphagy or indirect effects such as lowered food levels, and was not compensated by an increased larval production. All results combined, complemented with a theoretical estimate of the effect of larviphagy on estuary-scale, strongly suggest that larviphagy is major source of mortality for bivalve larvae in the Oosterschelde estuary.
Larviphagy in native bivalves and an introduced oyster
Troost, K. ; Kamermans, P. ; Wolff, W. - \ 2008
Journal of Sea Research 60 (2008)3. - ISSN 1385-1101 - p. 157 - 163.
suspension-feeding bivalves - mytilus-edulis-l - marine invertebrate larvae - crassostrea-gigas - oxygen-consumption - cerastoderma-edule - swimming behavior - veliger larvae - pacific oyster - mussel larvae
Introduced Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas have expanded rapidly in the Dutch Oosterschelde estuary, while stocks of native bivalves declined slightly. As a consequence, total filtration pressure increased significantly, which may affect the mortality of bivalve larvae. Better escape abilities in Pacific oyster larvae might be a contributing factor to their rapid geographic expansion. To study whether C. gigas larvae are filtered less than larvae of native bivalves, we investigated filtration and ingestion of the larvae of the native Mytilus edulis and introduced C. gigas by the adults of C. gigas and M. edulis as well as the native Cerastoderma edule. We measured filtration rates of C. gigas and M. edulis larvae by the adult bivalves (C. gigas, M. edulis and C. edule), and compared these to filtration rates of algae. Additionally, we studied the fate of filtered larvae. All three adult species filtered both C. gigas and M. edulis larvae. M. edulis larvae were filtered by all three bivalve species with the same filtration rates as algae, whereas filtration rates of C. gigas larvae were roughly 50% lower than filtration rates of algae. This suggests that C. gigas larvae can somehow reduce their filtration risk, whereas larvae of M. edulis cannot. The majority of filtered C. gigas and M. edulis larvae were ingested.
Can bivalve veligers escape feeding currents of adult bivalves?
Troost, K. ; Veldhuizen, R. ; Stamhuis, E.J. ; Wolff, W. - \ 2008
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 358 (2008)2. - ISSN 0022-0981 - p. 185 - 196.
marine invertebrate larvae - particle image velocimetry - mytilus-edulis-l - swimming behavior - cerastoderma-edule - copepod nauplii - mussel larvae - responses - ingestion - predation
While the stock of introduced Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) increased in the Oosterschelde estuary (SW Netherlands), so did the filtration pressure of all bivalve species together. In the same period, stocks of native bivalves declined slightly. The expansion of Pacific oysters in Dutch estuaries might be partially due to better abilities of their larvae to avoid or escape filtration, compared to larvae of native bivalves. In this context, escape and swimming abilities of Pacific oyster larvae and the larvae of the native blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) were compared. Swimming behaviour of C. gigas larvae and larvae of M. edulis was recorded in still water and in a suction current mimicking a bivalve feeding current, in a horizontal and in a vertical plane. Larval swimming behaviour in a suction flow field was reconstructed by subtracting local water movement vectors from the total movement of larvae, yielding movement paths due to larval swimming alone. Swimming speeds and the rate of displacement in vertical direction of C. gigas and M. edulis larvae were related to larval shell length, and to the pitch of up- or downward swimming. Larvae of both species did not show escape reactions in a suction flow field. With increasing shell length, larval swimming speeds of both species increased significantly. Swimming speeds of C. gigas larvae were significantly higher than swimming speeds of M. edulis larvae, resulting in a faster vertical displacement. The ability to migrate to more favourable water layers faster may offer C. gigas an advantage over native bivalves with slower swimming larvae.
