OBOR opportunities and challenges for the Dutch Agribusiness Sector
Zhang, Xiaoyong - \ 2016
Internationale Spectator 70 (2016)5. - ISSN 0020-9317
OBOR - Dutch Agribusiness Sector - Agribusiness - One Belt One Road - opportunities - challenges - China - OBOR - Agribusiness - China - One Belt One Road - Agriproducts - opportunities - challenges
The Netherlands is the second largest exporter of Agriproducts in the world.
However, its export volume to China is insignificant. The ‘One Belt One Road’
initiative (OBOR) provides a great opportunity to increase the volume. But this
will not be achieved easily. It requires a vision and collective action.
Multi-bucket optimization for integrated planning and scheduling in the perishable dairy supply chain
Sel, C. ; Bilgen, B. ; Bloemhof, J.M. ; Vorst, J.G.A.J. van der - \ 2015
Computers and Chemical Engineering 77 (2015). - ISSN 0098-1354 - p. 59 - 73.
sequence-dependent changeovers - semicontinuous food-industries - yogurt production line - timed automata models - mixed-integer - batch plants - parallel machines - hybrid - algorithm - challenges
This paper considers a dairy industry problem on integrated planning and scheduling of set yoghurt production. A mixed integer linear programming formulation is introduced to integrate tactical and operational decisions and a heuristic approach is proposed to decompose time buckets of the decisions. The decomposition heuristic improves computational efficiency by solving big bucket planning and small bucket scheduling problems. Further, mixed integer linear programming and constraint programming methodologies are combined with the algorithm to show their complementary strengths. Numerical studies using illustrative data with high demand granularity (i.e., a large number of small-sized customer orders) demonstrate that the proposed decomposition heuristic has consistent results minimizing the total cost (i.e., on average 8.75% gap with the best lower bound value found by MILP) and, the developed hybrid approach is capable of solving real sized instances within a reasonable amount of time (i.e., on average 92% faster than MILP in CPU time).
Economic trade-offs of biomass use in crop-livestock systems: Exploring more sustainable options in semi-arid Zimbabwe
Homann Kee, S. ; Valbuena Vargas, D.F. ; Masikati, P. ; Descheemaeker, K.K.E. ; Nyamangara, J. ; Claessens, L.F.G. ; Erenstein, O. ; Rooyen, A.F. van; Nkomboni, D. - \ 2015
Agricultural Systems 134 (2015). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 48 - 60.
conservation agriculture - smallholder farmers - intensification - productivity - challenges - strategies - countries - benefits - tropics - africa
In complex mixed crop-livestock systems with limited resources and biomass scarcity, crop residues play an important but increasingly contested role. This paper focuses on farming systems in the semi-arid areas of Zimbabwe, where biomass production is limited and farmers integrate crop and livestock activities. Conservation Agriculture (CA) is promoted to intensify crop production, emphasizing the retention of surface mulch with crop residues (CR). This paper quantifies the associated potential economic tradeoffs and profitability of using residues for soil amendment or as livestock feed, and explores alternative biomass production options. We draw on household surveys, stakeholder feedback, crop, livestock and economic modeling tools. We use the Trade-Off Analysis Model for Multi Dimensional Impact Assessment (TOA-MD) to compare different CR use scenarios at community level and for different farm types: particularly the current base system (cattle grazing of maize residues) and sustainable intensification alternatives based on a CA option (mulching using maize residues ± inorganic fertilizer) and a maize– mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) rotation. Our results indicate that a maize–mucuna rotation can reduce trade-offs between CR uses for feed and mulch, providing locally available organic soil enhancement, supplementary feed and a potential source of income. Conservation Agriculture without fertilizer application and at non-subsidized fertilizer prices is not financially viable; whereas with subsidized fertilizer it can benefit half the farm population. The poverty effects of all considered alternative biomass options are however limited; they do not raise income sufficiently to lift farmers out of poverty. Further research is needed to establish the competitiveness of alternative biomass enhancing technologies and the socio-economic processes that can facilitate sustainable intensification of mixed crop-livestock systems, particularly in semi-arid environments.
Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas]
Khoury, C.K. ; Heider, B. ; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P. ; Achicanoy, H.A. ; Sosa, C.C. ; Miller, R.E. ; Scotland, R.W. ; Wood, J.R.I. ; Rossel, G. ; Eserman, L.A. ; Jarret, R.L. ; Yencho, G.C. ; Bernau, V. ; Juarez, H. ; Sotelo, S. ; Haan, S. de; Struik, P.C. - \ 2015
Frontiers in Plant Science 6 (2015). - ISSN 1664-462X - 14 p.
species distribution models - phylogenetic-relationships - beta-carotene - convolvulaceae - sequences - diversity - evolution - bias - challenges - tolerance
Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.
The effect of rare alleles on estimated genomic relationships from whole genome sequence data
Eynard, S.E. ; Windig, J.J. ; Leroy, G. ; Binsbergen, R. van; Calus, M.P.L. - \ 2015
BMC Genetics 16 (2015). - ISSN 1471-2156
information - pedigree - conservation - populations - prediction - accuracy - cattle - coefficients - improvement - challenges
Relationships between individuals and inbreeding coefficients are commonly used for breeding decisions, but may be affected by the type of data used for their estimation. The proportion of variants with low Minor Allele Frequency (MAF) is larger in whole genome sequence (WGS) data compared to Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) chips. Therefore, WGS data provide true relationships between individuals and may influence breeding decisions and prioritisation for conservation of genetic diversity in livestock. This study identifies differences between relationships and inbreeding coefficients estimated using pedigree, SNP or WGS data for 118 Holstein bulls from the 1000 Bull genomes project. To determine the impact of rare alleles on the estimates we compared three scenarios of MAF restrictions: variants with a MAF higher than 5%, variants with a MAF higher than 1% and variants with a MAF between 1% and 5%. Results We observed significant differences between estimated relationships and, although less significantly, inbreeding coefficients from pedigree, SNP or WGS data, and between MAF restriction scenarios. Computed correlations between pedigree and genomic relationships, within groups with similar relationships, ranged from negative to moderate for both estimated relationships and inbreeding coefficients, but were high between estimates from SNP and WGS (0.49 to 0.99). Estimated relationships from genomic information exhibited higher variation than from pedigree. Inbreeding coefficients analysis showed that more complete pedigree records lead to higher correlation between inbreeding coefficients from pedigree and genomic data. Finally, estimates and correlations between additive genetic (A) and genomic (G) relationship matrices were lower, and variances of the relationships were larger when accounting for allele frequencies than without accounting for allele frequencies. Conclusions Using pedigree data or genomic information, and including or excluding variants with a MAF below 5% showed significant differences in relationship and inbreeding coefficient estimates. Estimated relationships and inbreeding coefficients are the basis for selection decisions. Therefore, it can be expected that using WGS instead of SNP can affect selection decision. Inclusion of rare variants will give access to the variation they carry, which is of interest for conservation of genetic diversity.
Strategies for individual phenotyping of linoleic and arachidonic Acid metabolism using an oral glucose tolerance test
Saccenti, E. ; Duynhoven, J.P.M. van; Jacobs, D.M. ; Smilde, A.K. ; Hoefsloot, H.C. - \ 2015
PLoS ONE 10 (2015)3. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 16 p.
