Mapping ecosystem services: The supply and demand of flood regulation services in Europe
Sturck, J. ; Poortinga, A. ; Verburg, P.H. - \ 2014
Ecological Indicators 38 (2014). - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 198 - 211.
land-use changes - climate-change - changing climate - runoff - soil - protection - catchments - forests - areas - time
Ecosystem services (ES) feature highly distinctive spatial and temporal patterns of distribution, quantity, and flows. The flow of ecosystem goods and services to beneficiaries plays a decisive role in the valuation of ES and the successful implementation of the ES concept in environmental planning. This is particularly relevant to regulating services where demands emerge often spatially separated from supply. However, spatial patterns of both supply and demand are rarely incorporated in ES assessments on continental scales. In this paper, we present an ES modeling approach with low data demand, fit to be employed in scenario analysis and on multiple scales. We analyze flood regulation services at a European scale by explicitly addressing the spatial distribution of ES demand. A flood regulation supply indicator is developed based on scenario runs with a hydrological model in representative river catchments, incorporating detailed information on land, cover, land use and management. Land use sensitive flood damage estimates in the European Union (EU) are employed to develop a spatial indicator for flood regulation demand. Findings are transferred to the EU territory to create a map of the current supply of flood regulation and the potential supply under conditions of natural vegetation. Regions with a high capacity to provide flood regulation are mainly characterized by large patches of natural vegetation or extensive agriculture. The main factor limiting supply on a continental scale is a low water holding capacity of the soil. Flood regulation demand is highest in central Europe, at the foothills of the Alps and upstream of agglomerations. We were able to identify areas with a high potential capacity to provide flood regulation in conjunction with land use modifications. When combined with spatial patterns of current supply and demand, we could identify priority areas for investments in ES flood regulation supply through conservation and land use planning. We found that only in a fraction of the EU river catchments exhibiting a high demand, significant increases in flood regulation supply are achievable by means of land use modifications. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Systems approaches to innovation in crop protection. A systematic literature review
Schut, M. ; Rodenburg, J. ; Klerkx, L.W.A. ; Ast, A. van; Bastiaans, L. - \ 2014
Crop Protection 56 (2014). - ISSN 0261-2194 - p. 98 - 108.
integrated pest-management - sub-saharan africa - agricultural innovation - conservation agriculture - weed management - food security - sustainable agriculture - rice intensification - disease management - changing climate
The objective of this paper is to explore the extent to which systems approaches to innovation are reflected in the crop protection literature and how such approaches are used. A systematic literature review is conducted to study the relation between crop protection and systems approaches to innovation in 107 publications. The analysis of the crop protection literature demonstrates that only a small fraction is systems-oriented as compared to the bulk of publications with a technology-oriented approach. The analysis of agricultural innovations systems literature shows that, although crop protection is addressed, the potential of this systems approach remains largely unexplored for crop protection innovation. A large share of the publications included in this review focus on cropping or farming ‘systems’ while ‘innovation’ often equals the development, transfer, adoption and diffusion of crop protection technologies at farm level. There is relatively little attention for the institutional and political dimensions of crop protection and the interactions between farm, regional and national levels in crop protection systems. The traditional division of roles and responsibilities of researchers as innovators, extension personnel as disseminators, and farmers as end-users, is challenged only to a limited extent. The majority of publications discusses ways to optimise existing features of crop protection systems, without exploring more structural transformations that may be required to enhance the resilience of crop protection systems.
