Explaining the “Certification Gap” for Different Types of Oil Palm Smallholders in Riau Province, Indonesia
Hutabarat, Sakti ; Slingerland, Maja ; Dries, Liesbeth - \ 2019
The Journal of Environment & Development 28 (2019)3. - ISSN 1070-4965 - p. 253 - 281.
certification - independent smallholders - oil palm - RSPO - scheme smallholders
Indonesia is the world’s largest producer of palm oil, and its smallholder oil palm plantations involve more than 2.3 million farmers. The rapid expansion of the oil palm area, and resulting negative environmental and social impacts, has increased the demand for sustainability certification for palm oil products. This study investigates whether different types of smallholders face different barriers in complying with certification standards. The study uses survey data from 829 smallholders in Riau, Sumatra. First, an assessment is made of the gap between current management practices and practices required by Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil standards for different types of smallholders. Second, the article explores explanations for the gap between current and required practices. Finally, an investigation is made of the different starting points of different types of smallholders. Results indicate that the diversity between smallholders affects their prospects for certification. To date, this diversity in smallholders has not been taken into account in the application of Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil standards. This can help to explain the limited success of smallholder certifications in Indonesia.
Toward Sustainable Biofuels in the European Union? Lessons from a Decade of Hybrid Biofuel Governance
Stattman, S.L. ; Gupta, A. ; Partzsch, Lena ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)11. - ISSN 2071-1050
biofuels - European Union - Renewable Energy Directive (RED) - hybrid governance - sustainability - certification - multi-stakeholder initiatives
The European Union (EU) stands at a crossroads regarding its biofuel policies. For more than a decade, the EU sought to create a market for and govern sustainable biofuels for the transport sector, even as debates over sustainability escalated. It did so by devising novel hybrid (public and private) governance arrangements. We took stock of the nature and outcomes of this experiment in hybrid biofuel governance. We relied on qualitative methods of analysis, whereby we reviewed and synthesized the evolution of EU biofuel governance arrangements over time, through detailed document analysis of secondary and primary literature, including EU and related policy documents and private certification scheme websites. Our analysis reveals that, instead of yielding an increasingly stringent sustainability framework, the hybrid EU governance arrangements resulted
in a proliferation of relatively lax, industry-driven, sustainability standards, even as the notion of “sustainable biofuels” remained contested in public and political debate. These findings contribute to an ongoing debate about the merits of hybrid (public–private) governance arrangements, and whether a hybrid approach helps strengthen or weaken sustainability objectives. We conclude that a more stringent EU meta-standard on sustainability needs to be developed, to underpin future governance arrangements.
Costs and benefits of certification of independent oil palm smallholders in Indonesia
Hutabarat, S. ; Slingerland, Maja ; Rietberg, P.I. ; Dries, L.K.E. - \ 2018
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 21 (2018)6. - ISSN 1096-7508 - p. 681 - 700.
RSPO - certification - smallholders - Indonesia - oil palm - costs and benefits
Sustainable certification schemes have surged in years. The introduction of these schemes poses serious challenges to smallholders. One such certification scheme is the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), which uses certification to increase equitable and sustainable production of palm oil. This study calculates upfront and recurrent costs and monetary benefits of RSPO certification of the Amanah Independent Oil Palm Smallholders Association in Ukui District, Indonesia. Survey and interview data was collected between 2013 and 2015. Results show that upfront costs of certification were 86 euro per hectare. Furthermore, despite generating up to 21% higher revenues from sales, certification created up to an 8%loss of net income per hectare on average per smallholder in the first year after certification, compared to the situation prior to certification. To motivate smallholders for RSPO certification, the economic performance of certified oil palm smallholders should be improved. This can result from further yield increases, a guaranteed premium price or the sales of GreenPalm certificates to provide additional income.
The impact of forest plantations on the household's access to natural forests and farmland in East Africa
Ingram, V.J. ; Degnet, M.B. ; Werf, E. van der; Wesseler, J.H.H. - \ 2017
In: Book of abstracts IUFRO 125th Anniversary Congress 2017, 18-22 Septeber 2017, Freiburg, Germany. - Forstliche Versuchs- und Forschungsanstalt (FVA) - ISBN 9783902762887
plantation - Tanzania - Mozambique - certification
Do certified private forest plantations increase the provision of and access to social services for local communities?