challenges - pathways - biology - models - fat
The ability to restore homeostasis upon environmental challenges has been proposed as a measure for health. Metabolic profiling of plasma samples during the challenge response phase should offer a profound view on the flexibility of a phenotype to cope with daily stressors. Current data modeling approaches, however, struggle to extract biological descriptors from time-resolved metabolite profiles that are able to discriminate between different phenotypes. Thus, for the case of oxylipin responses in plasma upon an oral glucose tolerance test we developed a modeling approach that incorporates a priori biological pathway knowledge. The degradation pathways of arachidonic and linoleic acids were modeled using a regression model based on a pseudo-steady-state approximated model, resulting in a parameter A that summarizes the relative enzymatic activity in these pathways. Analysis of the phenotypic parameters As suggests that different phenotypes can be discriminated according to preferred relative activity of the arachidonic and linoleic pathway. Correlation analysis shows that there is little or no competition between the arachidonic and linoleic acid pathways, although they share the same enzymes
Factors affecting the status of food safety management systems in the global fresh produce chain
Kirezieva, K.K. ; Luning, P.A. ; Jacxsens, L. ; Allende, A. ; Johannessen, G.S. ; Tondo, E.C. ; Rajkovicb, A. ; Uyttendaele, M. ; Boekel, T. van - \ 2015
Food Control 52 (2015). - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 85 - 97.
developing-countries - private standards - o104h4 outbreak - performance - quality - challenges - vegetables - industry - implementation - exports
Increase in global trade raised questions regarding status of food safety management systems in fresh produce companies, especially from developing and emerging countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of food safety management systems (FSMSs) implemented at primary production companies of fresh produce, to examine the potential differences between companies operating in European Union (EU) and non-EU (developing and emerging) countries, and to explore the underlying factors. Primary production companies (n = 118), located in the EU and in international cooperation partner countries exporting to the EU, were assessed by using a diagnostic tool. The results from the study indicated that several factors have a dominating effect on the status of FSMSs in the global fresh produce chain. International export supply chains promote capacity building within companies in the chain, to answer the stringent requirements of private brand standards. This was shown to be an important factor in emerging and developing countries, where local institutional environments often fail to support companies in setting and implementing their FSMSs. Moreover, the legislative framework in these countries still requires improvements in the establishment and enforcement. All this has negative consequences for the FSMSs in companies supplying the local markets. In companies located in the EU, sector and other produce organisations facilitate the sampling for pesticide residues and collaboration in the sector. Overall, farmers showed less knowledge and overall awareness regarding microbiological hazards, which is related to the less attention paid to these in the current legislation and standards. Furthermore, standards are an important tool to trigger the maturation of the systems as companies that were lacking any pressure to comply to standards operated at a very basic level - with only few activities implemented. The insights from this study indicate the need of stratified measures and policies to support companies in the fresh produce chain in designing and operating their FSMSs according to the institutional environment in which they operate.
Assessing global land cover reference datasets for different user communities
Tsendbazar, N.E. ; Bruin, S. de; Herold, M. - \ 2015
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 103 (2015). - ISSN 0924-2716 - p. 93 - 114.
classification accuracy assessment - thematic map accuracy - validation data set - igbp discover - design - products - modis - challenges - imagery - area
Global land cover (GLC) maps and assessments of their accuracy provide important information for different user communities. To date, there are several GLC reference datasets which are used for assessing the accuracy of specific maps. Despite significant efforts put into generating them, their availability and role in applications outside their intended use have been very limited. This study analyses metadata information from 12 existing and forthcoming GLC reference datasets and assesses their characteristics and potential uses in the context of 4 GLC user groups, i.e., climate modellers requiring data on Essential Climate Variables (ECV), global forest change analysts, the GEO Community of Practice for Global Agricultural Monitoring and GLC map producers. We assessed user requirements with respect to the sampling scheme, thematic coverage, spatial and temporal detail and quality control of the GLC reference datasets. Suitability of the datasets is highly dependent upon specific applications by the user communities considered. The LC-CCI, GOFC-GOLD, FAO-FRA and Geo-Wiki datasets had the broadest applicability for multiple uses. The re-usability of the GLC reference datasets would be greatly enhanced by making them publicly available in an expert framework that guides users on how to use them for specific applications.