An assessment of the current and potential future natural and anthropogenic issues facing migratory shorebirds
Sutherland, W.J. ; Alves, J.A. ; Chang, C.H. ; Davidson, D.C. ; Finlayson, C.M. ; Gill, J.A. ; Gill, R.E. ; González, P.M. ; Gunnarsson, T.G. ; Kleijn, D. ; Spray, C.J. ; Szekely, T. ; Thompson, D.B.A. - \ 2012
Ibis 154 (2012)4. - ISSN 0019-1019 - p. 663 - 679.
estuary west portugal - harmful algal blooms - climate-change - wader populations - macroalgal blooms - land-use - pluvialis-apricaria - ocean acidification - feeding-behavior - changing climate
We review the conservation issues facing migratory shorebird populations that breed in temperate regions and use wetlands in the non-breeding season. Shorebirds are excellent model organisms for understanding ecological, behavioural and evolutionary processes and are often used as indicators of wetland health. A global team of experienced shorebird researchers identified 45 issues facing these shorebird populations, and divided them into three categories (natural, current anthropogenic and future issues). The natural issues included megatsunamis, volcanoes and regional climate changes, while current anthropogenic threats encompassed agricultural intensification, conversion of tidal flats and coastal wetlands by human infrastructure developments and eutrophication of coastal systems. Possible future threats to shorebirds include microplastics, new means of recreation and infectious diseases. We suggest that this review process be broadened to other taxa to aid the identification and ranking of current and future conservation actions.
Scenarios for global biodiversity in the 21st century
Pereira, H.M. ; Leadley, P.W. ; Proenca, V. ; Alkemade, J.R.M. ; Scharlemann, J.P.W. ; Fernandez-Manjarres, J.F. ; Araujo, M.B. ; Balvanera, P. ; Biggs, R. ; Cheung, W.W.L. ; Chini, L. ; Cooper, H.D. ; Gilman, E.L. ; Guenette, S. ; Hurtt, G.C. ; Huntington, H.P. ; Mace, G.M. ; Oberdorff, T. ; Revenga, C. ; Rodrigues, P. ; Scholes, R.J. ; Sumaila, U.R. ; Walpole, M. - \ 2010
Science 330 (2010)6010. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 1496 - 1501.
climate-change - land-use - marine ecosystems - changing climate - range shifts - future - models - extinctions - distributions - vulnerability
Quantitative scenarios are coming of age as a tool for evaluating the impact of future socioeconomic development pathways on biodiversity and ecosystem services. We analyze global terrestrial, freshwater, and marine biodiversity scenarios using a range of measures including extinctions, changes in species abundance, habitat loss, and distribution shifts, as well as comparing model projections to observations. Scenarios consistently indicate that biodiversity will continue to decline over the 21st century. However, the range of projected changes is much broader than most studies suggest, partly because there are significant opportunities to intervene through better policies, but also because of large uncertainties in projections
Plant-soil feedback of native and range expanding plant species is insensitive to temperature
Grunsven, R.H.A. van; Veenendaal, E.M. ; Bezemer, T.M. ; Putten, W.H. van der - \ 2010
Oecologia 162 (2010)4. - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 1059 - 1069.
climate-change - changing climate - environmental characteristics - population-dynamics - ammophila-arenaria - co2 enrichment - pathogens - community - world - biota
Temperature change affects many aboveground and belowground ecosystem processes. Here we investigate the effect of a 5°C temperature increase on plant–soil feedback. We compare plant species from a temperate climate region with immigrant plants that originate from warmer regions and have recently shifted their range polewards. We tested whether the magnitude of plant–soil feedback is affected by ambient temperature and whether the effect of temperature differs between these groups of plant species. Six European/Eurasian plant species that recently colonized the Netherlands (non-natives), and six related species (natives) from the Netherlands were selected. Plant–soil feedback of these species was determined by comparing performance in conspecific and heterospecific soils. In order to test the effect of temperature on these plant–soil feedback interactions, the experiments were performed at two greenhouse temperatures of 20/15°C and 25/20°C, respectively. Inoculation with unconditioned soil had the same effect on natives and non-natives. However, the effect of conspecific conditioned soil was negative compared to heterospecific soil for natives, but was positive for non-natives. In both cases, plant–soil interactions were not affected by temperature. Therefore, we conclude that the temperature component of climate change does not affect the direction, or strength of plant–soil feedback, neither for native nor for non-native plant species. However, as the non-natives have a more positive soil feedback than natives, climate warming may introduce new plant species in temperate regions that have less soil-borne control of abundance