Impacts of nutrient reduction on coastal communities
Philippart, C.J.M. ; Beukema, J.J. ; Cad, G.C. ; Dekker, R. ; Goedhart, P.W. ; Iperen, J.M. van; Leopold, M.F. ; Herman, P.M.J. - \ 2007
Ecosystems 10 (2007)1. - ISSN 1432-9840 - p. 95 - 118.
dutch wadden sea - suspension-feeding bivalves - macoma-balthica - north-sea - marine-phytoplankton - cerastoderma-edule - filtration-rate - burying depth - mya-arenaria - body-weight
Eutrophication due to high anthropogenic nutrient loading has greatly impacted ecological processes in marine coastal waters and, therefore, much effort has been put into reducing nitrogen and phosphorus discharges into European and North-American waters. Nutrient enrichment usually resulted in increase of biomass and production of phytoplankton and microphytobenthos, often coinciding with shifts in species composition within the primary producer community. Consequences of increasing eutrophication for higher trophic levels are still being disputed, and even less is known about the consequences of nutrient reduction on coastal food webs. Here, we present 30-year concurrent field observations on phytoplankton, macrozoobenthos and estuarine birds in the Dutch Wadden Sea, which has been subject to decades of nutrient enrichment and subsequent nutrient reduction. We demonstrate that long-term variations in limiting nutrients (phosphate and silicon) were weakly correlated with biomass and more strongly with community structures of phytoplankton, macrozoobenthos and estuarine birds. Although we cannot conclusively determine if, and if so to what extent, nutrient enrichment and subsequent nutrient reduction actually contributed to the concurrent trends in these communities, it appears likely that part of the variance in the studied coastal communities is related to changes in nutrient loads. Our results imply that nutrient reduction measures should not ignore the potential consequences for policies aimed at bird conservation and exploitation of marine living resources.
Intercalibration of mussel Mytilus edulis clearance rate measurements
Kjerulf Petersen, J. ; Bougrier, S. ; Smaal, A.C. ; Garen, P. ; Robert, S. ; Larsen, J.E.N. ; Brummelhuis, E.B.M. - \ 2004
Marine Ecology Progress Series 267 (2004). - ISSN 0171-8630 - p. 187 - 194.
suspension-feeding bivalves - filtration-rate measurements - oyster crassostrea-gigas - seasonal-variation - pinctada-margaritifera - cerastoderma-edule - pearl oyster - stony road - body-size - absorption
Clearance rate (CR) was measured in blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. from Aiguillon Bay and the Oosterschelde using 3 different methods: the flow-through method, the bio-deposition method and the indirect or clearance method. CR differed significantly as a function of the method used and of the origin of the mussels. CR measured with the bio-deposition method were significantly lower than rates measured with the other methods. Results for the flow-through method depended, however, on how CR was calculated. CR using the flow-through and indirect methods was on average 10.0 l g-1 h-1 in mussels from Aiguillon Bay and 5.3 l g-1 h-1 in mussels from the Oosterschelde. The significantly lower CR of mussels from Oosterschelde was related to condition index and gill area, but could not entirely be explained by these factors
Predation of intertidal infauna on juveniles of the bivalve Macoma balthica
Hiddink, J.G. ; Hofstede, R. ter; Wollf, W.J. - \ 2002
Journal of Sea Research 47 (2002)2. - ISSN 1385-1101 - p. 141 - 159.
nereis-diversicolor muller,o.f. - lugworm arenicola-marina - dutch wadden sea - tidal flats - corophium-volutator - cerastoderma-edule - pumping activity - soft sediments - severe winter - recruitment
Juveniles of the bivalve Macoma balthica live on tidal flats in the Wadden Sea. This study examined the interaction of Macoma with the infaunal polychaetes Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor and the gastropod Retusa obtusa. The distribution of M. balthica spat on the flats, shortly after settlement in April, showed a positive correlation with the Arenicola distribution and a negative correlation with Nereis distribution. There were no locations where Macoma spat and Retusa occurred together. In August, Macoma spat had grown too large for predation by inter-tidal infauna. Small individuals of Macoma spat were found in stomachs of Arenicola (0.14 worm(-1)) and Nereis (0.05 worm(-1)). Laboratory experiments showed that Nereis and Retusa could reduce Macoma spat abundance, both in the absence and presence of sediment and alternative prey. Arenicola reduced the abundance of small Macoma (