Free and open-access satellite data are key to biodiversity conservation
Turner, W. ; Rondinini, C. ; Pettorelli, N. ; Mora, B. ; Leidner, A.K. ; Szantoi, Z. ; Buchanan, G. ; Dech, S. ; Dwyer, J. ; Herold, M. ; Koh, L.P. ; Leimgruber, P. ; Taubenboeck, H. ; Wegmann, M. ; Wikelski, M. ; Woodcock, C. - \ 2015
Biological Conservation 182 (2015). - ISSN 0006-3207 - p. 173 - 176.
landsat imagery - cover change - science - opportunities - challenges - support - system
Satellite remote sensing is an important tool for monitoring the status of biodiversity and associated environmental parameters, including certain elements of habitats. However, satellite data are currently underused within the biodiversity research and conservation communities. Three factors have significant impact on the utility of remote sensing data for tracking and understanding biodiversity change. They are its continuity, affordability, and access. Data continuity relates to the maintenance of long-term satellite data products. Such products promote knowledge of how biodiversity has changed over time and why. Data affordability arises from the cost of the imagery. New data policies promoting free and open access to government satellite imagery are expanding the use of certain imagery but the number of free and open data sets remains too limited. Data access addresses the ability of conservation biologists and biodiversity researchers to discover, retrieve, manipulate, and extract value from satellite imagery as well as link it with other types of information. Tools are rapidly improving access. Still, more cross-community interactions are necessary to strengthen ties between the biodiversity and remote sensing communities.
Land-use change arising from rural land exchange: an agent-based simulation model
Bakker, M.M. ; Alam, S.J. ; Dijk, J. van; Rounsevell, M.D.A. - \ 2015
Landscape Ecology 30 (2015). - ISSN 0921-2973 - p. 273 - 286.
challenges - improve - quality - power
Land exchange can be a major factor driving land-use change in regions with high pressure on land, but is generally not incorporated in land-use change models. Here we present an agent-based model to simulate land-use change arising from land exchange between multiple agent types representing farmers, nature organizations, and estate owners.
Integration in urban climate adaptation: Lessons from Rotterdam on integration between scientific disciplines and integration between scientific and stakeholder knowledge
Groot, A.M.E. ; Bosch, P.R. ; Buijs, S. ; Jacobs, C.M.J. ; Moors, E.J. - \ 2015
Building and Environment 83 (2015). - ISSN 0360-1323 - p. 177 - 188.
klimaatverandering - klimaatadaptatie - stedelijke gebieden - rotterdam - climatic change - climate adaptation - urban areas - rotterdam - transdisciplinary research - heat-island - boundary - policy - interdisciplinary - sustainability - information - challenges - ecology - science
Based on the experience acquired in the Bergpolder Zuid district in the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, this paper presents lessons learned so far on science-policy interactions supporting the adaptation to climate change in an urban district. Two types of integration issues were considered: (1) Integration within science including integration of disciplines, methods, models and data, and (2) integration between science and the local stakeholders' society, involving a synthesis of scientific and practical knowledge, linking sectors, governance arrangements and organisations. At first sight, the issues around integration within science and beyond the science of climate change adaptation in cities resemble those generally observed in science-policy integration. However, the relative newness of urban adaptation to climate change poses specific challenges for both the scientists and the stakeholders involved in the process. The Rotterdam example discusses the use of multiple means of integration for enhancing integration between scientific disciplines and integration between scientific and stakeholder knowledge.
Learning integrative negotiation to manage complex environmental issues: example of a gaming approach in the peri-urban catchment of São Paulo, Brazil
Ducrot, R. ; Paassen, A. van; Barban, V. ; Daré, W. ; Gramaglia, C. - \ 2015
Regional Environmental Change 15 (2015)1. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 67 - 78.