Degnet, M.B. ; Ingram, V.J. ; Werf, E. van der; Wesseler, J.H.H. - \ 2017
In: Book of abstracts IUFRO 125th Anniversary congress 2017, 18-22 September 2017, Freiburg, Germany. - Forstliche Versuchs- und Forschungsanstalt (FVA) - ISBN 9783902762887
certification - sustainable forestry operations
'Discussie over gangbaar versus bio is gedateerd'
Schulte, Rogier - \ 2017
cropping systems - sustainability - organic farming - sustainable agriculture - agricultural production - certification
Inspired by peers: Farm Talks in biodynamic agriculture
Olde, E.M. de; Derkzen, P.H.M. - \ 2016
Farming Matters 32 (2016)1. - ISSN 2210-6499 - p. 34 - 36.
certification - biodynamic farming - sustainability - certificering - biologisch-dynamische landbouw - duurzaamheid (sustainability)
In the Netherlands, a peer review method for farmers
arose as an alternative to the biodynamic certification
system. By collectively observing and discussing sitespecific
challenges, these biodynamic farmers experience
first-hand the power of collaboration and drive
commitment to sustainability beyond the standards of
The contribution of sustainable trade to the conservation of natural capital
Oorschot, M. van; Wentink, Carsten ; Kok, Marcel ; Beukering, P. ; Kuik, O. ; Drunen, M. van; Berg, J. van den; Ingram, V.J. ; Judge, L.O. ; Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Veneklaas, E.J. - \ 2016
The Hague : PBL: Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL publication 1700) - 96
certification - sustainability - cost benefit analysis - resource conservation - natural resources - tropics - ecosystem services - biobased economy - certificering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - kosten-batenanalyse - hulpbronnenbehoud - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - tropen - ecosysteemdiensten - biobased economy
PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency has conducted a study into the potential impact of certified sustainable production on natural capital and the related ecosystem goods and services. Forests are a well-known example of natural capital; they are valuable to society, among other things because they store large amounts of carbon. The performed cost-benefit analyses show that certified resource production has several societal benefits, such as reductions in environmental pollution, soil erosion and health damage. However, for resource producers, the financial returns of more sustainable production methods are often limited. The uneven distribution of costs and benefits over public and private actors forms a barrier to any further scale up of sustainable production. Thus, there is a need for additional solutions, besides certifying trade to help conserve ecosystems elsewhere in the world.
Fairtrade certification in the banana hired labour sector
Rijn, F.C. van; Judge, L.O. ; Fort, Ricardo ; Koster, Tinka ; Waarts, Y.R. ; Ruben, R. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI report 2015-056) - ISBN 9789086157129 - 146
bananas - plantations - fair trade - certification - international trade - hired labour - working conditions - ghana - dominican republic - colombia - bananen - beplantingen - fair trade - certificering - internationale handel - loonarbeiders - arbeidsomstandigheden - ghana - dominicaanse republiek - colombia
Evidence is needed about the difference that certification makes to workers on banana plantations. The Fairtrade system is therefore investing in monitoring to understand the difference certification makes to banana workers’ employment, living and working conditions, and empowerment. This study meets this need by gathering data on a range of indicators. This study 1) gathers baseline data on indicators and themes that monitor the progress of implementation of Fairtrade’s revised hired labour standards on certified plantations in key banana origins; 2) based on this data it researches and analyses the difference that Fairtrade makes across key themes in comparison to non-certified contexts; it prioritises workers’ voices and perspectives in achieving the objectives of the study. It particularly focuses on understanding the role of Fairtrade in supporting worker empowerment and empowerment-related goals. Focus countries are Ghana, Colombia and the Dominican Republic.