sustainable management - water management - participation - challenges - resources
Participatory approaches are assumed to have a positive influence on decision-making for natural resource management. However, there are only a few detailed studies that examine their impact on participants. This paper analyses the contribution of a participatory modelling and simulation approach to the development of learning and relational capacity. It analyses two experiments that deal with pollution and sanitation issues in the expanding peri-urban settlements of São Paulo. The impact of the approach was assessed through interviews immediately after the simulation and 8 months later. The assessment identified the existence of social learning and the acquisition of skills related to integrative negotiation of complex environmental issues. Despite substantive and relational/normative learning, the acquisition of knowledge and negotiation skills, and a more integrative perspective, participants were unable to apply their new negotiation skills for a sustainable length of time within the prevalent socio-political and institutional context. A long-term iterative approach, involving relevant stakeholders in the process and process assessments, is needed to establish more conducive institutional structures.
Gender mainstreaming and rural development policy; the trivialisation of rural gender issues
Bock, B.B. - \ 2015
Gender, Place & Culture : a Journal of Feminist Geography 22 (2015)5. - ISSN 0966-369X - p. 731 - 745.
european-union - mobilities - areas - state - work - eu - challenges - migration - politics - family
This paper considers gender mainstreaming of the EU Rural Development Programme. The EU promotes the gender mainstreaming of rural development policies because retaining women in rural areas is seen as crucial to the long-term viability of rural areas. A review of literature and scan of policy documents demonstrates that few rural development plans address gender issues, and generally only by including some separate projects for women. Little is done to address the systemic features of gender inequality and to realise inclusive developments that address the needs of all social groups. The de-politicisation of rural gender issues results in policy makers ticking the obligatory gender box without envisioning any real change in the agenda or process of rural development policy making. I argue that a more fruitful way to go forward is to re-politicise gender in rural development and to tease out at the local level how changing gender relations and rural development coincide.
From global economic modelling to household level analyses of food security and sustainability: how big is the gap and can we bridge it?
Wijk, M.T. van - \ 2014
Food Policy 49 (2014)2. - ISSN 0306-9192 - p. 378 - 388.
agricultural land-use - integrated assessment - climate-change - production systems - farming systems - earth system - cover change - east-africa - challenges - science
Policy and decision makers have to make difficult choices to improve the food security of local people against the background of drastic global and local changes. Ex-ante impact assessment using integrated models can help them with these decisions. This review analyses the state of affairs of the multi-scale modelling of policy interventions, with an emphasis on applications in developing countries and livestock systems. Existing models do not sufficiently capture the complexity of human-environment interactions across different scales, and especially the link between landscape and local market levels, and national and sub-national level policies and markets is missing. The paper suggests a step wise approach with increasing data needs to bridge this gap. Improvements need to be made at the description of effects of the distribution of local markets on price formation and the representation of farm diversity within a landscape. Analyses in contrasting agro-ecological systems are needed to derive generic summary functions that can be used as input for macro level model analyses. This is especially pertinent for macro level descriptions of crop and livestock production in relation to price developments and of the mosaic of different agricultural land use responses in regions with contrasting socio-economic conditions and developments.
Advancing projections of phytoplankton responses to climate change through ensemble modelling
Trolle, D. ; Elliott, J.A. ; Mooij, W.M. - \ 2014
Environmental Modelling & Software 61 (2014). - ISSN 1364-8152 - p. 371 - 379.
fresh-water cyanobacteria - shallow lakes - multimodel ensembles - environmental-change - community structure - blooms - restoration - temperature - predictions - challenges
A global trend of increasing health hazards associated with proliferation of toxin-producing cyanobacteria makes the ability to project phytoplankton dynamics of paramount importance. Whilst ensemble (multi-)modelling approaches have been used for a number of years to improve the robustness of weather forecasts this approach has until now never been adopted for ecosystem modelling. We show that the average simulated phytoplankton biomass derived from three different aquatic ecosystem models is generally superior to any of the three individual models in describing observed phytoplankton biomass in a typical temperate lake ecosystem, and we simulate a series of climate change projections. While this is the first multi-model ensemble approach applied for some of the most complex aquatic ecosystem models available, we consider it sets a precedent for what will become commonplace methodology in the future, as it enables increased robustness of model projections, and scenario uncertainty estimation due to differences in model structures.
Disentangling the effects of CO2 and short-lived climate forcer mitigation
Rogelj, J. ; Schaeffer, M. ; Meinshausen, M. ; Shindell, D.T. ; Hare, W. ; Klimont, Z. ; Velders, G.J.M. ; Amann, M. ; Schellnhuber, H.J. - \ 2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (2014)46. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 16325 - 16330.
greenhouse-gas emissions - cumulative carbon emissions - air-pollution - black carbon - copenhagen accord - human health - pathways - benefits - challenges - consistent
Anthropogenic global warming is driven by emissions of a wide variety of radiative forcers ranging from very short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), like black carbon, to very long-lived, like CO2. These species are often released from common sources and are therefore intricately linked. However, for reasons of simplification, this CO2–SLCF linkage was often disregarded in long-term projections of earlier studies. Here we explicitly account for CO2–SLCF linkages and show that the short- and long-term climate effects of many SLCF measures consistently become smaller in scenarios that keep warming to below 2 °C relative to preindustrial levels. Although long-term mitigation of methane and hydrofluorocarbons are integral parts of 2 °C scenarios, early action on these species mainly influences near-term temperatures and brings small benefits for limiting maximum warming relative to comparable reductions taking place later. Furthermore, we find that maximum 21st-century warming in 2 °C-consistent scenarios is largely unaffected by additional black-carbon-related measures because key emission sources are already phased-out through CO2 mitigation. Our study demonstrates the importance of coherently considering CO2–SLCF coevolutions. Failing to do so leads to strongly and consistently overestimating the effect of SLCF measures in climate stabilization scenarios. Our results reinforce that SLCF measures are to be considered complementary rather than a substitute for early and stringent CO2 mitigation. Near-term SLCF measures do not allow for more time for CO2 mitigation. We disentangle and resolve the distinct benefits across different species and therewith facilitate an integrated strategy for mitigating both short and long-term climate change.
Mapping and modelling trade-offs and synergies between grazing intensity and ecosystem services in rangelands using global-scale datasets and models
Petz, K. ; Alkemade, J.R.M. ; Bakkenes, M. ; Schulp, C.J.E. ; Velde, M. van der; Leemans, R. - \ 2014
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 29 (2014). - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 223 - 234.
net primary production - land-use - conservation priorities - livestock production - developing-countries - production systems - biodiversity - carbon - challenges - balance
Vast areas of rangelands across the world are grazed with increasing intensity, but interactions between livestock production, biodiversity and other ecosystem services are poorly studied. This study explicitly determines trade-offs and synergies between ecosystem services and livestock grazing intensity on rangelands. Grazing intensity and its effects on forage utilization by livestock, carbon sequestration, erosion prevention and biodiversity are quantified and mapped, using global datasets and models. Results show that on average 4% of the biomass produced annually is consumed by livestock. On average, erosion prevention is 10% lower in areas with a high grazing intensity compared to areas with a low grazing intensity, whereas carbon emissions are more than four times higher under high grazing intensity compared to low grazing intensity. Rangelands with the highest grazing intensity are located in the Sahel, Pakistan, West India, Middle East, North Africa and parts of Brazil. These high grazing intensities result in carbon emissions, low biodiversity values, low capacity for erosion prevention and unsustainable forage utilization. Although the applied models simplify the processes of ecosystem service supply, our study provides a global overview of the consequences of grazing for biodiversity and ecosystem services. The expected increasing future demand for livestock products likely increase pressures on rangelands. Global-scale models can help to identify targets and target areas for international policies aiming at sustainable future use of these rangelands.
Gender differences in land-use decisions: shaping multifunctional landscapes?