Negatief keurmerk werkt beter
Dam, Ynte van - \ 2016
food consumption - consumer behaviour - consumer attitudes - certification - labelling - sustainability - choice behaviour
Gebruik van genetische bronnen : regels voor internationale uitwisseling
Crisson, L.J.R. ; Visser, L. - \ 2016
europese unie - internationale verdragen - nederland - genetische bronnen - certificering - european union - international agreements - netherlands - genetic resources - certification
Internationale regels zijn van toepassing op de uitwisseling van genetische bronnen, en leveranciers en gebruikers ervan zijn verplicht zich aan deze regels te houden. Deze folder biedt achtergrondinformatie over de geldende internationale overeenkomsten, legt de betekenis van bepaalde termen uit, en biedt een eerste ondersteuning aan gebruikers die toegang tot genetische bronnen zoeken. Deze folder is relevant voor alle Nederlandse publieke instituten, bedrijven en individuen die genetische bronnen gebruiken voor onderzoek en ontwikkeling.
Impact of UTZ certification on cocoa producers in Ghana, 2011 to 2014
Waarts, Y.R. ; Ingram, V.J. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. ; Puister-Jansen, L.F. ; Rijn, F.C. van; Aryeetey, Richmond - \ 2015
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-066) - ISBN 9789086157150 - 47
cocoa - certification - farmers - small farms - peasant farming - ghana - cacao - certificering - boeren - kleine landbouwbedrijven - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - ghana
This study evaluates the impact of the UTZ-Solidaridad cocoa programme in Ghana , by comparing the situation of a sample of farmers from six projects in 2014 with their situation in 2011, and by comparing the development over time for certified and uncertified farmers. We also analysed the programme’s inclusiveness and shed light on the effect of UTZ certification on hired labourers’ working conditions.
Coffee certification in East Africa: Impact on farms, families and cooperatives
Ruben, R. ; Hoebink, Paul - \ 2015
Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862559 - 264
certification - coffee - small farms - labelling - sustainability - farming systems - east africa - certificering - koffie - kleine landbouwbedrijven - etiketteren - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bedrijfssystemen - oost-afrika
Certification of coffee producers is frequently suggested as a promising strategy for improving the position of smallholder farmers in the market. After the launch of the first Fairtrade label in 1988, several other standards have been promoted either by voluntary agencies (Utz-certified) or by private coffee companies. Each coffee label relies on different strategies for enhancing sustainable production and responsible trade. Coffee certification in East Africa is of a rather recent nature but has been rapidly expanding, representing currently 26 percent of the world's sustainable certified coffee supply. Marketing channels, cooperative organisation and household structures show notable differences between Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia. Empirical studies on the effects of standards for smallholders are scarce. This book intends to deepen our understanding on the role and functions of coffee certification regimes, based on three innovative approaches: (1) longitudinal field survey data capturing changes in coffee farming systems and effects on household welfare; (2) in-depth interviews and behavioural experiments regarding risk attitudes, trust and investments at cooperative level; and (3) detailed discourse analyses regarding gender roles and female bargaining power within coffee households. The chapters included in this book provide new and original evidence about the impact of coffee certification based on large-scale field surveys and in-depth interviews.
Manuel - L’entrepreneuriat semencier
Burg, H. van den; Roo, N. de; Barikore, C. ; Haizuru Zamu, G. ; Ndyanabo, E. ; Simbashizubwoba, C. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (CDI Guide manuel ) - 128
businesses - small businesses - seeds - seed quality - seed certification - certification - markets - storage - africa - bedrijven - kleine bedrijven - zaden - zaadkwaliteit - zaadkeuring - certificering - markten - opslag - afrika
Monitor Duurzaam Voedsel 2014 : consumentenbestedingen
Logatcheva, K. - \ 2015
[Den Haag] : LEI Wageningen UR - 13
duurzame ontwikkeling - voedsel - consumenten - consumentenonderzoeken - bestedingen - certificering - etiketteren - biologische voedingsmiddelen - monitoring - sustainable development - food - consumers - consumer surveys - expenditure - certification - labelling - organic foods - monitoring
De Monitor Duurzaam Voedsel 2014 geeft een overzicht van de consumentenbestedingen aan duurzaam voedsel1 in Nederland over het jaar 2014. De gegevens zijn gebaseerd op de omzet van producten die zijn voorzien van een keurmerk met onafhankelijke controle2 . Het gaat om de in Nederland geconsumeerde producten in de belangrijkste afzetkanalen. In dit verslag zijn de resultaten van het onderzoek weergegeven; meer informatie staat op de site van de Monitor Duurzaam Voedsel: monitorduurzaamvoedsel.nl.