Villamor, G.B. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Djanibekov, U. ; Chiong-Javier, E. ; Catacutan, D. - \ 2014
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 6 (2014). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 128 - 133.
models - challenges - management - services - behavior - farmers - systems - matter
While decision-making processes of land managers drive land-use change and affect the provision of ecosystems services, there is no concrete understanding of whether gender specificity in decision-making influences the multifunctionality of landscapes. We distinguish eleven elements in a typical management cycle. In reviewing the literature, we found apparent gaps on gendered knowledge, preferences, risk taking and access to innovation in land-use decision making. Male and female responses in the adoption of agroforestry practices and other investment opportunities reflect differing exposure to and perceptions of risk. Innovative approaches such as agent-based models and role-playing games are currently applied to study gendered behavior in land-use decisions. These approaches can assist researchers to explicitly and empirically compare potentially self-reinforcing behaviors or feedback loops with local impacts on ecosystem services.
Co-investment paradigms as alternatives to payments for tree-based ecosystem services in Africa
Namirembe, S. ; Leimona, B. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Bernard, F. ; Bacwayo, K.E. - \ 2014
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 6 (2014). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 89 - 97.
environmental services - conservation - challenges - tanzania - design
Multiple paradigms have emerged within the broad payments for ecosystem services (ES) domain for internalizing externalities of local land-use change decisions. These range from reward of ready-made ES delivery (commoditised) to reward of processes of ES generation (co-investment). Evidence from tree-based projects in Africa suggests that currently, only carbon sequestration and emission reduction are ‘commoditised’, however in an artificial way where payments are not matched to ES delivery, but adjusted or supplemented with co-benefits. Co-investment in stewardship alongside rights is more widespread and versatile for a variety of ES. Efficiency concerns of co-investment schemes can be addressed when commoditised ES or profitable enterprises with positive ES externalities evolve from these.
REDD+ Readiness progress across countries
Minang, P.A. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Duguma, L.A. ; Alemagi, D. ; Do, T.H. ; Bernard, F. ; Agung, P. ; Robiglio, V. ; Catacutan, D. - \ 2014
Climate Policy 14 (2014)4. - ISSN 1469-3062 - p. 685 - 708.
forest degradation - reduced emissions - deforestation - plus - conservation - challenges - cameroon
Efforts towards Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+) have grown in importance in developing countries following negotiations within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This has favoured investments in processes to prepare countries for REDD+ at the national level (a process referred to as REDD+ Readiness). Yet, little attention has been given to how Readiness can be assessed and potentially improved. This article presents a framework for Readiness assessment and compares progress in REDD+ Readiness across four countries, namely Cameroon, Indonesia, Peru, and Vietnam. The Readiness assessment framework comprises six functions, namely planning and coordination; policy, laws, and institutions; measurement, reporting, verification (MRV), and audits; benefit sharing; financing; and demonstrations and pilots. We found the framework credible and consistent in measuring progress and eliciting insight into Readiness processes at the country level. Country performance for various functions wasmixed. Progress was evident on planning and coordination, and demonstration and pilots. However, MRV and audits; financing; benefit sharing; and policies, laws and institutions face major challenges. The results suggest that the way national forest governance has been shaped by historical circumstances (showing path dependency) is a critical factor for progress in Readiness processes. There is need for a rethink of the current REDD+ Readiness infrastructure given the serious gaps observed in addressing drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, linking REDD+ to broader national strategies and systematic capacity building. Policy relevance Policy makers, researchers and analysts helping to plan and implement REDD+, environmental services and climate change would find this paper potentially helpful. The paper explores progress on REDD+ Readiness across four countries (Cameroon, Indonesia, Peru and Vietnam) and provides broad lessons, recommendations and examples across these countries for further improving REDD+. The paper also suggests an innovative, credible and universally applicable set of criteria and indicators derived through a systematic review that could serve further global comparative analysis of readiness for REDD+ and relevant national environmental services delivery systems, including climate change mitigation. - See more at: http://www.asb.cgiar.org/journal-article/redd-readiness-progress-across-countriestime-reconsideration#sthash.88k4P1vq.dpuf