Short term non-chemical approach to Tuta absoluta and thrips : CATT shows promise against quarantine pests
Arkesteijn, M. ; Qiu, Y. - \ 2015
In Greenhouses : the international magazine for greenhouse growers 4 (2015)4. - ISSN 2215-0633 - p. 40 - 41.
tuinbouw - glastuinbouw - tomaten - temperatuur - fytosanitaire maatregelen - biologische bestrijding - thrips - chrysanthemum - innovaties - paprika's - certificering - landbouwkundig onderzoek - tetranychidae - plantenplagen - gewasbescherming - agromyzidae - horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - tomatoes - temperature - phytosanitary measures - biological control - thrips - chrysanthemum - innovations - sweet peppers - certification - agricultural research - tetranychidae - plant pests - plant protection - agromyzidae
Pests such as insects, mites and nematodes don’t just cause damage, in the case of quarantine pests they can also limit exports. In cooperation with the sector, entomologist Yutong Qiu tested the possibility of using Controlled Atmosphere Temperature Treatment (CATT) in the post harvest phase to control these pests in a non-chemical way. Within the short term this approach is expected to successfully control Tuta absoluta in tomatoes and thrips in chrysanthemums and peppers.
Certifications, child labour and livelihood strategies: an analysis of cocoa production in Ghana
Owusu-Amankwah, R. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke; Guido Ruivenkamp, co-promotor(en): Joost Jongerden. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574915 - 348
cacao - productie - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - gemeenschappen - kinderarbeid - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - certificering - agrarische productiesystemen - ghana - cocoa - production - peasant farming - communities - child labour - livelihood strategies - certification - agricultural production systems - ghana
There have been various innovative initiatives by global and local actors in response to pressure on cocoa value-chain actors to free cocoa production from child labour (CL) and especially the worst forms of child labour (WFCL) and also to improve the livelihoods of farm families. Analyses of the implementation, implications and the appropriateness of these initiatives in driving change in the cocoa supply chain and improving the labour and income conditions in cocoa farms are limited, however. This study examines initiatives being led by the key actors in the value chain – the governmental initiative of a community-based child labour monitoring (CCLM) system (CCLMS), that led by business actors of third party voluntary cocoa certification (TPVCC), and farmers’ own way of diversifying income – in order to understand current developments in the cocoa value-chain and analyse the dynamics between the local and global actors and the effect of these dynamics for the reorganisation of the cocoa production system in Ghana.
This thesis employs an interdisciplinary perspective and combines innovation theory with livelihood, social perspectives and other social science tools to empirically investigate the initiatives as they operate at micro-, meso- and macro-levels so as to ascertain their implications for farmers’ livelihoods and children’s social situations. It also reflects scholarly interest in understanding how global-level development interacts with and affects local-level development, and how globalisation shapes and mediates local influences within the cocoa production system.
Firstly, the CCLMS study (Chapter 3) reveals three kinds of benefits to children: an expanded social network, a reduction in their participation in hazardous work and an improvement in school attendance. The findings show that absenteeism on the part of the pupils in a community with a CCLM intervention is approximately half that of two communities without intervention. In addition, it is observed that although children are involved in hazardous and non-hazardous activities in all the three communities involved in the study, the extent of their involvement in hazardous activities is higher in the communities without intervention.
Secondly, third party certification (TPC) formulated by the business actors is a key innovation in the cocoa production system of Ghana. The study presented in Chapter 4 shows the potential of TPVCC to mobilise financial, human and social capitals to address gaps and
dysfunctions and create a win-win situation for all the actors of the value chain. However, sector-wide standards that address sector specific needs taking into consideration the views of chain actors, especially farmers and their socio-cultural context will enhance compliance. This is because global or international standards cannot be imposed but are analysed, contested and adapted by farmers to suit on-the-ground practices. The study also shows the potential of TPVCC to address CL and livelihood issues, but these will yield better results if it is implemented in enhanced socio-economic conditions. Regardless of these positives, the net benefit of certification is unclear due to the difficulty in conducting proper cost-benefit analyses in the absence of proper documentation of farmer-level costs and other factors.
Thirdly, the findings show that about 70% of farmers are diversifying into other (non-cocoa) farm and non-farm activities using largely indigenous resources, but on a small scale and at subsistence level. This condition means that the goal of farmers to supplement cocoa income and reduce risk is not achieved throughsuch a level of diversification. There is some indication of increasing importance of income and resources from non-farm activities, but income from cocoa continues to determine household income as well as the demand for non- farm goods and investment in the non-farm sector. This study also finds that children are involved in both farm and non-farm activities, which can be classified as hazardous and non- hazardous. Farmers, especially caretakers, producing at subsistence level are likely to use their children to supplement labour needs. Some policy recommendations are made in the areas of economic incentives and multi-stakeholder collaboration to stimulate the sector towards sustainability.
Voedsel- en diervoederveiligheid van algenproducten : Verkenning van wet- en regelgeving voor voedselveilige productie van algen
Voort, M.P.J. van der - \ 2015
Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO rapport 631) - 17
algenteelt - humane voeding - veevoeder - wetgeving - iso - erkende regelingen - voedselveiligheid - certificering - beleid inzake voedsel - voedselindustrie - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - nieuwe voedingsmiddelen - voederveiligheid - algae culture - human feeding - fodder - legislation - iso - approval schemes - food safety - certification - food policy - food industry - food legislation - nutrition labeling - novel foods - feed safety
Het telen van algen als voedsel of diervoeder brengt, net als bij andere voedselproducten, eisen voor voedselveiligheid met zich mee.
Beter leven en ammoniak
Groenestein, C.M. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Ellen, H.H. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 799) - 62
dierenwelzijn - ammoniakemissie - huisvesting, dieren - veehouderij - rundvee - varkens - pluimvee - konijnen - certificering - animal welfare - ammonia emission - animal housing - livestock farming - cattle - pigs - poultry - rabbits - certification
The Animal Protection Agency has developed a scoring system (Better Life mark) with the aim to improve the welfare of animals in livestock housing. By means of a three-star system, the product choices for consumers is made clear: the more stars the more animal-friendly the animal was kept. This report describes and assesses the effects of prescribed animal welfare requirements of the Better Life mark on the emission of ammonia.
The policy and practice of sustainable biofuels: Between global frameworks and local heterogeneity. The case of food security in Mozambique
Schut, M. ; Florin, M.J. - \ 2015
Biomass and Bioenergy 72 (2015). - ISSN 0961-9534 - p. 123 - 135.
bio-energy - governance - ethanol - certification - countries - markets - trade
This study explores the relationship between different biofuel production systems, the context in which they operate, and the extent to which various types of frameworks and schemes are able to monitor and promote their sustainability. The paper refers to the European Union Renewable Energy Directive and two international certification schemes (Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels and NTA 8080/81) that can provide a ‘licence to sell’ biofuels on the EU market, and to the Mozambican policy framework for sustainable biofuels that provides a ‘licence to produce’ biomass for biofuels in Mozambique. Food security is used as a case study, and the food security impacts of two agro-industrial and two smallholder biofuel projects in Mozambique are described and analysed. The sustainability frameworks and schemes used in this study are able to address some, but not all, of the heterogeneity between and within different biofuel production systems. The emphasis is on monitoring agro-industrial projects while smallholder projects tend to slip through the net even when their negative impacts are evident. We conclude that globally applicable sustainability principles are useful, however, they should be operationalised at local or production system levels. This approach will support balancing between global frameworks and local heterogeneity.